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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457750/chemical-and-biological-evaluation-of-essential-oil-from-saussurea-costus-falc-lipsch-from-garhwal-himalaya-collected-at-different-harvesting-periods
#1
Cristina Benedetto, Maurizio D'Auria, Marisabel Mecca, Pratti Prasad, Pramod Singh, Sandeep Singh, Chiara Sinisgalli, Luigi Milella
The purpose of this study is the determination of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils (EOs) from Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. Roots have been collected on December of the first plant year (IY) and in April, August and December of the third plant year (I, 6B, D7). A GC analysis was carried out for achieving this purpose. Subsequently, total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity measured by DPPH, FRAP and BCB assays were evaluated. Three different statistical methods: Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI), Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and PCA, were used to compare results obtained and underline EO relationships...
February 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456384/tea-polyphenols-and-prevention-of-epigenetic-aberrations-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Arundhati Bag, Niladri Bag
Tea polyphenols are secondary metabolites of tea plants and are well known for beneficial health effects. They can protect from a variety of illnesses including cancers. Tea polyphenols can prevent cancer by modulating epigenetic aberrations taking place in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and micro-RNAs. By altering these epimutations, they regulate chromatin dynamics and expression of genes those induce or suppress cancer formation. However, majority of the studies in existing literature are carried out for green tea polyphenols rather than black tea polyphenols despite the fact that black tea is the most commonly consumed form of tea (78%) followed by green tea (20%) and other forms of tea...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455990/enhancement-of-bio-stability-and-mechanical-properties-of-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogels-by-tannic-acid-treatment
#3
Ho-Yong Lee, Chang-Ha Hwang, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Seol-Ha Jeong
Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been widely investigated because of its excellent biocompatibility and its ability to form hydrogels with various chemical modifications. However, HA hydrogels undergo rapid degradation and exhibit poor mechanical stability under physiological conditions. Tannic acid (TA), a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plants and fruits, has recently attracted interest as a crosslinking agent because of its abundant hydroxyl groups. In this study, we prepared HA hydrogels chemically crosslinked by polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) and treated with TA in an attempt to enhance the physical properties of HA hydrogels...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455850/proteins-involved-in-the-antioxidant-and-inflammatory-response-in-rutin-treated-human-skin-fibroblasts-exposed-to-uva-or-uvb-irradiation
#4
Agnieszka Gęgotek, Pedro Domingues, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
BACKGROUND: Rutin, due to its polyphenolic structure, has antioxidant properties and can be used as a cytoprotective compound against UV-induced effects on skin cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of rutin on proteomic profile in human skin fibroblasts irradiated with UV dose that induces apoptosis. METHODS: Proteome analysis based on the results obtained by the QExactive OrbiTrap mass spectrometer. RESULTS: Results show that rutin treatment more strongly protects against UVA-induced rather than UVB-induced increases in the total expression of proteins involved in antioxidant (such as SOD, TrxR, and Prxs 1/2) and inflammatory response (e...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455393/mangiferin-inhibits-cell-migration-and-invasion-through-rac1-wave2-signalling-in-breast-cancer
#5
Qing Deng, Yan-Xiao Tian, JianJun Liang
Breast tumour progression results from the advancement of the disease to a metastatic phenotype. Rac1 and Cdc42 belong to the Rho family of genes that, together with their downstream effectors, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein-family verprolin-homologous protein 2 (WAVE2) and Arp2/3, assume a vital part in cytoskeletal rearrangement and the arrangement of film projections that advance malignant cell relocation and invasion. Mangiferin is a characteristic polyphenolic compound from Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), ordinarily referred to as mango, that is consumed worldwide as a natural product, including culinary and seasoning applications...
February 17, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455277/guava-psidium-guajava-l-cv-red-suprema-crude-extract-protect-human-dermal-fibroblasts-against-cytotoxic-damage-mediated-by-oxidative-stress
#6
José M Alvarez-Suarez, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Luca Mazzoni, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Sadia Afrin, Maurizio Battino
We analyzed guava fruits (Psidium guajava L. cv. Red Suprema) from Cuba to determine their chemical composition, total antioxidant capacity, as well as their protective effect against oxidative damage using an in vitro model of human dermal fibroblasts. The guava fruit is a natural source of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, vitamin C, folates and beta carotenes with proven health benefits. Human dermal fibroblasts were pre-incubated with different concentrations of guava crude extract and then subjected to oxidative stress using the AAPH stressor...
February 17, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454999/long-term-treatment-with-green-tea-polyphenols-modifies-the-gut-microbiome-of-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#7
Jincheng Wang, Lili Tang, Hongyuan Zhou, Jun Zhou, Travis C Glenn, Chwan-Li Shen, Jia-Sheng Wang
Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been shown to exert a spectrum of health benefits to animals and humans. It is plausible that the beneficial effects of GTP are a result of its interaction with the gut microbiota. This study evaluated the effect of long-term treatment with GTP on the gut microbiota of experimental rats and the potential linkage between changes of the gut microbiota with the beneficial effects of GTP. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three dosing regimens (0, 0...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454923/seasonal-differences-in-the-content-of-phenols-and-pigments-in-thalli-of-freshwater-cladophora-glomerata-and-its-habitat
#8
Joanna Fabrowska, Beata Messyasz, Radosław Pankiewicz, Patrycja Wilińska, Bogusława Łęska
Polyphenols are chemicals that primarily inhibit the growth of various autotrophic organisms. The presence of these metabolites greatly boosts the ecological dominance of eg. Cladophora, which creates large surface mats. The main goal of our work was to quantify the phenol and polyphenols (allelopathic substances) secreted by the macroalgae as a result of exposure to biotic stress caused by competition. The research was carried out on the Cladophora glomerata biomass collected from two freshwater ecosystems located in Wielkopolska Region (Poland, Fig...
February 10, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454114/mitochondria-targeting-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-with-mitochondriotropic-polyphenolic-based-antioxidants
#9
José Teixeira, Cláudia M Deus, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Mitochondrial function and regulation of redox balance is fundamental in controlling cellular life and death pathways. Antioxidants have been used to counteract disruption of redox networks, normally associated with progressive loss of cell homeostasis and disease pathophysiology, although therapeutic success is limited mainly due to pharmacokinetic drawbacks. Attempts to improve mitochondrial function in a range of diseases spurred active drug discovery efforts. Currently, the most effective strategy to deliver drugs to mitochondria is the covalent link of lipophilic cations to the bioactive compound...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454074/nutraceuticals-as-therapeutic-agents-for-atherosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Joe W E Moss, Jessica O Williams, Dipak P Ramji
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large arteries and an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is responsible for a third of all global deaths. Current treatments for CVD, such as optimized statin therapy, are associated with considerable residual risk and several side effects in some patients. The outcome of research on the identification of alternative pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of CVD has been relatively disappointing with many promising leads failing at the clinical level...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453917/comparative-chemical-investigation-and-evaluation-of-antioxidant-and-tyrosinase-inhibitory-effects-of-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-and-solanum-nigrum-l-berries
#11
Abdul Hameed, Naveed Akhtar
In the present study, berries of two different species of Solanaceae family, Withania somnifera (WS) and Solanum nigrum (SN), were extracted in methanol and then fractionated with solvents, ranging from non-polar to polar, for their phytochemical profiling and investigation of antioxidant and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition capacity. The methanolic extract and n-hexane, ethyl acetate (WSEA, SNEA) and aqueous fractions were chemically analyzed and evaluated for biological activity. Total flavonoids and total phenolics were quantified in WSEA (96...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453519/tricurin-a-synergistic-formulation-of-curcumin-resveratrol-and-epicatechin-gallate-repolarizes-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-triggers-an-immune-response-to-cause-suppression-of-hpv-tumors
#12
Sumit Mukherjee, Rahman Hussaini, Richard White, Doaa Atwi, Angela Fried, Samay Sampat, Longzhu Piao, Quintin Pan, Probal Banerjee
Our earlier studies reported a unique potentiated combination (TriCurin) of curcumin (C) with two other polyphenols. The TriCurin-associated C displays an IC50 in the low micromolar range for cultured HPV+ TC-1 cells. In contrast, because of rapid degradation in vivo, the TriCurin-associated C reaches only low nano-molar concentrations in the plasma, which are sub-lethal to tumor cells. Yet, injected TriCurin causes a dramatic suppression of tumors in TC-1 cell-implanted mice (TC-1 mice) and xenografts of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) cells in nude/nude mice...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453258/anthropogenic-n-deposition-alters-the-composition-of-expressed-class-ii-fungal-peroxidases
#13
Elizabeth M Entwistle, Karl J Romanowicz, William A Argiroff, Zachary B Freedman, J Jeffrey Morris, Donald R Zak
Here, we present evidence that ca. 20 yrs of experimental N deposition altered the composition of lignin-decaying class II peroxidases expressed by forest floor fungi, a response which has occurred concurrently with reductions in plant-litter decomposition and a rapid accumulation of soil organic matter. This finding suggests that anthropogenic N deposition has induced changes in the biological mediation of lignin-decay, the rate limiting step in plant litter decomposition. Thus, altered composition of transcripts for a critical gene that is associated with terrestrial C-cycling may explain increased soil C storage under long-term increases in anthropogenic N deposition...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452189/roasted-and-green-coffee-extracts-show-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activity-in-myoblast-and-endothelial-cell-lines-in-a-cell-specific-manner
#14
Alexandros Priftis, Eleftheria-Maria Panagiotou, Konstantinos Lakis, Christina Plika, Maria Halabalaki, Georgia Ntasi, Aristidis S Veskoukis, Dimitrios Stagos, Leandros A Skaltsounis, Dimitrios Kouretas
Coffee is one of the most highly consumed beverages with potential beneficial health implications, however its molecular mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated yet. To that cause, the polyphenolic composition of different coffee extracts (from Light, Medium and Dark roasts as well as green beans) was examined by UHPLC-HRMS analysis, indicating chlorogenic acids isomers as the main constituents. In the following step, the toxicity of the extracts was tested in myoblasts and endothelial cells and differential toxicity of green and roasted samples was displayed as the myoblasts were more sensitive to green coffee extracts, in contrast to the endothelial cells...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451796/polyelectrolyte-complex-nanoparticles-from-chitosan-and-acylated-rapeseed-cruciferin-protein-for-curcumin-delivery
#15
Fengzhang Wang, Yijie Yang, Xingrong Ju, Chibuike C Udenigwe, Rong He
Curcumin is a polyphenol that exhibits several biological activities, but its low aqueous solubility results in low bioavailability. To improve curcumin bioavailability, this study has focused on developing polyelectrolyte complexation method to form layer-by-layer assembled nanoparticles, for curcumin delivery, with positively charged chitosan (CS) and negatively charged acylated cruciferin (ACRU), a rapeseed globulin. Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from ACRU and CS (2:1) at pH 5.7. Three samples with weight of 5%, 10% and 15% of curcumin, respectively, in ACRU/CS carrier were prepared...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451355/a-critical-evaluation-of-in-vitro-hesperidin-2s-bioavailability-in-a-model-combining-luminal-microbial-digestion-and-caco-2-cell-absorption-in-comparison-to-a-randomized-controlled-human-trial
#16
Evelien Van Rymenant, Bouke Salden, Stefan Voorspoels, Griet Jacobs, Bart Noten, Judit Pitart, Sam Possemiers, Guy Smagghe, Charlotte Grootaert, John Van Camp
SCOPE: Bioavailability strongly determines polyphenol bioactivity, and is strongly influenced by food matrix, enzymatic and microbial degradation and gastro-intestinal absorption. To avoid human trials for pre-screening of polyphenol bioavailability, studies have focused on in vitro model development. Nevertheless, their predictive value for bioavailability can be questioned. METHOD AND RESULTS: We used the orange flavonoid hesperidin 2S to validate a model combining digestion in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME ® ) and Caco-2 cell transport, with a human intervention study...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450660/protein-nutritional-value-polyphenols-and-antioxidant-properties-of-corn-fermented-with-agaricus-brasiliensis-and-agaricus-bisporus
#17
Fei-Hong Zhai, Hong-Yan Liu, Jian-Rong Han
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Agaricus brasiliensis and Agaricus bisporus on corn was carried out. The results showed that SSF with the two fungi made up the deficiency of tryptophan in corn and improved the protein nutritional value of corn. The conjugated polyphenols contents in fermented corn decreased and free polyphenols (FPP) contents increased. FPP contents in corn fermented with the two fungi reached respectively 25 and 88 times of control, total polyohenols contents reached respectively 1.4 and 3...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448897/immunomodulation-by-food-impact-on-gut-immunity-and-immune-cell-function
#18
Satoshi Hachimura, Mamoru Totsuka, Akira Hosono
Recent studies have revealed that various food components affect the immune response. These components act on various immune cells, and their effects are mediated through the intestinal immune system and, in some cases, the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we describe the immunomodulating effects of various food components, including probiotics, prebiotics, polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, peptides, amino acids and polyphenols. Some of these components enhance immune responses, leading to host defense against infection, whereas others inhibit immune responses, thus suppressing allergy and inflammation...
February 16, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448091/evidence-and-prospective-of-plant-derived-flavonoids-as-antiplatelet-agents-strong-candidates-to-be-drugs-of-future
#19
Harron Khan, Mohammad Jawad, Mohammad Ajmal Kamal, Alessandra Baldi, Jianbo Xiao, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Maria Daglia
Platelets are involved in hemostasis, inflammation, and thrombosis processes. Following a vascular damage, the endothelium releases protein factors, allowing the adhesion of subendothelium to platelets. Then platelets are activated, leading to the secretion of biologically-active ligands including thromboxane A2, adenosine diphosphate and serotonin. Aspirin, clopidogrel and warfarin are the most common drugs used to meet the challenges of platelet aggregation. However, these agents face issues with aspirin resistance and bleeding...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447981/evaluation-of-in-vitro-in-vivo-anti-diabetic-effects-and-identification-of-compounds-from-physalis-alkekengi
#20
Xiao-Fang Hu, Qiang Zhang, Pan-Pan Zhang, Li-Juan Sun, Ji-Chao Liang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Yong Chen, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
The aims of the present study were to assess the anti-diabetic effects of Physalis alkekengi L. (PA) in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells and HepG2-GFP-CYP2E1 (E47) cells and in a pre-diabetic rat model, as well as to identify the active chemical constituents. The in vitro results showed that PA has a strong anti-diabetic capacity to relieve oxidative stress and inhibit α-glucosidase activity. Mechanistic analysis also showed that ethyl acetate extracts of aerial parts and fruit of PA (PAG-EA and PAF-EA) enhanced glucose transporter 4 expression and function as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity by inhibiting the expression of cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) mRNA and protein...
February 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
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