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Polyphenol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218491/a-specific-amino-acid-residue-in-the-catalytic-site-of-dandelion-polyphenol-oxidases-acts-as-selector-for-substrate-specificity
#1
Sarah M Prexler, Ratna Singh, Bruno M Moerschbacher, Mareike E Dirks-Hofmeister
Successful site-directed mutagenesis combined with in silico modeling and docking studies for the first time offers experimental proof of the role of the 'substrate selector' residue in plant polyphenol oxidases. The plant and fungi enzymes responsible for tissue browning are called polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). In plants, PPOs often occur as families of isoenzymes which are differentially expressed, but little is known about their physiological roles or natural substrates. In a recent study that explored these structure-function relationships, the eleven known dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) PPOs were shown to separate into two different phylogenetic groups differing in catalytic cavity architecture, kinetic parameters, and substrate range...
December 7, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217339/standardization-chemical-profiling-in%C3%A2-vitro-cytotoxic-effects-in%C3%A2-vivo-anti-carcinogenic-potential-and-biosafety-profile-of-indian-propolis
#2
Harshad Kapare, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Arulmozhi Sinnathambi, Kakasaheb Mahadik
BACKGROUND: Propolis from apiculture is known for wide range of medicinal properties owing to its vast chemical constituents including polyphenols, flavonoids and anticancer agent Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to extract and standardize Indian propolis (IP) with respect to selected markers by newly developed High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and biosafety of Indian propolis...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216948/-tea-polyphenols-down-regulate-jnk-phosphorylation-to-inhibit-neuron-apoptosis-in-rats-with-cardiac-arrest
#3
Yumei Liu, Thi Phuong Anh Nguyen, Menghua Chen, Lu Xie
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) phosphorylation and cell apoptosis in brain tissues in rats with cardiac arrest (CA) following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham group (n = 6), CA group (n = 12), and TP group (n = 12). The rats in CA and TP groups were induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) via esophagus stimulation with alternating current...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215574/relationship-between-antioxidant-and-anticancer-activity-of-trihydroxyflavones
#4
Ignas Grigalius, Vilma Petrikaite
Plant polyphenols have been highlighted not only as chemopreventive, but also as potential anticancer substances. Flavones are a subclass of natural flavonoids reported to have an antioxidant and anticancer activity. The aim of our study was to evaluate antioxidant and anticancer activity of seventeen trihydroxyflavone derivatives, including apigenin (API) and baicalein (BCL). Also, we wanted to find out if there is a correlation between those two effects. Cell growth inhibition testing was carried out using MTT assay in three different human cancer cell lines: lung (A549), breast (MCF-7) and brain epithelial (U87)...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#5
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214374/serum-antioxidant-parameters-are-significantly-increased-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-consumption-of-chinese-propolis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-based-on-fasting-serum-glucose-level
#6
Weina Gao, Lingling Pu, Jingyu Wei, Zhanxin Yao, Yawen Wang, Tala Shi, Liting Zhao, Changya Jiao, Changjiang Guo
INTRODUCTION: Propolis is a natural product with many biological activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Chinese propolis on glucose metabolism, antioxidant function, and inflammatory cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In the 18-week study, recruited T2DM patients were randomly divided into a Chinese propolis group (900 mg/day) (n = 31) and a control group (n = 30) according to fasting serum glucose levels at baseline...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214243/intracellular-investigation-on-the-differential-effects-of-4-polyphenols-on-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells-by-raman-imaging
#7
A Mignolet, B R Wood, E Goormaghtigh
The past decades have seen significant interest in the study of polyphenolic compounds as potential therapeutic agents in medicine because they display a vast array of cellular effects beneficial to treat or manage a plethora of chronic diseases including inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular abnormalities and several types of cancer. These compounds act at different stages of carcinogenesis but deciphering their mode of action is a complex task. Live MCF-7 breast cancer cells were investigated using Raman imaging to evaluate the perturbations induced after incubating cells with four different polyphenols: EGCG, gallic acid, resveratrol and tannic acid...
December 7, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213298/reproducible-genomic-dna-preparation-from-diverse-crop-species-for-molecular-genetic-applications
#8
Kelvin T Chiong, Mona B Damaj, Carmen S Padilla, Carlos A Avila, Shankar R Pant, Kranthi K Mandadi, Ninfa R Ramos, Denise V Carvalho, T Erik Mirkov
Background: Several high-throughput molecular genetic analyses rely on high-quality genomic DNA. Copurification of other molecules can negatively impact the functionality of plant DNA preparations employed in these procedures. Isolating DNA from agronomically important crops, such as sugarcane, rice, citrus, potato and tomato is a challenge due to the presence of high fiber, polysaccharides, or secondary metabolites. We present a simplified, rapid and reproducible SDS-based method that provides high-quality and -quantity of DNA from small amounts of leaf tissue, as required by the emerging biotechnology and molecular genetic applications...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211809/down-regulation-of-the-klf5-c-myc-interaction-due-to-klf5-phosphorylation-mediates-resveratrol-repressing-the-caveolin-1-transcription-through-the-pi3k-pkd1-akt-pathway
#9
Hui Yang, Qiuxia Chen, Fangyun Sun, Nana Zhao, Lirong Wen, Lin Li, Gai Ran
Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has been reported to produce effect on genes transcription in lipid metabolism. In this study, we aim to explore the novel mechanisms of RSV on the regulation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) transcription. Via body weight, blood glucose, serum lipid, and liver pathology detection, we found that RSV decreased body weight, blood glucose and lipid accumulation in rats fed high-fat diet. Based on co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and western blotting assay, we found that RSV up-regulated klf5 phosphorylation and decreased the interaction of klf5 with c-Myc, which were accompanied by down-regulation of Cav-1 expression in livers of rats fed with high-fat diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211803/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-precede-or-take-place-in-absence-of-significant-rearrangements-in-bacterial-community-structure-the-planhab-randomized-trial-pilot-study
#10
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Susanne Kublik, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavić, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Matevž Likar, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day) and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bed rest (HBR) and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210466/influence-of-deficit-irrigation-and-crop-load-on-the-yield-and-fruit-quality-in-wonderful-and-mollar-de-elche-pomegranates
#11
M Cano-Lamadrid, A Galindo, J Collado-González, P Rodríguez, Z N Cruz, P Legua, F Burló, D Morales, A A Carbonell-Barrachina, F Hernández
BACKGROUND: The working hypothesis of this experiment was that by proper simultaneous control of irrigation (hydroSOStainable products) and crop load (thinning) is possible to promote bioactive compounds accumulation and improve fruit appearance (size and weight). The effects of (i) irrigation status [T0: 120% ETc (estimated crop evapotranspiration); T1: 60% ETc during fruit growth and ripening] and (ii) crop load (A0: no thinning; A1: thinning) on yield and fruit quality were evaluated in two pomegranate cultivars (Wonderful, Wond, and Mollar de Elche, ME)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210447/improvement-of-physicochemical-properties-and-phenolic-compounds-bioavailability-by-concentrating-dietary-fiber-of-peach-prunus-persica-juice-by-product
#12
Sarahí Rodríguez-González, Iza F Pérez-Ramírez, Eduardo Castaño-Tostado, Silvia Amaya-Llano, Mario E Rodríguez-García, Rosalía Reynoso-Camacho
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFC) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. RESULTS: All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, founding the highest content with 100% H2O treatment...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210129/effect-of-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-on-aging-and-longevity
#13
REVIEW
Yi-Rong Li, Shiming Li, Chi-Chien Lin
Over the past years, several studies have found that foods rich in polyphenols protect against age-related disease, such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension and Alzheimer's disease. Resveratrol and pterostilbene, the polyphenol found in grape and blueberries, have beneficial effects as anti-aging compounds through modulating the hallmarks of aging, including oxidative damage, inflammation, telomere attrition and cell senescence...
December 6, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209624/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-pomegranate-juice-and-peel-extracts-on-cariogenic-bacteria
#14
Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano, Elisa Scioscia, Daniela Sateriale, Gabiria Pastore, Roberta Colicchio, Chiara Pagliuca, Tiziana Cantile, Brunella Alcidi, Marco Coda, Aniello Ingenito, Elena Scaglione, Annunziata Gaetana Cicatiello, Maria Grazia Volpe, Michele Di Stasio, Paola Salvatore, Caterina Pagliarulo
Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and juice, against the microorganisms considered the main etiologic agents of dental caries. Methods: The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined against Streptococcus mutans Clarke ATCC® 25175™ strain and Rothia dentocariosa clinical isolate. Results: Peel extracts inhibit effectively the growth and survival of S...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209211/diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease-the-protection-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-in-streptozotocin-injection-induced-models
#15
REVIEW
Jin-Jing Jia, Xian-Si Zeng, Xin-Qiang Song, Peng-Peng Zhang, Lei Chen
Diabetes mellitus is considered as a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the front runner of neurodegenerative disorders. Streptozotocin (STZ) is a toxin for pancreatic β-cell, which can construct a model of insulin deficient diabetes through intraperitoneal or intravenous injection. A model generated by intracerebroventricular STZ (icv-STZ) also shows numerous aspects of sporadic AD. The protective roles of tea polyphenols epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on both two diseases were researched by some scientists...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209088/inhibitory-effects-of-curcumin-and-cyclocurcumin-in-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-in-differentiated-pc12-cells
#16
Sandeep Chakraborty, Artashes Karmenyan, Jin-Wu Tsai, Arthur Chiou
Development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD) involve multiple pathways. Thus, effective therapeutic treatments should intervene to address all these pathways simultaneously for greater success. Most of the current pharmacotherapeutic approaches just supplement striatal dopamine. Hence, natural extracts of plants with therapeutic potential have been explored. Curcuminoids belong to one such group of polyphenol which show immense therapeutic effects. Here, we have used intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, and two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) of cellular autofluorescent co-enzyme reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to study the inhibitory effects of curcumin and cyclocurcumin in alleviating PD like neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in neuronal growth factor (NGF) induced differentiated PC12 cells...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207388/resveratrol-does-not-protect-from-ischemia-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model
#17
Anja Bienholz, Rahel Mae Pang, Hana Guberina, Ursula Rauen, Oliver Witzke, Benjamin Wilde, Frank Petrat, Thorsten Feldkamp, Andreas Kribben
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The natural polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced damage. Therefore, a rat model of I/R-induced AKI equipped with intensive monitoring was utilized to examine direct renal protection by RSV in vivo. METHODS: AKI was induced by bilateral renal clamping (45 min) followed by reperfusion (3 h). Solvent-free RSV was continuously infused intravenously (0.056 and 0.28 mg/kg) in a total volume of 7 ml/kg/h starting from 30 min before renal clamping...
December 5, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207077/investigation-of-the-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-arbutin-and-its-acetylated-derivative-on-murine-melanoma-cells
#18
Liyan Jiang, Di Wang, Yongfeng Zhang, Junyang Li, Zhiping Wu, Zhi Wang, Di Wang
Arbutin, a natural polyphenol isolated from the bearberry plant Arctostaphylos uvaursi, possesses whitening and anticancer properties. The effects of arbutin on melanogenesis and its pro-apoptotic effect on B16 murine melanoma cells have not yet been reported. In the present study, acetylated arbutin was prepared in order to improve the biological effects of arbutin, and it was found to significantly inhibit the biosynthesis of melanin and tyrosinase activity compared with parent arbutin in B16 murine melanoma cells...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207033/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-inflammation-and-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-via-upregulation-of-pten-in-asthma
#19
Nan Yang, Han Zhang, Xuxu Cai, Yunxiao Shang
Asthma is a chronic disease associated with hyperresponsiveness, obstruction and remodeling of the airways. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has an important role in these alterations and may account for the accumulation of subepithelial mesenchymal cells, thus contributing to airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. Epigallo-catechin‑3‑gallate (EGCG), which is a type of polyphenol, is the most potent ingredient in green tea, and exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidative, anticancer and chemopreventive activities...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206254/curcumin-as-a-functional-food-derived-factor-degradation-products-metabolites-bioactivity-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Takanori Tsuda
Curcumin is a polyphenol found in turmeric (Curcuma longa), used as a spice, in food coloring, and as a traditional herbal medicine. It has been shown that curcumin has health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties, improvement of brain function, and control of obesity and diabetes. However, native curcumin easily degrades and has low oral bioavailability, and a recent report has expressed doubt about curcumin's various effects. To overcome its low bioavailability, various curcumin formulations with enhanced bioavailability are currently being developed...
December 5, 2017: Food & Function
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