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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353186/addictive-behaviors-social-and-psychosocial-factors-and-electronic-cigarette-use-among-adolescents-a-population-based-study
#1
M Lindström, M Rosvall
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate associations between e-cigarette use and social and psychosocial factors and cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and narcotics use among adolescents attending 9th grade in primary school and 2nd grade in secondary school. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The public health survey among adolescents in Scania in 2016 includes pupils in grades 9 and 2. The associations between e-cigarette use and lifestyle, social and psychosocial factors, and trust were investigated with logistic regressions...
January 17, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352837/socio-economic-determinants-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-the-older-polish-population-results-from-the-polsenior-study
#2
Magdalena Wyskida, Aleksander Owczarek, Aleksandra Szybalska, Aniceta Brzozowska, Irena Szczerbowska, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Edward Franek, Małgorzata Mossakowska, Tomasz Grodzicki, Andrzej Więcek, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Jerzy Chudek
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have reported an association between vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25(OH)D) deficiency and low economic status, lower educational level, drugs exposure, smoking and reduced physical activity. Our study analysed the association between sociodemographic factors and 25(OH)D status in Polish (Caucasian) seniors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study (part of the PolSenior study). Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured by a solid-phase ELISA method; a standardized questionnaire evaluated educational level, economic status, alcohol consumption, current or past cigarette smoking, physical activity, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living...
January 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352817/the-association-between-sexual-behaviours-and-initiation-of-post-secondary-education-in-south-africa
#3
Annah V Bengesai, Hafiz T A Khan, Russell Dube
Although young people in South Africa are growing up in an era where their socioeconomic circumstances are seemingly better than those of their parents' generation, they face greater risks in their trajectory to adulthood. This is mainly because the environment in which they are making sexual decisions is also rapidly evolving. Currently, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world among young people aged 15-24. This study examined the effect of sexual behaviours initiated in adolescence on enrolment in post-secondary education...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352099/smoking-and-parkinson-disease-evidence-for-gene-by-smoking-interactions
#4
Pei-Chen Lee, Ismaïl Ahmed, Marie-Anne Loriot, Claire Mulot, Kimberly C Paul, Jeff M Bronstein, Beate Ritz, Alexis Elbaz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether cigarette smoking interacts with genes involved in individual susceptibility to xenobiotics for the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Two French population-based case-control studies (513 patients, 1,147 controls) were included as a discovery sample to examine gene-smoking interactions based on 3,179 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 289 genes involved in individual susceptibility to xenobiotics. SNP-by-cigarette smoking interactions were tested in the discovery sample through an empirical Bayes (EB) approach...
January 19, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352096/does-cigarette-smoking-do-nothing-but-harm
#5
EDITORIAL
Shinsuke Fujioka, Ruey-Meei Wu, Yoshio Tsuboi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#6
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351435/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-on-pulmonary-endothelial-cells
#7
Qing Lu, Eric Gottlieb, Sharon Rounds
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the US. Cardiovascular co-morbidities associated with both active and secondhand cigarette smoking indicate the vascular toxicity of smoke exposure. Growing evidence supports the injurious effect of cigarette smoke on pulmonary endothelial cells and the roles of endothelial cell injury in development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. This review summarizes results from studies of humans, preclinical animal models, and cultured endothelial cells that document toxicities of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary endothelial cell functions, including barrier dysfunction, endothelial activation and inflammation, apoptosis, and vasoactive mediator production...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351185/brief-report-lead-levels-in-selected-electronic-cigarettes-from-canada-and-the-united-states
#8
Zachary R Dunbar, Ananth Das, Richard J O'Connor, Maciej L Goniewicz, Binnian Wei, Mark J Travers
Few published studies have investigated the presence of lead in the e-liquid of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Lead inhalation is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart disease, and other diseases. This study used a novel application of graphite furnace technology to compare the concentration of lead between e-liquids of different packaging and product designs using e-liquids that are or were commercially available in the United States and Canada. Eleven nicotine-free disposable ENDS devices and 12 bottled refill solutions that contained nicotine were purchased from retailers in Canada and the United States between 2015 and 2017...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350618/a-call-to-end-the-epidemic-of-adolescent-e-cigarette-use
#9
Grace Kong, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350617/adolescents-and-e-cigarettes-objects-of-concern-may-appear-larger-than-they-are
#10
Lynn T Kozlowski, Kenneth E Warner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349939/comparison-of-district-level-smoking-prevalence-and-their-income-gaps-from-two-national-databases-the-national-health-screening-database-and-the-community-health-survey-in-korea-2009-2014
#11
Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Yeon Yong Kim, Jeehye Lee, Hee Yeon Kang, Juyeon Lee, Sung Cheol Yun, Jong Heon Park, Soon Ae Shin, Young Ho Khang
BACKGROUND: We compared age-standardized prevalence of cigarette smoking and their income gaps at the district-level in Korea using the National Health Screening Database (NHSD) and the Community Health Survey (CHS). METHODS: Between 2009 and 2014, 39,049,485 subjects participating in the NHSD and 989,292 participants in the CHS were analyzed. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and their interquintile income differences were calculated for 245 districts of Korea...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349255/gender-specific-associations-between-involvement-in-team-sport-culture-and-canadian-adolescents-substance-use-behavior
#12
Randy Boyes, Dylan E O'Sullivan, Brooke Linden, Michael McIsaac, William Pickett
Canadian adolescents have some of the highest rates of substance use in the world. The etiology of this phenomenon has not been fully explored, and one possible contextual determinant is involvement in sport activities that foster risk-taking behaviors through physical and social mechanisms. Using the 2013-14 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children (HBSC) study we therefore examined this hypothesis in a contemporary national sample of Canadian adolescents. The strength and direction of the relationship between sport and substance use varied by gender and substance, with team sport participation associated with increased binge drinking (RR 1...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348119/cigarette-smoke-initiates-oxidative-stress-induced-cellular-phenotypic-modulation-leading-to-cerebral-aneurysm-pathogenesis
#13
Robert M Starke, John W Thompson, Muhammad S Ali, Crissey L Pascale, Alejandra Martinez Lege, Dale Ding, Nohra Chalouhi, David M Hasan, Pascal Jabbour, Gary K Owens, Michal Toborek, Joshua M Hare, Aaron S Dumont
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) is a risk factor for cerebral aneurysm (CA) formation, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Although CSE is known to contribute to excess reactive oxygen species generation, the role of oxidative stress on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic modulation and pathogenesis of CAs is unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate whether CSE activates a NOX (NAPDH oxidase)-dependent pathway leading to VSMC phenotypic modulation and CA formation and rupture...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348060/exposure-to-workplace-smoking-bans-and-continuity-of-daily-smoking-patterns-on-workdays-and-weekends
#14
Michael S Dunbar, Saul Shiffman, Siddharth Chandra
INTRODUCTION: Individuals may compensate for workplace smoking bans by smoking more before or after work, or escaping bans to smoke, but no studies have conducted a detailed, quantitative analysis of such compensatory behaviors using real-time data. METHODS: 124 daily smokers documented smoking occasions over 3weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and provided information on real-world exposure to smoking restrictions and type of workplace smoking policy (full, partial, or no bans)...
January 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346545/influence-of-nicotine-metabolism-ratio-on-11c-phno-pet-binding-in-tobacco-smokers
#15
Patricia Di Ciano, Rachel F Tyndale, Esmaeil Mansouri, Christian S Hendershot, Alan A Wilson, Dina Lagzdins, Sylvain Houle, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
Background: Identifying the biological basis of smoking cessation success is of growing interest. The rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), affects multiple aspects of nicotine dependence. Fast nicotine metabolizers (FM) tend to smoke more, experience more withdrawal and craving and have lower cessation rates as compared to slow metabolizers (SM). The NMR predicts treatment response, and differences in brain activation between FM and SM have been reported in fMRI studies...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346467/modification-of-the-associations-between-duration-of-oral-contraceptive-use-and-ovarian-endometrial-breast-and-colorectal-cancers
#16
Kara A Michels, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Louise A Brinton, Britton Trabert
Importance: Although oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, the influence of OC use on carcinogenesis is not fully understood. A recent Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of OC use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. Objective: To determine whether associations between duration of OC use and risk of specific cancers were modified by lifestyle characteristics...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346340/disparities-in-preconception-health-indicators-%C3%A2-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-2013-2015-and-pregnancy-risk-assessment-monitoring-system-2013-2014
#17
Cheryl Robbins, Sheree L Boulet, Isabel Morgan, Denise V D'Angelo, Lauren B Zapata, Brian Morrow, Andrea Sharma, Charlan D Kroelinger
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Preconception health is a broad term that encompasses the overall health of nonpregnant women during their reproductive years (defined here as aged 18-44 years). Improvement of both birth outcomes and the woman's health occurs when preconception health is optimized. Improving preconception health before and between pregnancies is critical for reducing maternal and infant mortality and pregnancy-related complications. The National Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative's Surveillance and Research work group suggests ten prioritized indicators that states can use to monitor programs or activities for improving the preconception health status of women of reproductive age...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346338/current-cigarette-smoking-among-adults-united-states-2016
#18
Ahmed Jamal, Elyse Phillips, Andrea S Gentzke, David M Homa, Stephen D Babb, Brian A King, Linda J Neff
The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12...
January 19, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346189/the-impact-of-implementing-tobacco-control-policies-the-2017-tobacco-control-policy-scorecard
#19
David T Levy, Jamie Tam, Charlene Kuo, Geoffrey T Fong, Frank Chaloupka
The Tobacco Control Scorecard, published in 2004, presented estimates of the effectiveness of different policies on smoking rates. Since its publication, new evidence has emerged. We update the Scorecard to include recent studies of demand-reducing tobacco policies for high-income countries. We include cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, media campaigns, comprehensive tobacco control programs, marketing bans, health warnings, and cessation treatment policies. To update the 2004 Scorecard, a narrative review was conducted on reviews and studies published after 2000, with additional focus on 3 policies in which previous evidence was limited: tobacco control programs, graphic health warnings, and marketing bans...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344610/association-of-combined-patterns-of-tobacco-and-cannabis-use-in-adolescence-with-psychotic-experiences
#20
Hannah J Jones, Suzanne H Gage, Jon Heron, Matthew Hickman, Glyn Lewis, Marcus R Munafò, Stanley Zammit
Importance: There is concern about potentially causal effects of tobacco use on psychosis, but epidemiological studies have been less robust in attempts to minimize effects of confounding than studies of cannabis use have been. Objectives: To examine the association of patterns of cigarette and cannabis use with preceding and subsequent psychotic experiences, and to compare effects of confounding across these patterns. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, which initially consisted of 14 062 children...
January 17, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
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