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C D C Neves, A C R Lacerda, V K S Lage, L P Lima, R Tossige-Gomes, S F Fonseca, E Rocha-Vieira, M M Teixeira, V A Mendonça
Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke seems to be related to an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and changes in muscular and physical performances of healthy smokers. However, these parameters have not yet been evaluated simultaneously in previous studies. The participants of this study were healthy males divided into two groups: smokers (n=20) and non-smokers (n=20). Inflammation was evaluated by measuring plasma levels of the cytokines IL-10, IL-6 e TNF-α, and of the soluble receptors sTNFR1 and sTNFR2...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Glenda Tettamanti, Alessia Varetta, Marcello Macchi, Cristina Gallotti, Maria Stella Laddomada
The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes and awareness about conventional and electronic cigarettes in a sample of students attending the Faculty of Medicine of Pavia University (Italy). An anonymous and self-reported questionnaire was administered to 226 students attending either the first or third years of medical school during the 2013 to 2014 school year. Participation was voluntary and required signing an informed consent form. The prevalence of smokers was 12%. Sixty-seven percent of smokers reported smoking less than 5 cigarettes/day, and 15% more than 10 cigarettes/day...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Muna Sapkota, Kusum K Kharbanda, Todd A Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Reactive aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde generated as a result of alcohol metabolism and cigarette smoke exposure lead to the formation of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducted proteins (MAA adducts). These aldehydes can adduct to different proteins such as bovine serum albumin and surfactant protein A or surfactant protein D (SPD). Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity, but the effect of MAA adducts on macrophage function has not yet been examined...
October 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Bartosz Kazimierz Słowikowski, Margarita Lianeri, Paweł Piotr Jagodziński
It is well known that a connection between xenobiotics inhalation, especially tobacco combustion and Lung Cancer development is strongly significant and indisputable. However, recent studies provide evidence indicating that another factors such as, estrogens are also involved in lung carcinoma biology and metabolism. Although the status of estrogen receptors (ER), in both cancerous and healthy lung tissue has been well documented, there is still inconclusive data with respect of which isoform of the receptor is present in the lungs...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Ronan F O'Toole, Shakti D Shukla, Eugene H Walters
Expression of the platelet-activating factor receptor is upregulated in the respiratory epithelium of smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We have recently determined that increased expression of PAFr correlates with higher levels of adhesion to human bronchial epithelial cells by non-typable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae which are major bacterial pathogens in acute exacerbations of COPD. In addition, we found that a PAFr antagonist decreased the adhesion of both respiratory bacterial pathogens to non-cigarette exposure control levels...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Andrea Svicher, Michael J Zvolensky, Fiammetta Cosci
BACKGROUND, AIMS: The Smoking Abstinence Expectancies Questionnaire (SAEQ) is a quick and reliable scale assessing the expected consequences of short-term nicotine abstinence. The present study sought to translate the SAEQ to Italian and assess its psychometric properties. METHODS: A sample of 366 daily smokers (59.3% female; mean (± SD) age = 34.0 ± 11.2 years; mean (± SD) cigarettes smoked per day = 13.2 ± 7.5; mean (± SD) years of smoking = 11.3 ± 9.2 years) completed the SAEQ and a series of rating scales measuring nicotine dependence, alcohol use, anxiety and depressive symptoms at baseline and after 3 months (retest)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Roya Kelishadi, Ramin Heshmat, Armindokht Shahsanai, Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Mojtaba Keikha, Gelayol Ardalan, Fereshteh Najafi, Maliheh Khoramdad, Hamid Asayesh, Mostafa Qorbani
BACKGROUND: The consumption of tobacco through a hookah is growing in popularity, especially among children and adolescents, but little is known about the determinants of hookah smoking. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to assess the determinants of tobacco smoking and hookah smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted as part of the fourth cross-sectional survey of a national school-based program...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Roya Kelishadi, Armindokht Shahsanai, Mostafa Qorbani, Gelayol Ardalan, Parinaz Poursafa, Ramin Heshmat, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh
BACKGROUND: Exposure to smoking or passive smoking is one of serious health problems especially in the pediatric age group. OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents according to their socioeconomic status (SES). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14880 students aged 6 - 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Nihaya A Al-Sheyab, Rawa A Al-Fuqha, Khalid A Kheirallah, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Waterpipe tobacco smoking carries adverse health consequences due to high level of chemical toxicants. This study investigated the anthropometric measurements of singleton newborns of Jordanian women with no known chronic diseases who smoked waterpipe during pregnancy, and the difference in these measurements in newborns of pregnant women who smoked waterpipe, cigarettes, both types, and none during pregnancy. The study also investigated the pattern of different types of tobacco smoking as a function of pregnancy trimester...
October 26, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Michael B Cook, Jennifer Drahos, Shannon Wood, Lindsey Enewold, Ruth Parsons, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, Winnie Ricker, Christian C Abnet
BACKGROUND: The absolute risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among individuals with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is low and a majority of EA cases are diagnosed among individuals with no prior BE diagnosis. To ensure that insights from EA case-control studies are transferable to clinical management of BE populations, we conducted a case-case study to compare the clinical presentation, medical history and survival of EA cases with and without a prior BE diagnosis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Medicare database...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Lila E Mullany, Jennifer S Herrick, Roger K Wolff, John R Stevens, Martha L Slattery
Smoking is known to influence messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are known repressors of mRNAs, we hypothesize that smoking may influence miRNA expression, thus altering mRNA expression. Our sample consisted of 1447 CRC cases that had normal colorectal mucosa and carcinoma miRNA data and lifestyle data. We examined current smoking, current versus never and former versus never (C/F/N) smoking(1), and pack-years smoked with miRNA expression in normal mucosa as well as differential miRNA expression between paired normal and carcinoma tissue for colon and rectal tissue to determine associations between smoking and miRNA expression...
October 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Maria Cooper, MeLisa R Creamer, Christina Ly, Brittani Crook, Melissa B Harrell, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: We assessed risk perceptions and social norms about tobacco use across adolescent non-users of tobacco, single- product users, and dual/poly-product users. METHODS: Use behaviors specific to e-cigarettes, cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and smokeless tobacco were assessed among 6th, 8th and 10th grade students (sample [n] = 3907 from a population of [N] = 461,069 students). Multivariate regression was used to examine differences in these factors across use categories, adjusted for demographic factors...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Armen A Torchyan, Abdulaziz A BinSaeed, Yazeed S Aleid, Ahmed A Nagshbandi, Fahad Almousa, Satenik L Papikyan, Ibrahim M Gosadi
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the potential relationships among happiness, physical activity, and smoking initiation among undergraduate medical students in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of randomly selected first- to fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Smoking initiation was defined as "ever trying smoking a cigarette, waterpipe, cigar/cigarillo, or other type of tobacco, even one or 2 puffs." The short scale Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to assess each student's happiness...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Lauren J Parker, Haslyn Hunte, Anita Ohmit, Debra Furr-Holden, Roland J Thorpe
: Previous research has demonstrated that experiencing interpersonal discrimination is associated with cigarette smoking. Few studies have examined the relationship between the effects of physical and emotional discrimination and cigarette usage, and none have examined this relationship among Black men. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the effects of physical and emotional discrimination and cigarette smoking. METHODS: Data from the Indiana Black Men's Health Study, a community-based sample of adult Black men, was used to conduct multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between the physical and emotional effects of discrimination and smoking, net of healthcare and workplace discrimination, age, education, household income, and being married...
October 25, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Marco Aurélio Fornazieri, Anibal Rodrigues Neto, Fabio de Rezende Pinna, Fabio Henrique Gobbi Porto, Paulo de Lima Navarro, Richard Louis Voegels, Richard L Doty
OBJECTIVE: Olfaction-related symptoms accompany migraine attacks and some, such as osmophobia, may be useful in differentiating migraine from other types of headaches. However, the types and frequencies of olfactory symptoms associated with migraine have not been well characterized. The goal of this study was to better characterize the olfactory symptoms of migraine. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was devised. One hundred and thirteen patients who met the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for migraine were administered a new 65-item questionnaire specifically focused on olfaction-related experiences (eg, odor-related triggers, osmophobia, cacosmia, phantosmia, olfactory hallucinations, olfactory hypersensitivity, and self-perceived olfactory function)...
October 25, 2016: Headache
Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo, Alberto Ruano-Ravina, Rebeca Ramis, Nuria Aragonés, Karl T Kelsey, Consuelo Carballeira Roca, Alberto Fernández-Villar, Gonzalo López-Abente, Juan M Barros-Dios
PURPOSE: Radon is a human lung carcinogen but it might be linked with other respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between residential radon exposure and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) prevalence and hospital admissions at a municipal level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed an ecological study where we included those municipalities with at least 3 radon measurements. Using mixed Poisson regression models we calculated the relative risk (RR) for COPD for each 100 Bq/m(3) of increase in radon concentration and also the relative risk for COPD using a cutpoint of 50 Bq/m(3)...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Hermann Fromme, Wolfgang Schober
Waterpipe (WP) smoking, also known as shisha or hookah smoking, is growing in western countries as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that shisha smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking.In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include well-known carcinogens...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
María Belén Cerliani, Walter Pavicic, Juan Antonio Gili, Graciela Klein, Silvia Saba, Silvina Richard
AIM: To analyze the association between oncohematological diseases and GSTT1/GSTM1/CYP1A1 polymorphisms, dietary habits and smoking, in an argentine hospital-based case-control study. METHODS: This hospital-based case-control study involved 125 patients with oncohematological diseases and 310 control subjects. A questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and information about habits. Blood samples were collected, and DNA was extracted using salting out methods...
October 10, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
Samantha G Bromfield, Daichi Shimbo, John N Booth, Adolfo Correa, Gbenga Ogedegbe, April P Carson, Paul Muntner
Masked hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Identifying modifiable risk factors for masked hypertension could provide approaches to reduce its prevalence. Life's Simple 7 is a measure of cardiovascular health developed by the American Heart Association that includes body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), cholesterol, and glucose. We examined the association between cardiovascular health and masked daytime hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black cohort...
October 24, 2016: Hypertension
Menfil A Orellana-Barrios, Drew Payne, Rita M Medrano-Juarez, Shengping Yang, Kenneth Nugent
The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods)...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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