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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931165/adolescents-and-young-adults-perceptions-of-electronic-cigarettes-as-a-gateway-to-smoking-a-qualitative-study-in-switzerland
#1
Christina Akre, Joan-Carles Suris
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) acting as a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes (TCs) is a growing public health concern of EC use among youths. To gather the opinions and perceptions of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) on whether and how EC can act as a gateway to smoking TC among youths. A qualitative method included 42 AYAs. Participants identified a significant risk of EC acting as a gateway to TC use, several factors contributing to this phenomenon such as a facilitated transition to smoking or its perception as a harmless toy...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930715/cigarette-smoking-attenuates-kidney-protection-by-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-in-nondiabetic-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Bethany Roehm, Jan Simoni, Jessica Pruszynski, Donald E Wesson
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking exacerbates the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite the kidney protection that is achieved by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI). Whether smoking cessation restores ACEI-related kidney protection is not known. METHODS: This 5-year, prospective, prevention trial recruited 108 smokers and 108 nonsmokers with stage-2 nondiabetic CKD with primary hypertension and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (Ualb) >200 mg/g...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930436/development-of-a-cigarette-tobacco-filler-standard-reference-material
#3
Lane C Sander, Jeanita S Pritchett, Yasmine C Daniels, Laura J Wood, Brian E Lang, Stephen A Wise, James H Yen, Tricia L Johnson, Matthew J Walters, Tracy Phillips, Matthew R Holman, Grace E Lee, Joseph G Lisko, Brian Lane, Liza Valentin-Blasini, Clifford Watson
A new tobacco filler Standard Reference Material (SRM) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in September 2016 with certified and reference mass fraction values for nicotine, N-nitrosonornicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and volatiles. The constituents have been determined by multiple analytical methods with measurements at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and with confirmatory measurements by commercial laboratories. This effort highlights the development of the first SRM for reduced nicotine and reduced tobacco-specific nitrosamines with certified values for composition...
September 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930282/esophageal-cancer-genomic-and-molecular-characterization-stem-cell-compartment-and-clonal-evolution
#4
REVIEW
Ugo Testa, Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The incidence of histologic subtypes of EC, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC), display considerable geographic variation. EAC arises from metaplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE) in the context of chronic inflammation secondary to exposure to acid and bile. The main risk factors for developing ESCC are cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The main somatic genetic abnormalities showed a different genetic landscape in EAC compared to ESCC...
September 14, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929496/a-methylome-wide-association-study-of-trajectories-of-oppositional-defiant-behaviors-and-biological-overlap-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Edward D Barker, Esther Walton, Charlotte A M Cecil, Richard Rowe, Sara R Jaffee, Barbara Maughan, Thomas G O'Connor, Argyris Stringaris, Alan J Meehan, Wendy McArdle, Caroline L Relton, Tom R Gaunt
In 671 mother-child (49% male) pairs from an epidemiological birth cohort, we investigated (a) prospective associations between DNA methylation (at birth) and trajectories (ages 7-13) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and the ODD subdimensions of irritable and headstrong; (b) common biological pathways, indexed by DNA methylation, between ODD trajectories and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (c) genetic influence on DNA methylation; and (d) prenatal risk exposure associations. Methylome-wide significant associations were identified for the ODD and headstrong, but not for irritable...
September 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929489/association-between-long-term-low-intensity-cigarette-smoking-and-incidence-of-smoking-related-cancer-in-the-national-institutes-of-health-aarp-cohort
#6
Maki Inoue-Choi, Patricia Hartge, Linda M Liao, Neil Caporaso, Neal D Freedman
An increasing proportion of US smokers smoke ≤10 cigarettes per day (CPD) or do not smoke every day, yet the health effects of low-intensity smoking are poorly understood. We identified lifelong smokers of <1 or 1-10 CPD and evaluated risk of incident cancer among 238,525 cancer-free adults, aged 59-82, in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. A questionnaire administered in 2004-2005 assessed CPD during nine age-periods (<15 to ≥70). We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression with age as the underlying time metric...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928940/comparison-of-color-discrimination-in-chronic-heavy-smokers-and-healthy-subjects
#7
Thiago Monteiro de Paiva Fernandes, Natanael Antonio Dos Santos
Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD). Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928855/association-between-extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-and-hepatitis-b-viral-infection-a-case-control-study
#8
Kefeng Wang, Hang Yang, Wenjun He, Yi Xia, Zhongjun Xia, Su Li, Huiqiang Huang, Zhiming Li, Panpan Liu, Wenqi Jiang
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma that is often associated with poor clinical prognosis. Several studies have shown that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be associated with increased risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, because of the rarity of ENKTL, little is known about its association with HBV. Our study aimed to assess whether HBV infection was associated with increased odds of ENKTL. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study including 417 ENKTL cases and 488 age- and sex-matched subjects with nonmalignant diseases unrelated to HBV infection...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928320/tobacco-use-among-young-adolescents-in-myanmar-findings-from-global-youth-tobacco-survey
#9
Nyein Aye Tun, Thuzar Chittin, Naveen Agarwal, Mya Lay New, Yamin Thaung, Pyi Pyi Phyo
BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption among youths poses significant public health problem in developing countries. This study utilized the available data of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to assess the prevalence of tobacco use among Myanmar adolescents. OBJECTIVES: We have conducted the fourth round of the GYTS in Myanmar during 2016 to monitor trends in tobacco use. METHODS: We have selected 51 schools using random sampling based on probability proportional to school enrollment...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928318/tobacco-use-among-thai-students-results-from-the-2015-global-youth-tobacco-survey
#10
Pantip Chotbenjamaporn, Vilailak Haruhansapong, Pensom Jumriangrit, Siriwan Pitayarangsarit, Naveen Agarwal, Renu Garg
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use often starts in adolescence and is a leading cause of premature mortality. Two previous rounds of the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) found that a significant proportion of Thai youth currently smoke. OBJECTIVES: We conducted the third round of GYTS in Thailand in 2015 to monitor trends in tobacco use. METHODS: We selected 31 public and private secondary schools using random sampling based on probability proportional to school enrolment...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928314/smokeless-tobacco-and-public-health-in-bangladesh
#11
REVIEW
Rumana Huque, M Mostafa Zaman, Syed Mahfuzul Huq, Dhirendra N Sinha
Despite the high prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among adults in Bangladesh, SLT was not included in the Tobacco Control Law till 2013. Information on SLT use among Bangladeshi people is inadequate for policymaking and implementing effective control measures. With the aim to identify the prevalence and trends of different SLT products, health and economic impacts, manufacture, and sale of and policies related to SLT in Bangladesh, we carried out a literature review, which involved literature search, data extraction, and synthesis...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928313/youth-tobacco-use-in-south-east-asia-implications-for-tobacco-epidemic-and-options-for-its-control-in-the-region
#12
REVIEW
Manju Rani, Thaksaphon Thamarangsi, Naveen Agarwal
Nearly half of all male population and two in every five females in the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) consume some form of tobacco. Preventing initiation among adolescents is critical for overall tobacco control. We assessed the trends in youth tobacco use and policies in SEAR. Data are used from school-based youth (Global Youth Tobacco Survey and global school student-based health survey) and adult (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, STEPS) tobacco surveys and the WHO Framework of Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation database...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928312/getting-real-with-the-upcoming-challenge-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-the-way-forward-for-the-south-east-asia-region
#13
REVIEW
Jagdish Kaur, Arvind Vashishta Rinkoo
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth - ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927744/impact-of-resveratrol-on-bone-repair-in-rats-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-inhalation-histomorphometric-and-bone-related-gene-expression-analysis
#14
F C Franck, B B Benatti, D C Andia, F R Cirano, R C Casarin, M G Corrêa, F V Ribeiro
This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on bone healing and its influence on the gene expression of bone-related markers in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Two calvarial defects were created in each of 60 rats, which were assigned equally (n=20) to three groups: (1) resveratrol (10mg/kg)+smoke exposure (SMK+RESV); (2) placebo+smoke exposure (SMK+PLA); or (3) placebo+no smoke exposure (NS+PLA). Substances were administered daily for 30days following surgery. Smoke inhalation was started 7days before surgery and continued for 30days after surgery...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927583/differences-in-decision-making-as-a-function-of-drug-of-choice
#15
REVIEW
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Vijay A Ramchandani, Martin P Paulus, Scott D Lane
Poor decision-making is a central feature of all substance use disorders (SUD), but substances vary in the legal and health consequences associated with their use. For example, while the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are often years away, the consequences of heroin abuse can be fatal in mere hours. It remains unclear if users of these substances show decision-making patterns that differ with the relative riskiness of their drug of choice. To address this question, we reviewed studies that compared decision-making of individuals using different substances...
September 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927525/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-genetic-variations-clinical-manifestations-and-therapeutic-interventions
#16
REVIEW
Younis Mohammad Hazari, Arif Bashir, Mudasir Habib, Samirul Bashir, Huma Habib, M Abul Qasim, Naveed Nazir Shah, Ehtishamul Haq, Jeffrey Teckman, Khalid Majid Fazili
Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase secretory glycoprotein that inhibits neutrophil proteases like elastase and is considered as the archetype of a family of structurally related serine-protease inhibitors termed serpins. Serum AAT predominantly originates from liver and increases three to five fold during host response to tissue injury and inflammation. The AAT deficiency is unique among the protein-misfolding diseases in that it causes target organ injury by both loss-of-function and gain-of-toxic function mechanisms...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927321/do-current-and-former-cigarette-smokers-have-an-attentional-bias-for-e-cigarette-cues
#17
Kirsten Lochbuehler, E Paul Wileyto, Kathy Z Tang, Melissa Mercincavage, Joseph N Cappella, Andrew A Strasser
The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925870/pollution-and-sun-exposure-a-deleterious-synergy-mechanisms-and-opportunities-for-skin-protection
#18
Laurent Marrot
Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925570/first-trimester-screening-based-on-ultrasound-and-cfdna-vs-first-trimester-combined-screening-a-randomized-controlled-study
#19
Karl Oliver Kagan, Fabrina Sroka, Jiri Sonek, Harald Abele, Kai Lüthgens, Maximilian Schmid, Philipp Wagner, Sara Brucker, Diethelm Wallwiener, Markus Hoopmann
OBJECTIVE: Prospective randomized trial to compare the performance of first trimester combined screening (FTCS) with an approach that uses the combination of a detailed ultrasound examination and cfDNA analysis. METHODS: Pregnant women with a normal first-trimester ultrasound examination at 11 to 13 weeks' gestation (fetal NT ≤3.5 mm and no fetal defects) were randomized into two groups. In the first group, the risk of aneuploidy was assessed using FTCS based on the most recent FMF UK algorithm...
September 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923576/dose-escalation-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-based-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-is-effective-for-advanced-stage-thoracic-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Chia-Lun Chang, Hsieh-Chih Tsai, Wei-Cheng Lin, Jer-Hwa Chang, Han-Lin Hsu, Jyh-Ming Chow, Kevin Sheng-Po Yuan, Alexander T H Wu, Szu-Yuan Wu
PURPOSE: No studies have investigated the effects of irradiation-dose escalation intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with TESCC who were enrolled in the Taiwan Cancer Registry database. To compare treatment outcomes, the patients were categorized into two groups according to their radiotherapy doses: group 1, who received CCRT<60Gy with IMRT, and group 2, who received CCRT≥60Gy with IMRT...
September 15, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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