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Ömer Sinan Saraç, Rahul Kumar, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Ali Tuğrul Balcı, İsmail Bilgen, Roberto Romero, Adi L Tarca
Crowdsourcing has been used to address computational challenges in systems biology and assess translation of findings across species. Sub-challenge 2 of the sbv IMPROVER Systems Toxicology Challenge was designed to determine whether a common set of genes can be used to identify exposure to cigarette smoke in both human and mouse. Participating teams used a training set of human and mouse blood gene expression data to derive parsimonious models (up to 40 genes) that classify subjects into exposure groups: smokers, former smokers, and never-smokers...
February 2018: Computational Toxicology
Hitendra S Solanki, Remya Raja, Alex Zhavoronkov, Ivan V Ozerov, Artem V Artemov, Jayshree Advani, Aneesha Radhakrishnan, Niraj Babu, Vinuth N Puttamallesh, Nazia Syed, Vishalakshi Nanjappa, Tejaswini Subbannayya, Nandini A Sahasrabuddhe, Arun H Patil, T S Keshava Prasad, Daria Gaykalova, Xiaofei Chang, Rachana Sathyendran, Premendu Prakash Mathur, Annapoorni Rangarajan, David Sidransky, Akhilesh Pandey, Evgeny Izumchenko, Harsha Gowda, Aditi Chatterjee
EGFR-based targeted therapies have shown limited success in smokers. Identification of alternate signaling mechanism(s) leading to TKI resistance in smokers is critically important. We observed increased resistance to erlotinib in H358 NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma) cells chronically exposed to cigarette smoke (H358-S) compared to parental cells. SILAC-based mass-spectrometry approach was used to study altered signaling in H358-S cell line. Importantly, among the top phosphosites in H358-S cells we observed hyperphosphorylation of EGFR (Y1197) and non-receptor tyrosine kinase FAK (Y576/577)...
January 2018: Oncoscience
Mahmoud A Alomari, Nihaya A Al-Sheyab, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) and tobacco consumption can affect many body functions and health. However, the relationship of BDNF with waterpipe (Wp) smoking is unknown. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between Wp smoking and BDNF in adolescents. METHODS: Self-reported tobacco consumption and serum BDNF were determined in 195 waterpipe and 288 nonsmokers in 7th-10th grade students. RESULTS: Stepwise regression that included Wp smoking, gender, BMI, and location, showed that only Wp smoking (p < 0...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
D Thorne, M Hollings, A Seymour, J Adamson, A Dalrymple, M Ballantyne, M Gaca
There is a growing consensus that e-cigarettes hold the potential for reducing the harm associated with cigarette smoking. Recently published studies have reported in vitro testing of e-cigarettes, demonstrating reduced toxicological and biological effects. Few studies however have reported the use of e-cigarettes under extreme testing conditions. To assess the full mutagenic potential of a commercially available electronic-cigarette (Vype ePen), this study investigated the delivery of aerosol under extreme conditions, using a scaled-down 35 mm plate Ames bacterial reverse mutagenicity assay...
April 2018: Mutation Research
David T Levy, Trudy M A Wijnhoven, Jeffrey Levy, Zhe Yuan, Kristina Mauer-Stender
Background: While some WHO European Region countries are global tobacco control leaders, the South Eastern region of Europe has the highest tobacco smoking prevalence globally and a relatively low level of overall implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). An abridged version of SimSmoke has been developed to project the health impact of implementing tobacco control policies in line with the WHO FCTC. Methods: Data on population size, smoking prevalence, policy-specific effect sizes and formulas were applied in 11 South Eastern WHO European Region countries [Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska), Bulgaria, Croatia, Israel, Montenegro, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia] to project the relative reduction in smoking prevalence, number of smokers and number of smoking-attributable deaths resulting from implementing individual and/or combined six WHO FCTC measures...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Farhad Rezvan, Mehdi Khabazkhoob, Elham Hooshmand, Abbasali Yekta, Mohammad Saatchi, Hassan Hashemi
The present study was conducted to determine the global prevalence and risk factors for pterygium . 3255 articles were identified, of which 68 articles with a total of 415,911 participants in 24 countries were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of pterygium in the total population was 12% (95% CI 11% - 14%). The lowest and highest prevalence rates were respectively 3% (95% CI 0.0% - 9%) in the 10 to 20 year age group and 19.5% (95% CI 14.3% - 24.8%) in those over 80. The prevalence was 13% (95% CI 11% - 15%) in men and 12% (95% CI 9% - 13%) in women...
March 15, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Jiemin Ma, Rebecca L Siegel, Eric J Jacobs, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary state-specific estimates of mortality caused by cigarette smoking are important for tobacco control advocacy and healthcare planning in the U.S., but are currently lacking. METHODS: The population-attributable fraction (i.e., proportion of deaths in the population caused by smoking), number of deaths, and number of years of potential life lost because of active cigarette smoking were estimated for each state based on state-specific smoking prevalence data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, recently updated relative risks of smoking, and numbers of deaths from smoking-attributable diseases...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Erin S Rogers, Steven S Fu, Paul Krebs, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Sean M Nugent, Amy Gravely, Scott E Sherman
INTRODUCTION: Veterans with a mental health diagnosis have high rates of tobacco use but encounter low rates of treatment from providers. This study tested whether a proactive tobacco treatment approach increases treatment engagement and abstinence rates in Department of Veterans Affairs mental health patients. STUDY DESIGN: RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The study was performed from 2013 to 2017 and analyses were conducted in 2017. Investigators used the electronic medical record at four Veterans Administration facilities to identify patients documented as current smokers and who had a mental health clinic visit in the past 12 months...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Vaideesh Parasaram, Nasim Nosoudi, Aniqa Chowdhury, Naren Vyavahare
mphysema is characterized by degradation of lung alveoli that leads to poor airflow in lungs. Irreversible elastic fiber degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity leads to loss of elasticity and drives the progression of this disease. We investigated if a polyphenol, pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can increase elastin production in pulmonary fibroblasts. We also studied the effect of PGG treatment in reducing MMP activity and ROS levels in cells. We exposed rat pulmonary fibroblasts to two different types of inflammatory environments i...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mohammed Q Al Rifaiy, Osama A Qutub, Mohammed N Alasqah, Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Sameer A Mokeem, Ali Alrahlah
BACKGROUND: There are no studies that have assessed the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in reducing peri-implant inflammatory response in individuals vaping electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). This study explored the effectiveness of aPDT as an adjunct to mechanical debridement (MD) in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (p-iM) in individuals vaping e-cigs. METHODS: Vaping individuals with p-iM were divided into 2 groups: (a) Group-I: receiving MD with aPDT (test group); and (b) Group-II: MD only (control group)...
March 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Emma L Frazier, Madeline Y Sutton, John T Brooks, R Luke Shouse, John Weiser
Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16...
March 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
William V Lechner, Cara M Murphy, Suzanne M Colby, Tim Janssen, Michelle L Rogers, Kristina M Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking has been demonstrated to predict future cigarette initiation in adolescents. Examining this construct prior to tobacco product initiation may provide useful information on the differential risk of individuals initiating cigarette vs. e-cigarette products. Additionally, examining how susceptibility and tobacco product use relate to perceived harm cognitions will increase understanding of risk predisposition among adolescents. METHOD: Data were taken from a longitudinal study of middle school students (n = 1023; age = 12...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Adnan Mujezinović, Lejla Čalkić, Nino Hasanica, Salih Tandir
Aim To establish the presence of two risk factors, smoking and alcohol use, for non-communicable diseases among students at the University of Zenica. Methods The research was conducted at eight schools of the University of Zenica in the academic year 2016/2017 during the period from 1 December 2016 to 15 February 2017. The study involved 600 students 19-29 years of age (all years of study). The research was carried out with a standardized and validated questionnaire, the STEPS non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey, developed by the World Health Organization...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
Xin Liu, Fiona Bragg, Ling Yang, Christiana Kartsonaki, Yu Guo, Huaidong Du, Zheng Bian, Yiping Chen, Canqing Yu, Jun Lv, Kang Wang, Hua Zhang, Junshi Chen, Robert Clarke, Rory Collins, Richard Peto, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: In developed countries, smoking is associated with increased risk of diabetes. Little is known about the association in China, where cigarette consumption has increased (first in urban, then in rural areas) relatively recently. Moreover, uncertainty remains about the effect of smoking cessation on diabetes in China and elsewhere. We aimed to assess the associations of smoking and smoking cessation with risk of incident diabetes among Chinese adults. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 891 adults (59% women) aged 30-79 years during 2004-08 from ten diverse areas (five urban and five rural) across China...
March 13, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Zachary T Bitzer, Reema Goel, Samantha M Reilly, Ryan J Elias, Alexey Silakov, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, John P Richie
BACKGROUND: Flavoring chemicals, or flavorants, have been used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) since their inception; however, little is known about their toxicological effects. Free radicals present in e-cigarette aerosols have been shown to induce oxidative stress resulting in damage to proliferation, survival, and inflammation pathways in the cell. Aerosols generated from e-liquid solvents alone contain high levels of free radicals but few studies have looked at how these toxins are modulated by flavorants...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Kento Sato, Yoko Shibata, Sumito Inoue, Akira Igarashi, Yoshikane Tokairin, Keiko Yamauchi, Tomomi Kimura, Takako Nemoto, Masamichi Sato, Hiroshi Nakano, Hiroyoshi Machida, Michiko Nishiwaki, Maki Kobayashi, Sujeong Yang, Yukihiro Minegishi, Kodai Furuyama, Tomoka Yamamoto, Tetsu Watanabe, Tsuneo Konta, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Takeo Kato, Takamasa Kayama, Isao Kubota
BACKGROUND: Few studies are available regarding the annual decline of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with mild airflow obstruction. This study sought to clarify to what extent cigarette-smoking individuals with mild airflow obstruction lose pulmonary function annually. METHODS: From 2004 to 2006, pulmonary function tests were performed on people >40 years of age, during the annual health checkup held in Takahata, Yamagata, Japan (initial study population, n=3253)...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
David Chi-Leung Lam, Hoi-Hin Kwok, Wai-Cho Yu, Fanny Wai-San Ko, Cheuk-Yin Tam, Arthur Chun-Wing Lau, Daniel Yee-Tak Fong, Mary Sau-Man Ip
BACKGROUND: Club cell protein-16 (CC16) expression has been associated with smoking-related lung function decline. The study hypothesis was that CC16 expression in both serum and bronchial epithelium is associated with lung function decline in smokers, and exposure to cigarette smoke will lead to reduction in CC16 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: In a cohort of community-based male Chinese subjects recruited for lung function test in 2000, we reassessed their lung function ten years later and measured serum levels of CC16...
March 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Huanhuan Hu, Naoko Sasaki, Takayuki Ogasawara, Satsue Nagahama, Shamima Akter, Keisuke Kuwahara, Takeshi Kochi, Masafumi Eguchi, Ikuko Kashino, Taizo Murakami, Makiko Shimizu, Akihiko Uehara, Makoto Yamamoto, Tohru Nakagawa, Toru Honda, Shuichiro Yamamoto, Ai Hori, Chihiro Nishiura, Hiroko Okazaki, Teppei Imai, Akiko Nishihara, Toshiaki Miyamoto, Kentaro Tomita, Isamu Kabe, Tetsuya Mizoue, Naoki Kunugita, Seitaro Dohi
Introduction: We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. Methods: The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss...
March 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Georges J Nahas, Marc C Willemsen, Richard J O'Connor, Ron Borland, Alexander A Hirsch, Warren K Bickel, Matthew J Carpenter
Introduction: The demand for alternative nicotine/tobacco products is not well established. This paper uses a behavioral economic approach to test whether smokers have differential demand for conventional factory-made, electronic, and very low nicotine content cigarettes (FMCs/ECs/VLNCs) and uses the prospective cohort design to test the predictive validity of demand indices on subsequent use of commercially available FMCs and ECs. Methods: Daily smokers (>16 years) from the Netherlands completed an online survey in April 2014 (N=1215)...
March 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Ying Hu, Zhonghai Fang, Yichen Yang, Ting Fan, Ju Wang
Nicotine dependence is the primary addictive stage of cigarette smoking. Although a lot of studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying nicotine dependence, our understanding on this disorder is still far from complete. Over the past decades, an increasing number of candidate genes involved in nicotine dependence have been identified by different technical approaches, including the genetic association analysis. In this study, we performed a comprehensive collection of candidate genes reported to be genetically associated with nicotine dependence...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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