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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161526/individualism-collectivism-social-self-control-and-adolescent-substance-use-and-risky-sexual-behavior
#1
Pallav Pokhrel, Brooke L Bennett, Sakshi Regmi, Bulat Idrisov, Artur Galimov, Leila Akhmadeeva, Steve Sussman
Individualism and collectivism are cultural syndromes that have been associated with adolescent problem behavior in studies conducted in the U.S. and Southeast Asia. However, research investigating the mechanisms of how cultural orientation impacts health risk behaviors has been limited. This study tested a new model explaining the relationship between cultural orientation (i.e., individualism, collectivism) and adolescent problem behavior (i.e., substance use and risky sex) in terms of interpersonal self-regulation (i...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161504/solvent-and-temperature-effects-on-free-radical-formation-in-electronic-cigarette-aerosols
#2
Zachary T Bitzer, Reema Goel, Samantha M Reilly, Jonathan Foulds, Joshua Muscat, Ryan J Elias, John P Richie
The ever-evolving market of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) presents a challenge for analyzing and characterizing the harmful products they can produce. Earlier we reported that e-cigarette aerosols can deliver high levels of reactive free radicals; however, there is little data characterizing the production of these potentially harmful oxidants. Thus, we have performed a detailed analysis of the different parameters affecting free radical production from e-cigarettes. Using a temperature controlled e-cigarette device and novel mechanism for reliably simulating e-cigarette usage conditions including coil activation and puff flow, we analyzed the effects of temperature, wattage, and e-liquid solvent composition of propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GLY) on radical production...
November 21, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161446/microglia-activation-and-gene-expression-alteration-of-neurotrophins-in-the-hippocampus-following-early-life-exposure-to-e-cigarette-aerosols-in-a-murine-model
#3
Judith T Zelikoff, Nancy Parmalee, Kevin Corbett, Terry Gordon, Catherine B Klein, Michael Aschner
Recent epidemiological data indicate that the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and consequently nicotine use, is rising in both adolescent and adult populations. As nicotine is a known developmental neurotoxin, these products present a potential threat for those exposed during early life stages. Despite this, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of e-cigarettes on the developing central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study was to assess neurotoxicity resulting from early life exposure to electronic cigarette aerosols in an in vivo model...
November 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161091/dealing-with-stress-defective-metabolic-adaptation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-pathogenesis
#4
Charalambos Michaeloudes, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Sharon Mumby, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
The mitochondrion is the main site of energy production and a hub of key signaling pathways. It is also central in stress-adaptive response due to its dynamic morphology and ability to interact with other organelles. In response to stress, mitochondria fuse into networks to increase bioenergetic efficiency and protect against oxidative damage. Mitochondrial damage triggers segregation of damaged mitochondria from the mitochondrial network through fission and their proteolytic degradation by mitophagy. Post-translational modifications of the mitochondrial proteome and nuclear cross-talk lead to reprogramming of metabolic gene expression to maintain energy production and redox balance...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161058/trends-in-daily-cannabis-use-among-cigarette-smokers-united-states-2002-2014
#5
Renee D Goodwin, Lauren R Pacek, Jan Copeland, Scott J Moeller, Lisa Dierker, Andrea Weinberger, Misato Gbedemah, Michael J Zvolensky, Melanie M Wall, Deborah S Hasin
OBJECTIVES: To estimate changes in the prevalence of daily cannabis use among current, former, and never cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2014 in the United States. METHODS: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is a nationally representative cross-sectional study conducted annually among persons aged 12 years and older in the United States. RESULTS: Daily cannabis use occurs nearly exclusively among nondaily and daily cigarette smokers compared with former and never smokers (8...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161057/e-cigarettes-mucus-measurements-make-marks
#6
Christopher M Evans, Burton F Dickey, David A Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160903/smoking-cessation-leads-to-changes-in-survivin-expression-in-oral-mucosa
#7
Celina Faig Lima, Erica Crastechini, Nathalia Curto Dos Santos, Ana Carolina Prado Ribeiro, Thais Bianca Brandão, Félix Cristiano Ferreira de Castro, Jaqueline Scholz Issa, Janete Dias Almeida
BACKGROUND: Survivin is an inhibitor protein of apoptosis and play a role in oral carcinogenesis mechanism. METHODS: This aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking in survivin expression of oral mucosa of chronic smokers with and without oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study was composed of three groups: Group 1 - 26 patients smoking more than 20 cigarettes/day/10 years without either history of oral malignant neoplasia or visible clinical signs in the examined site; Group 2 - 26 patients with OSCC; Group 3 - 22 patients surgically treated for OSCC for at least 1 month...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160902/proportion-and-number-of-cancer-cases-and-deaths-attributable-to-potentially-modifiable-risk-factors-in-the-united-states
#8
Farhad Islami, Ann Goding Sauer, Kimberly D Miller, Rebecca L Siegel, Stacey A Fedewa, Eric J Jacobs, Marjorie L McCullough, Alpa V Patel, Jiemin Ma, Isabelle Soerjomataram, W Dana Flanders, Otis W Brawley, Susan M Gapstur, Ahmedin Jemal
Contemporary information on the fraction of cancers that potentially could be prevented is useful for priority setting in cancer prevention and control. Herein, the authors estimate the proportion and number of invasive cancer cases and deaths, overall (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers) and for 26 cancer types, in adults aged 30 years and older in the United States in 2014, that were attributable to major, potentially modifiable exposures (cigarette smoking; secondhand smoke; excess body weight; alcohol intake; consumption of red and processed meat; low consumption of fruits/vegetables, dietary fiber, and dietary calcium; physical inactivity; ultraviolet radiation; and 6 cancer-associated infections)...
November 21, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159862/mass-media-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-adults
#9
REVIEW
Malgorzata M Bala, Lukasz Strzeszynski, Roman Topor-Madry
BACKGROUND: Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158705/melatonin-attenuates-thiocyanate-induced-vasoconstriction-in-aortic-rings
#10
Alexander M Prusa, Christian A Plass
Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN(-)) arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN(-) levels are increased...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158044/chemical-analysis-and-in-vitro-toxicological-evaluation-of-aerosol-from-a-novel-tobacco-vapor-product-a-comparison-with-cigarette-smoke
#11
Yasunori Takahashi, Yuki Kanemaru, Toshiro Fukushima, Kentaro Eguchi, Shinya Yoshida, Jacqueline Miller-Holt, Ian Jones
The recent rapid increase in the prevalence of emerging tobacco- and nicotine-containing products, such as e-cigarettes, is being driven in part by their reduced-risk potential compared to tobacco smoking. In this study, we examined emission levels for selected cigarette smoke constituents, so-called "Hoffmann analytes", and in vitro toxicity of aerosol from a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). The NTV thermally vaporizes a nicotine-free carrier liquid to form an aerosol which then passes through tobacco, where it absorbs tobacco-derived flavors and nicotine...
November 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156752/early-and-late-effects-of-aspirin-and-naproxen-on-micrornas-in-the-lung-and-blood-of-mice-either-unexposed-or-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke
#12
Alberto Izzotti, Roumen Balansky, Gancho Ganchev, Marietta Iltcheva, Mariagrazia Longobardi, Alessandra Pulliero, Anna Camoirano, Francesco D'Agostini, Marta Geretto, Rosanna T Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Mark Steven Miller, Vernon E Steele, Silvio De Flora
We recently showed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are able to inhibit the lung tumors induced by cigarette smoke, either mainstream (MCS) or environmental (ECS), in female mice. We used subsets of mice to analyze the expression of 1135 microRNAs in both lung and blood serum, as related to the whole-body exposure to smoke and/or oral administration of either aspirin or naproxen. In a first study, we evaluated early microRNA alterations in A/J mice exposed to ECS for 10 weeks, starting at birth, and/or treated with NSAIDs for 6 weeks, starting after weaning...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156622/advanced-glycation-end-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-psoriasis
#13
REVIEW
Anastasia Papagrigoraki, Martina Maurelli, Micol Del Giglio, Paolo Gisondi, Giampiero Girolomoni
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are extremely oxidant and biologically reactive compounds, which form through oxidation of sugars, lipids and amino acids to create aldehydes that bind covalently to proteins. AGEs formation and accumulation in human tissues is a physiological process during ageing but it is enhanced in case of persistent hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative or carbonyl stress, which are common in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Exogenous AGEs may derive from foods, UV irradiation and cigarette smoking...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156550/can-youthful-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-wharton-s-jelly-bring-a-breath-of-fresh-air-for-copd
#14
REVIEW
Andrzej M Janczewski, Joanna Wojtkiewicz, Ewa Malinowska, Anna Doboszyńska
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global cause of morbidity and mortality, projected to become the 3rd cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. COPD is characterized by persistent and not fully reversible airflow limitation that is usually progressive and is associated with an abnormal chronic inflammatory response of the lung to noxious agents including cigarette smoke. Currently available therapeutic strategies aim to ease COPD symptoms but cannot prevent its progress or regenerate physiological lung structure or function...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156451/impact-of-stressful-life-events-on-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#15
Tsung Yu, Anja Frei, Gerben Ter Riet, Milo A Puhan
BACKGROUND: There is a general notion that stressful life events may cause mental and physical health problems. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe stressful life events reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to assess their impact on health outcomes and behaviors. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six primary care patients who participated in the ICE COLD ERIC cohort study were asked to document any stressful life events in the past 3 years...
November 1, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156356/limax-extract-ameliorates-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-mice
#16
Xue Liang, Jian Wang, Ruijuan Guan, Li Zhao, Defu Li, Zhen Long, Qian Yang, Jingyi Xu, Ziyi Wang, Jinkui Xie, Wenju Lu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive and lethal lung disease with few treatments. Limax, a mollusk with lung, has been widely used to control phlegm and cough in China, yet whether Limax has a positive effect on COPD is unknown. This study investigated the effects of water-soluble extract from Limax on COPD development and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that Limax extract improved lung function, relieved emphysema and suppressed the inflammation in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by diminished release of IL-6, KC, TNF-α, IFN-γ, Muc5AC, IL-17 and diminished mRNA expression of Muc5B...
November 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156063/traumatic-ruptured-globe-from-a-22-cartridge-casing-in-a-2-year-old-girl
#17
Jacob S Martin, Devasis N Reddy, Heather A D Potter, Cat N Burkat
The authors report the case of a 2-year-old girl who presented with an acute ruptured globe secondary to penetration by the casing of a .22 caliber cartridge that was ignited by a car cigarette lighter. Although penetrating injuries are a common mechanism of ocular trauma, open globe induced by cartridge casing represents an unusual and preventable cause. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e88-e90.].
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154797/caryophyllane-sesquiterpenes-inhibit-dna-damage-by-tobacco-smoke-in-bacterial-and-mammalian-cells
#18
Silvia Di Giacomo, Lorena Abete, Rossana Cocchiola, Gabriela Mazzanti, Margherita Eufemi, Antonella Di Sotto
In the present study, the ability of the natural sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (CRY) and its metabolite β-caryophyllene oxide (CRYO) to inhibit the genotoxicity of a condensate of cigarette smoke (CSC) was evaluated both in bacterial and mammalian cells. Also, the inhibition of the CSCmediated STAT3 phosphorylation and intracellular oxidative stress was evaluated as potential chemopreventive mechanism. Under our experimental conditions, both the sesquiterpenes exhibited antimutagenic properties, being CRY the most potent compound...
November 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154602/how-do-tobacco-power-walls-influence-adolescents-a-study-of-mediating-mechanisms
#19
Claude M Setodji, Steven C Martino, Min Gong, Michael S Dunbar, Daniela Kusuke, Angela Sicker, William G Shadel
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco power walls display hundreds of tobacco products and are known to be a key part of the impact of point-of-sale tobacco advertising on risk for smoking in adolescents. The current study examined factors that are hypothesized to mediate the effect of tobacco power wall exposure on adolescents' susceptibility for smoking in the future. METHOD: Participants (N = 148) aged 11-17 years were invited to shop in the RAND StoreLab, a life-sized replica of a convenience store...
November 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154552/does-shyness-interact-with-peer-group-affiliation-in-predicting-substance-use-in-adolescence
#20
Alexandre Lemyre, Natalia Poliakova, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Michel Boivin, Richard E Bélanger
Cigarette use and binge drinking are risky behaviors emerging during adolescence. Although many beneficial factors are well documented, studies linking shyness to substance use are somehow conflicting, which may be due to the contribution of moderators. Therefore, the present study has 2 objectives: (a) to prospectively analyze the association between shyness and substance use during adolescence, and (b) to test the moderating role of peer group affiliation on the relationship between shyness and substance use...
November 20, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
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