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Organic chemistry*

Kathia Sandoval, Yan Ding, Piero Gardinali
Comprehensive characterization of exposure media used in toxicology studies is still an area of significant divergence when evaluating potential oil spill impacts. When preparing exposure media used for toxicology testing, small variations in simple parameters such as mixing energy, oil type and loading can significantly affect the concentration of the oil components to which test organisms are exposed. The key goal of this study was compare and contrast the physical and chemical compositions of oil water mixtures prepared using fresh and weathered Macondo-related oils under different conditions of mixing and in the presence/absence of chemical dispersants...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Heitor F N de Oliveira, Matthew T Clough, Roberto Rinaldi
Organic electrolyte solutions (OES)-binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL) with a neutral polar aprotic co-solvent-are being recognized as excellent candidate solvents for the dissolution, derivatization, and sustainable processing of cellulose. These solutions exhibit the beneficially combined properties of rapid-to-instantaneous cellulose dissolution, raised thermal stability, and reduced viscosity, compared to cellulose solutions in the parent ILs. Herein, we report the reversible, thermally triggered phase separation of cellulose solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Xiaolei Ji, Hanmin Huang
1,3-Diamines not only are significant motifs in natural products, but also serve as building blocks in synthetic organic chemistry. However, unlike their 1,2-diamine counterparts, limited efforts have been devoted to the development of an effective synthetic approach to 1,3-diamines. In this review, the synthetic methods for the preparation of 1,3-diamines are summarized.
October 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Athanasios Athanasiadis, Clare Fitzgerald, Nicholas M Davidson, Chiara Giorio, Stanley W Botchway, Andrew D Ward, Markus Kalberer, Francis D Pope, Marina K Kuimova
Organic aerosols (OAs) play important roles in multiple atmospheric processes, including climate change, and can impact human health. The physico-chemical properties of OAs are important for all these processes and can evolve through reactions with various atmospheric components, including oxidants. The dynamic nature of these reactions makes it challenging to obtain a true representation of their composition and surface chemistry. Here we investigate the microscopic viscosity of the model OA composed of squalene, undergoing chemical aging...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
K E Hargan, N Michelutti, K Coleman, C Grooms, J M Blais, L E Kimpe, G Gilchrist, M Mallory, J P Smol
Seabirds that congregate in large numbers during the breeding season concentrate marine-derived nutrients to their terrestrial nesting sites, and these nutrients disperse and enhance production in nearby terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the Canadian Arctic, large seabird colonies (>100,000 breeding pairs) nest on cliff faces that drain directly in the ocean, ultimately returning the nutrients back to the marine environment from which they were derived. However, strong winds blowing up cliff faces could transport nutrients up in elevation and onto surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Thomas W Ebbesen
The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions...
October 25, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Cosimo Annese, Lucia D'Accolti, Caterina Fusco, Giulia Licini, Cristiano Zonta
Dioxiranes are powerful oxidants that can act via two different mechanisms: i) homolytic (H abstraction and oxygen rebound) and ii) heterolytic (electrophilic oxidation). So far, it has been reported that the nature of substrate dictates the reaction mode, independently from the dioxirane employed. We report herein an unprecedented case in which the nature of the dioxirane rules the oxidation chemoselectivity. In particular, a switch from C-H to N-H oxidation is observed in the oxidation of lactams moving from dimethyl dioxirane (DDO) to methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane (TFDO)...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
José J Baldoví, Yan Duan, Carlos Bustos, Salvador Cardona-Serra, Pierre Gouzerh, Richard Villanneau, Geoffrey Gontard, Juan M Clemente-Juan, Alejandro Gaita-Ariño, Carlos Giménez-Saiz, Anna Proust, Eugenio Coronado
Polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry has recently offered excellent examples of single ion magnets (SIMs) and molecular spin qubits. Compared with conventional coordination compounds, POMs provide rigid and highly symmetric coordination sites. However, all POM-based SIMs reported to date exhibit a very limited range of possibilities for chemical processability. We present herein two new families of POM-based SIMs which are soluble in organic solvents: [Ln(β-Mo8O26)2](5-) {Ln(III) = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb} and the functionalised POMs [Ln{Mo5O13(OMe)4NNC6H4-p-NO2}2](3-) {Ln(III) = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Nd}...
October 25, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Garold Murdachaew, Gilbert M Nathanson, R Benny Gerber, Lauri Halonen
Deprotonation of organic acids at aqueous surfaces has important implications in atmospheric chemistry and other disciplines, yet it is not well-characterized or understood. This article explores the interactions of formic acid (FA), including ionization, in collisions at the air-water interface. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with dispersion-corrected density functional theory were used. The 8-50 picosecond duration trajectories all resulted in the adsorption of FA within the interfacial region, with no scattering, absorption into the bulk or desorption into the vapor...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Giorgio Mirri, Daniël C Schoenmakers, Paul H J Kouwer, Peter Veranič, Igor Muševič, Bogdan Štefane
Fluorescent materials are widely used in biological and material applications as probes for imaging or sensing; however, their customization is usually complicated without the support of an organic chemistry laboratory. Here, we present a straightforward method for the customization of BODIPY cores, which are among the most commonly used fluorescent probes. The method is based on the formation of a new C-C bond through Friedel-Crafts electrophilic aromatic substitution carried out at room temperature. The method presented can be used to obtain completely customized fluorescent materials in one or two steps from commercially available compounds...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Meghan L M Fuzzen, Leslie M Bragg, Gerald R Tetreault, Paulina A Bahamonde, Rajiv N Tanna, Charles J Bennett, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos
Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years...
2016: PloS One
Wan-Yi Li, Xia Li, Steffen Jockusch, Han Wang, Bolei Xu, Yajing Wu, William Gang Tsui, Hai-Lung Dai, V Faye McNeill, Yi Rao
Photoactivated reactions of organic species in atmospheric aerosol particles are a potentially significant source of secondary organic aerosol material (SOA). Despite recent progress, the dominant chemical mechanisms and rates of these reactions remain largely unknown. In this work, we characterize the photo-physical properties and photochemical reaction mechanisms of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) in aqueous solution, alone and in the presence of isoprene. IC has been shown previously in laboratory studies to participate in photoactivated chemistry in aerosols, and is a known in-particle reaction product of glyoxal...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Maura Marinozzi, Fabrizio Pertusati, Michaela Serpi
The compounds characterized by the presence of a λ(5)-phosphorus functionality at the α-position with respect to the diazo moiety, here referred to as λ(5)-phosphorus-containing α-diazo compounds (PCDCs), represent a vast class of extremely versatile reagents in organic chemistry and are particularly useful in the preparation of phosphonate- and phosphinoxide-functionalized molecules. Indeed, thanks to the high reactivity of the diazo moiety, PCDCs can be induced to undergo a wide variety of chemical transformations...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Yan Qu, Qiu Gen Zhang, Faizal Soyekwo, Run Sheng Gao, Rui Xue Lv, Chen Xiao Lin, Meng Meng Chen, Ai Mei Zhu, Qing Lin Liu
Two-dimensional nanosheets of late show great promise as novel materials for size-selective separation membranes of high efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate a novel laminated nanofiltration membrane for fast water purification and organic solvent nanofiltration using the 1 nm-thick and 50 nm-wide nickel hydroxide nanosheets that are facilely prepared by a green chemistry method. The resulting membranes exhibit uniform and flectional two-dimensional laminated structure. With about 1 nm high laminated channels, they allow super-fast transport of water and organic solvents...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Emilie Evain-Bana, Lucie Schiavo, Christophe Bour, Don Antoine Lanfranchi, Simone Berardozzi, Francesca Ghirga, Denyse Bagrel, Bruno Botta, Gilles Hanquet, Mattia Mori
The cell division cycle 25 phosphatases (CDC25A, B, and C; E.C. are key regulator of the cell cycle in human cells. Their aberrant expression has been associated with the insurgence and development of various types of cancer, and with a poor clinical prognosis. Therefore, CDC25 phosphatases are a valuable target for the development of small molecule inhibitors of therapeutic relevance. Here, we used an integrated strategy mixing organic chemistry with biological investigation and molecular modeling to study novel quinonoid derivatives as CDC25 inhibitors...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Dawei Xu, Qian Ran, Yang Xiang, Jiang Linhai, Britannia M Smith, Fadi Bou-Abdallah, Reidar Lund, Zhongjun Li, He Dong
A significant challenge associated with systemic delivery of cationic antimicrobial peptides and polymers lies in their limited hemocompatibility toward vast numbers of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Supramolecular assembly of cationic peptides and polymers can be an effective strategy to develop an array of antimicrobial nanomaterials with tunable material structures, stability and thus optimized bioactivity to overcome some of the existing challenges associated with conventional antimicrobials. In this work, we will demonstrate the supramolecular design of self-assembling antimicrobial nanofibers (SAANs) which have tunable supramolecular nanostructures, stability, internal molecular packing and surface chemistry through self-assembly of de novo designed cationic peptides and peptide-PEG conjuguates...
2016: RSC Advances
Yu-Huei Peng, Yi-Chun Tsai, Chia-En Hsiung, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Yang-Hsin Shih
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used nanomaterials and their environmental impacts have received increasing attention. The fate and toxicity of ZnO NPs in the environment are determined by their stability and dissolution. In this study, the influence of water chemistry on aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of ZnO NPs was investigated. The stabilized ZnO NPs aggregated and precipitated when the aqueous pH closed to their zero point of charge (pHzpc). Counter-ions neutralized the surface charge of NPs and promoted their destabilization...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hong Chen Guo, Enyi Ye, Zibiao Li, Ming-Yong Han, Xian Jun Loh
As a very promising surface coating technology, atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to modify the surfaces of polymeric materials for improving their functions and expanding their application areas. Polymeric materials vary in surface functional groups (number and type), surface morphology and internal structure, and thus ALD deposition conditions that typically work on a normal solid surface, usually do not work on a polymeric material surface. To date, a large variety of research has been carried out to investigate ALD deposition on various polymeric materials...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Awais Shakoor, Muhammad Abdullah, Balal Yousaf, Amina, Youhua Ma
Nitric oxide (NO) is an intra- and intercellular gaseous signaling molecule with a broad spectrum of regulatory functions in biological system. Its emissions are produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources; however, soils are among the most important sources of NO. Nitric oxide plays a decisive role in environmental-atmospheric chemistry by controlling the tropospheric photochemical production of ozone and regulates formation of various oxidizing agents such as hydroxyl radical (OH), which contributes to the formation of acid of precipitates...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bubun Banerjee
Heterocycles are the backbone of organic compounds. Specially, N- &O-containing heterocycles represent privileged structural subunits well distributed in naturally occurring compounds with immense biological activities. Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are becoming valuable tool for synthesizing structurally diverse molecular entities. On the other hand, the last decade has seen a tremendous outburst in modifying chemical processes to make them sustainable for the betterment of our environment. The application of ultrasound in organic synthesis is fulfilling some of the goals of 'green and sustainable chemistry' as it has some advantages over the traditional thermal methods in terms of reaction rates, yields, purity of the products, product selectivity, etc...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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