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Organic chemistry*

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340417/interfacial-interactions-between-skeletonema-costatum-extracellular-organic-matter-and-metal-oxides-implications-for-ceramic-membrane-filtration
#1
Noor Zaouri, Leonardo Gutierrez, Laure Dramas, Daniel Garces, Jean-Philippe Croue
In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms...
March 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339123/desolution-of-cd-and-cb-macrocycles
#2
Jade A McCune, Susanna Kunz, Magdalena Olesińska, Oren A Scherman
Supramolecular chemistry utilizing the macrocyclic hosts cyclodextrins (CDs) and cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]s) is traditionally carried out in aqueous media, however, their solubility is typically poor, especially the family of cucurbit[n]urils. Through derivitization of these macrocycles their solubility can be augmented to enable enhanced solubility in water and in some organic solvents. The increase in solubility of these derivitized macrocycles allows for their use in a wider range of chemical environments and giving rise to myriad potential applications...
March 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337906/fates-of-chemical-elements-in-biomass-during-its-pyrolysis
#3
Wu-Jun Liu, Wen-Wei Li, Hong Jiang, Han-Qing Yu
Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337844/synthesis-of-complex-phenols-enabled-by-a-rationally-designed-hydroxide-surrogate
#4
Patrick S Fier, Kevin M Maloney
The conversion of aryl halides to phenols under mild reaction conditions is a longstanding and formidable challenge in organic chemistry. Herein, we report the rational design of a broadly applicable Pd-catalyzed method to prepare phenols with benzaldehyde oxime as a hydroxide surrogate. These reactions occur under mildly basic conditions and enable the late-stage hydroxylation of several functionally-dense drug-like aryl halides.
March 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336891/nanocellulose-based-materials-for-water-purification
#5
REVIEW
Hugo Voisin, Lennart Bergström, Peng Liu, Aji P Mathew
Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present-in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed...
March 5, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335962/combining-anova-pca-with-pochemon-to-analyse-micro-organism-development-in-a-polymicrobial-environment
#6
Brigitte P Geurts, Anne H Neerincx, Samuel Bertrand, Manja A A P Leemans, Geert J Postma, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Simona M Cristescu, Lutgarde M C Buydens, Jeroen J Jansen
Revealing the biochemistry associated to micro-organismal interspecies interactions is highly relevant for many purposes. Each pathogen has a characteristic metabolic fingerprint that allows identification based on their unique multivariate biochemistry. When pathogen species come into mutual contact, their co-culture will display a chemistry that may be attributed both to mixing of the characteristic chemistries of the mono-cultures and to competition between the pathogens. Therefore, investigating pathogen development in a polymicrobial environment requires dedicated chemometric methods to untangle and focus upon these sources of variation...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335772/production-of-s-2-aminobutyric-acid-and-s-2-aminobutanol-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Nora Weber, Anaëlle Hatsch, Ludivine Labagnere, Harald Heider
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) has great potential as a whole-cell biocatalyst for multistep synthesis of various organic molecules. To date, however, few examples exist in the literature of the successful biosynthetic production of chemical compounds, in yeast, that do not exist in nature. Considering that more than 30% of all drugs on the market are purely chemical compounds, often produced by harsh synthetic chemistry or with very low yields, novel and environmentally sound production routes are highly desirable...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335417/dna-sequencing-sensors-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Jose Antonio Garrido-Cardenas, Federico Garcia-Maroto, Jose Antonio Alvarez-Bermejo, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro
The first sequencing of a complete genome was published forty years ago by the double Nobel Prize in Chemistry winner Frederick Sanger. That corresponded to the small sized genome of a bacteriophage, but since then there have been many complex organisms whose DNA have been sequenced. This was possible thanks to continuous advances in the fields of biochemistry and molecular genetics, but also in other areas such as nanotechnology and computing. Nowadays, sequencing sensors based on genetic material have little to do with those used by Sanger...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334528/why-prodrugs-and-propesticides-succeed
#9
John E Casida
What are the advantages of bioactivation in optimizing drugs and pesticides? Why are there so many prodrugs and propesticides? These questions are examined here by considering compounds selected on the basis of economic value or market success. The 100 major drugs and 90 major pesticides are divided into ones acting directly and those definitely or possibly requiring bioactivation. Established or candidate prodrugs accounted for 19% of the total drug sales with corresponding values of 20, 37 and 17% for proinsecticides, proherbicides and profungicides...
March 23, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333661/does-your-drug-expertise-include-clinical-pharmaceutics
#10
David W Newton
Whose job is it to protect patients from harm from drug instabilities and incompatibilities and other aspects of clinical pharmaceutics? Pharmacists are better educated via multiple required general and organic chemistry prerequisite and professional curricula medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics courses. Therefore, no healthcare professional other than pharmacists are nicknamed drug experts or are better formally educated to master drug chemistry in the bottle (i.e., injection stability and compatibility/incompatibility clinical pharmaceutics) as a prerequisite for drug administration to cause safe and effective drug chemistry in the body (i...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332695/outstanding-reviewers-for-organic-biomolecular-chemistry-in-2016
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328220/shock-wave-chemistry-in-a-metal-organic-framework
#12
Zhi Su, William L Shaw, Yu-Run Miao, Sizhu You, Dana D Dlott, Kenneth S Suslick
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have potential applications as energy absorbing materials for shock wave energy mitigation due to their nanoporosity. Here we have examined km/s laser-driven flyer plate impacts on a prototypical MOF, ZIF-8. We observed particle fragmentation and morphological changes in microcrystals of ZIF-8 at lower shock pressures (≈2.5 GPa), and amorphization and structural collapse at higher pressures (≈8 GPa). High-speed emission spectroscopy revealed that 50 ns after flyer plate impacts, an emission pulse was generated by ZIF-8 resulting from chemical bonds that were broken and subsequently reformed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327976/minion%C3%A2-nanopore-sequencing-of-environmental-metagenomes-a-synthetic-approach
#13
Bonnie L Brown, Mick Watson, Samuel S Minot, Maria C Rivera, Rima B Franklin
Background: Environmental metagenomic analysis is typically accomplished by assigning taxonomy and/or function from whole genome sequencing (WGS) or 16S amplicon sequences. Both of these approaches are limited, however, by read length, among other technical and biological factors. A nanopore-based sequencing platform, MinION™, produces reads that are ≥1×10 4 bp in length, potentially providing for more precise assignment, thereby alleviating some of the limitations inherent in determining metagenome composition from short reads...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327642/surface-chemistry-of-rare-earth-oxide-surfaces-at-ambient-conditions-reactions-with-water-and-hydrocarbons
#14
Elçin Külah, Laurent Marot, Roland Steiner, Andriy Romanyuk, Thomas A Jung, Aneliia Wäckerlin, Ernst Meyer
Rare-earth (RE) oxide surfaces are of significant importance for catalysis and were recently reported to possess intrinsic hydrophobicity. The surface chemistry of these oxides in the low temperature regime, however, remains to a large extent unexplored. The reactions occurring at RE surfaces at room temperature (RT) in real air environment, in particular, in presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were not addressed until now. Discovering these reactions would shed light onto intermediate steps occurring in automotive exhaust catalysts before reaching the final high operational temperature and full conversion of organics...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325940/one-pot-synthesis-of-four-coordinate-boron-iii-complexes-by-the-ligand-promoted-organic-group-migration-between-boronic-acids
#15
Venkata S Sadu, Hye-Rin Bin, Do-Min Lee, Kee-In Lee
Multidisciplinary applications of four-coordinate boron(III) complexes make them very attractive and challenging research field in chemistry, biology and material sciences. The dual role played by boron atom in stabilising the chelate ligand and enhancing the π-conjugation makes them very useful as luminescent materials for organic electronics and photonics, and sensing and imaging probes for biomedical purposes. The conventional methods involve the use of diarylborinic acids or anhydrides and triaryl boranes, which are made from organometallic reagents...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325223/interaction-of-homeopathic-potencies-with-the-water-soluble-solvatochromic-dye-bis-dimethylaminofuchsone-part-1-ph-studies
#16
Steven J Cartwright
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of solvatochromic dyes for investigating the physical chemistry of homeopathic potencies. RESULTS: Following examination of this class of dyes in organic solvents, results obtained using the positively solvatochromic dye Bis-dimethylaminofuchsone (BDF) in aqueous solution are now reported. Spectral changes observed with this dye in the presence of potencies are both substantial and reproducible. Studies across a wide range of pH values reveal an unusual pH dependence for the dye's interaction with homeopathic potencies...
February 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322893/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-safety-evaluation-of-nephure%C3%A2
#17
Helena Cowley, Qin Yan, Lee Koetzner, Laurie Dolan, Erik Nordwald, Aaron B Cowley
Nephure™ is a proprietary oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) enzyme being developed as a food ingredient. In this study, the safety of Nephure™ was evaluated in a bacterial mutagenicity assay and in a sub-chronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats. Nephure™ did not show any mutagenic properties in the mutagenicity assay. In the 13-week sub-chronic oral toxicity study in which 10 Sprague Dawley rats per sex were administered 0, 118, 235 and 475 mg/kg bw/day (8260, 16450 and 33,250 Units/kg bw/day, respectively) of Nephure™ by gavage, male and female rats did not show any test article-related clinical observations or effects on body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, ophthalmology, functional observational battery parameters or motor activity...
March 18, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322061/potential-biomarkers-for-monitoring-the-toxicity-of-long-term-exposure-to-atrazine-in-rat-by-metabonomic-analysis
#18
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Chong-Hua Zhang, Jing Zheng, Long-Xue Li, Tian-Qi Geng, Yang Zhang
1. Herbicide atrazine (ATR) poses harmful effects on human health. The purpose of this study is to study potential biomarkers used for monitoring the toxic effects after chronic exposure to ATR by studying urine metabolites. 2. Rats were assigned into clinical chemistry and metabonomics arms, and each arm was divided into low-dose, high-dose and control groups. ATR was administered to rats along with their feed. At the end of 16, 20 and 24 weeks, clinical parameters and histopathologic changes was assessed to monitor the toxic effects...
March 21, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320294/solid-gas-biocatalysis
#19
REVIEW
L M Kulishova, D O Zharkov
Solid/gas biocatalysis is a nontraditional reaction system that employs the ability of some enzymes, being in the solid state, to catalyze reactions of substrates in the gas phase. Manipulation of the reaction parameters (temperature and pressure) in the solid/gas system allows precise control over the thermodynamic activity of water and substrate and creation of a controlled microenvironment for the enzyme, making it an appropriate model for enzymology studies. Owing to such advantages as high stability of dry enzymes and cofactors and easy fractionation of gas mixtures, solid/gas biotechnology has already found several industrial applications...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320221/rice-or-pork-based-diets-with-similar-calorie-and-content-result-in-different-rat-gut-microbiota
#20
Xiaozhe Qi, Wentao Xu, Mingzhang Guo, Siyuan Chen, Yifei Liu, Xiaoyun He, Kunlun Huang
Rice is the most important food crop, and pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of the rats fed with rice or pork mixed diets, which have similar caloric contents. The physiological indices (body weights, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology) of two groups were all within the normal range. Two diets did not induce difference in the diversity of gut bacteria. However, Firmicutes were significantly higher in rice diet group, while Bacteroidetes were enriched in pork diet group...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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