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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535589/water-soluble-organic-aerosols-in-indo-gangetic-plain-igp-insights-from-aerosol-mass-spectrometry
#1
Abhishek Chakraborty, Pradhi Rajeev, Prashant Rajput, Tarun Gupta
Filter samples collected during winter of 2015-16 from two polluted urban locations (Allahabad and Kanpur) residing within Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) showed high levels of water-soluble organic aerosols (WSOA). Total organic aerosols (OA) in submicron fraction, measured at Kanpur in real time via Aerosol Mass Spectrometer also showed substantially high concentration levels. WSOA to OA contribution in Kanpur was found to be very high (around 55%) indicating significant contributions from secondary OA (SOA). On average, WSOA oxidation ratio (O/C) was found to be higher (15-20%) in Kanpur than at Allahabad...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534494/airborne-observations-reveal-elevational-gradient-in-tropical-forest-isoprene-emissions
#2
Dasa Gu, Alex B Guenther, John E Shilling, Haofei Yu, Maoyi Huang, Chun Zhao, Qing Yang, Scot T Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Saewung Kim, Roger Seco, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Karla M Longo, Julio Tóta, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Oscar Vega, Ying Liu, Manish Shrivastava, Eliane G Alves, Fernando C Santos, Guoyong Leng, Zhiyuan Hu
Isoprene dominates global non-methane volatile organic compound emissions, and impacts tropospheric chemistry by influencing oxidants and aerosols. Isoprene emission rates vary over several orders of magnitude for different plants, and characterizing this immense biological chemodiversity is a challenge for estimating isoprene emission from tropical forests. Here we present the isoprene emission estimates from aircraft eddy covariance measurements over the Amazonian forest. We report isoprene emission rates that are three times higher than satellite top-down estimates and 35% higher than model predictions...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533519/ocean-acidification-compromises-a-planktic-calcifier-with-implications-for-global-carbon-cycling
#3
Catherine V Davis, Emily B Rivest, Tessa M Hill, Brian Gaylord, Ann D Russell, Eric Sanford
Anthropogenically-forced changes in ocean chemistry at both the global and regional scale have the potential to negatively impact calcifying plankton, which play a key role in ecosystem functioning and marine carbon cycling. We cultured a globally important calcifying marine plankter (the foraminifer, Globigerina bulloides) under an ecologically relevant range of seawater pH (7.5 to 8.3 total scale). Multiple metrics of calcification and physiological performance varied with pH. At pH > 8.0, increased calcification occurred without a concomitant rise in respiration rates...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532214/how-active-mechanics-and-regulatory-biochemistry-combine-to-form-patterns-in-development
#4
Peter Gross, K Vijay Kumar, Stephan W Grill
The development of organisms starting from their zygotic state involves a tight integration of the myriad biochemical signaling interactions with the mechanical forces that eventually pattern and shape the resulting embryo. In the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that several important developmental processes involve mechanical forces in an essential manner. In this review, we highlight the multifaceted role of mechanics in pattern formation, from protein and cell sorting to the generation of tissue shape...
May 22, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532152/attractive-interactions-between-heteroallenes-and-the-cucurbituril-portal
#5
Ofer Reany, Amanda Li, Maayan Yefet, Michael K Gilson, Ehud Keinan
This study reports on the remarkable attractive interaction between organic azides and the portal carbonyls of cucurbiturils. Five homologous bis-α,ω-azidoethylammonium alkanes were prepared, where the number of methylene groups between the ammonium groups ranges from 4 to 8. Their interactions with cucurbit[6]uril were studied by NMR, IR and X-ray crystallography, and by computational methods. Remarkably, while the distance between the portal plane and most atoms at the guest end groups increase progressively with the molecular size, the β-nitrogen atoms maintain a constant distance from the portal plane in all homologs, pointing at a strong attractive interaction between the azide group and the portal...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531955/influence-of-sediment-chemistry-and-sediment-toxicity-on-macroinvertebrate-communities-across-99-wadable-streams-of-the-midwestern-usa
#6
Patrick W Moran, Lisa H Nowell, Nile E Kemble, Barbara J Mahler, Ian R Waite, Peter C Van Metre
Simultaneous assessment of sediment chemistry, sediment toxicity, and macroinvertebrate communities can provide multiple lines of evidence when investigating relations between sediment contaminants and ecological degradation. These three measures were evaluated at 99 wadable stream sites across 11 states in the Midwestern United States during the summer of 2013 to assess sediment pollution across a large agricultural landscape. This evaluation considers an extensive suite of sediment chemistry totaling 274 analytes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, trace elements, and current-use pesticides) and a mixture assessment based on the ratios of detected compounds to available effects-based benchmarks...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531195/livestock-metabolomics-and-the-livestock-metabolome-a-systematic-review
#7
Seyed Ali Goldansaz, An Chi Guo, Tanvir Sajed, Michael A Steele, Graham S Plastow, David S Wishart
Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry techniques to comprehensively measure large numbers of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. The ability to rapidly detect and quantify hundreds or even thousands of metabolites within a single sample is helping scientists paint a far more complete picture of system-wide metabolism and biology. Metabolomics is also allowing researchers to focus on measuring the end-products of complex, hard-to-decipher genetic, epigenetic and environmental interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530807/computational-studies-of-carboxylate-assisted-c-h-activation-and-functionalization-at-group-8-10-transition-metal-centers
#8
David L Davies, Stuart A Macgregor, Claire L McMullin
Computational studies on carboxylate-assisted C-H activation and functionalization at group 8-10 transition metal centers are reviewed. This Review is organized by metal and will cover work published from late 2009 until mid-2016. A brief overview of computational work prior to 2010 is also provided, and this outlines the understanding of carboxylate-assisted C-H activation in terms of the "ambiphilic metal-ligand assistance" (AMLA) and "concerted metalation deprotonation" (CMD) concepts. Computational studies are then surveyed in terms of the nature of the C-H bond being activated (C(sp(2))-H or C(sp(3))-H), the nature of the process involved (intramolecular with a directing group or intermolecular), and the context (stoichiometric C-H activation or within a variety of catalytic processes)...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530737/new-synthetic-routes-towards-mof-production-at-scale
#9
REVIEW
Marta Rubio-Martinez, Ceren Avci-Camur, Aaron W Thornton, Inhar Imaz, Daniel Maspoch, Matthew R Hill
The potential commercial applications for metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are tantalizing. To address the opportunity, many novel approaches for their synthesis have been developed recently. These strategies present a critical step towards harnessing the myriad of potential applications of MOFs by enabling larger scale production and hence real-world applications. This review provides an up-to-date survey ( references) of the most promising novel synthetic routes, i.e., electrochemical, microwave, mechanochemical, spray drying and flow chemistry synthesis...
May 22, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530197/green-fabricated-cuo-nanobullets-via-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-shows-auspicious-antimicrobial-potential
#10
Qaisar Maqbool, Sidra Iftikhar, Mudassar Nazar, Fazal Abbas, Asif Saleem, Talib Hussain, Rizwan Kausar, Sadaf Anwaar, Nyla Jabeen
In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528626/colloid-particle-formulations-for-antimicrobial-applications
#11
REVIEW
Ahmed F Halbus, Tommy S Horozov, Vesselin N Paunov
Colloidal particles are being extensively studied in various antimicrobial applications due to their small size to volume ratio and ability to exhibit a wide spectrum of antibacterial, antifungal, antialgal and antiviral action. The present review focuses on various nanoparticles (NPs) of inorganic, organic and hybrid materials, and discusses some of the methods for their preparation as well as mechanisms of their antimicrobial action. We consider the antimicrobial applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (ZnO, MgO, CuO, Cu2O, Al2O3, TiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3), metal nanoparticles (NPs), such as copper, silver and gold, metal hydroxide NPs such as Mg(OH)2 as well as hybrid NPs made from biodegradable materials, such as chitosan, lignin and dextran, loaded with other antimicrobial agents...
May 12, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527740/reductions-of-plant-cover-induced-by-sheep-grazing-change-the-above-belowground-partition-and-chemistry-of-organic-c-stocks-in-arid-rangelands-of-patagonian-monte-argentina
#12
C Larreguy, A L Carrera, M B Bertiller
The objective of this study was to estimate the size and chemical quality of the total organic C stock and its partition between above-belowground plant parts and soil at sites with different plant cover induced by sheep grazing in the arid Patagonian Monte. This study was conducted at six representative sites with increasing signs of canopy disturbance attributed to grazing pressure. We used faeces density as a proxy of grazing pressure at each site. We assessed the total plant cover, shrub and perennial grass cover, total standing aboveground biomass (AGB), litter mass and belowground biomass (BGB) at each site...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527428/physicochemical-and-biological-interactions-between-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-and-a-1-8-naphthalimide-derivative
#13
Gerardo Pulido-Reyes, Esperanza Martín, J L Gu Coronado, Francisco Leganes, Roberto Rosal, Francisca Fernández-Piñas
Cerium (Ce) oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have attracted attention due to their high bioactivity and unique redox-chemistry. The oxygen vacancies at the surface of the nanoparticle explain the autocatalytic properties of CNPs in which the Ce(3+) atoms occupy the center of the oxygen vacancies surrounded by Ce(4+) atoms. Until now, CNPs have been associated with organic molecules at the synthesis stage to extend their applications or improve their stability. However, there is a lack of information regarding the post-synthesis interaction of CNPs and organic molecules that could enhance or induce new properties...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526899/electricity-generation-from-real-industrial-wastewater-using-a-single-chamber-air-cathode-microbial-fuel-cell-with-an-activated-carbon-anode
#14
Hend Omar Mohamed, M Obaid, Enas Taha Sayed, Yang Liu, Jinpyo Lee, Mira Park, Nasser A M Barakat, Hak Yong Kim
This study introduces activated carbon (AC) as an effective anode for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using real industrial wastewater without treatment or addition of external microorganism mediators. Inexpensive activated carbon is introduced as a proper electrode alternative to carbon cloth and carbon paper materials, which are considered too expensive for the large-scale application of MFCs. AC has a porous interconnected structure with a high bio-available surface area. The large surface area, in addition to the high macro porosity, facilitates the high performance by reducing electron transfer resistance...
May 19, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526341/preparation-and-characterization-of-amidated-derivatives-of-alginic-acid
#15
Tomáš Taubner, Milan Marounek, Andriy Synytsya
Alginic acid is a suitable material for modification to prepare new derivatives because of presence of its carboxyl groups. The high content of carboxyl groups over the entire length of its chain renders it an easily modifiable material with a possibility of achieving a high degree of substitution in the prepared derivatives. The salt of alginic acid (sodium alginate) is readily commercially available and is widely used in many branches of chemistry. Alginic acid was thus selected as the substrate for amidation...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522334/safety-evaluation-of-chlorella-sorokiniana-strain-ck-22-based-on-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-cytotoxicity-assay-and-a-13-week-subchronic-toxicity-trial-in-rats
#16
Sayaka Himuro, Sugi Ueno, Naoto Noguchi, Takuya Uchikawa, Toshihiro Kanno, Akira Yasutake
The genus Chlorella contains unicellular green algae that have been used as food supplements. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the safety of the Chlorella sorokiniana strain CK-22 using powdered preparation (CK-22P) both by in vitro and in vivo assays. These included an experiment for cytotoxicity using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells) and a 13-week repeated-dose oral toxicity trial using Wistar rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay of a hot water extract (Hw-Ex) and 80% ethanol extract (Et-Ex) of CK-22P, and no effect on cell viability was observed...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522160/complete-genome-of-a-metabolically-diverse-marine-bacterium-shewanella-japonica-kctc-22435-t
#17
Kyung Mo Kim, Hanna Choe, Byung Kwon Kim, Arshan Nasir
Shewanella japonica KCTC 22435(T) is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, mesophilic, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from sea water at the Pacific Institute of Bio-organic Chemistry of the Marine Experimental Station, Troitza Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Russia. Here, we report the complete genome of S. japonica KCTC 22435(T), which consists of 4,975,677bp (G+C content of 40.80%) with a single chromosome, 4036 protein-coding genes, 97 tRNAs and 8 rRNA operons. Genes detected in the genome reveal that the strain possesses a type II secretion system, cytochrome c family proteins with various numbers of heme-binding motifs, and metabolic pathways for utilizing diverse carbon sources, supporting the potential of KCTC 22435(T) to generate electricity in salinity culture conditions...
May 15, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520935/safety-evaluation-of-daidzein-in-laying-hens-effects-on-laying-performance-hatchability-egg-quality-clinical-blood-parameters-and-organ-development
#18
J Lu, L Qu, M M Shen, S M Li, T C Dou, Y P Hu, K H Wang
Daidzein has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement, particularly for postpeak-estrus animals, as a safe and natural alternative estrogen-like compound. However, there is little available safety data of daidzein in laying hens. A study was conducted to examine if high-dose daidzein affected the safety of hens, including mortality, laying performance, egg quality, hematological parameters, clinical chemical parameters, organ development parameters, and hatchability. A total of 2,448 42-wk-old Rugao laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 6 replicates of 102 birds each (612 laying hens per group)...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520407/controlling-configurational-isomerism-in-three-component-colloidal-hybrid-nanoparticles
#19
James M Hodges, Raymond E Schaak
Colloidal hybrid nanoparticles are solution-dispersible constructs that join together multiple distinct nanoscale materials through direct solid-solid interfaces. Given their multifunctionality and synergistic properties that emerge from interfacial coupling, hybrid nanoparticles are of interest for applications in biomedical imaging, solar energy conversion, heterogeneous catalysis, nanophotonics, and beyond. High-order hybrid nanoparticles, which incorporate three or more nanocrystal domains, offer greater tunability and functional diversity relative to one or two-component nanoparticles...
May 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518086/ptr-tof-ms-coupled-with-an-automated-sampling-system-and-tailored-data-analysis-for-food-studies-bioprocess-monitoring-screening-and-nose-space-analysis
#20
Vittorio Capozzi, Sine Yener, Iuliia Khomenko, Brian Farneti, Luca Cappellin, Flavia Gasperi, Matteo Scampicchio, Franco Biasioli
Proton Transfer Reaction (PTR), combined with a Time-of-Flight (ToF) Mass Spectrometer (MS) is an analytical approach based on chemical ionization that belongs to the Direct-Injection Mass Spectrometric (DIMS) technologies. These techniques allow the rapid determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), assuring high sensitivity and accuracy. In general, PTR-MS requires neither sample preparation nor sample destruction, allowing real time and non-invasive analysis of samples. PTR-MS are exploited in many fields, from environmental and atmospheric chemistry to medical and biological sciences...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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