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cancer cell,tumor,immune surveilance

Domenico Ribatti
The immune system plays a major role in the surveillance against tumors. To avoid attack from the immune system, tumor cells develop different strategies to escape immune surveillance. Evidence of immune surveillance comes from both animal models and clinical observations. Mice with a wide variety of immunodeficiencies have a high rate of tumor incidence and are more susceptible to transplanted or chemical carcinogen-induced tumors. Immunosuppressed patients have a high incidence of tumors. However, many patients develop cancer even in the presence of an apparently normal immune system...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Sarah A Weiss, Joseph Han, Farbod Darvishian, Jeremy Tchack, Sung Won Han, Karolina Malecek, Michelle Krogsgaard, Iman Osman, Judy Zhong
BACKGROUND: Age has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for melanoma-specific survival (MSS). We tested the hypothesis that age impacts the host anti-tumor immune response, accounting for age-specific survival outcomes in three unique melanoma patient cohorts. METHODS: We queried the U.S. population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), the prospective tertiary care hospital-based Interdisciplinary Melanoma Cooperative Group (IMCG) biorepository, and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) biospecimen database to test the association of patient age at time of melanoma diagnosis with clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Zhen Wang, Jun-Qiang Chen, Jin-Lu Liu, Lei Tian
Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an integral part in the biology of cancer, participating in tumor initiation, progression, and response to therapy. Exosome is an important part of TME. Exosomes are small vesicles formed in vesicular bodies with a diameter of 30-100 nm and a classic "cup" or "dish" morphology. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Exosomes secreted from tumor cells are called tumor-derived (TD) exosomes. There is emerging evidence that TD exosomes can construct a fertile environment to support tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and premetastatic niche preparation...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Antonino Carbone, Chiara C Volpi, Ambra V Gualeni, Annunziata Gloghini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the association of the different histotypes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphomas with known genetic lesions and/or oncogenic viruses. A more comprehensive understanding of the complex interplay existing between genetic abnormalities of tumor cells and the viral contribution to the development of EBV-associated lymphomas is pivotal for the development of more effective treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that HIV may contribute to lymphomagenesis by acting directly on B lymphocytes as a critical microenvironmental factor...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Yi Zheng, Yicheng Yang, Shu Wu, Yongqiang Zhu, Xiaolong Tang, Xiaopeng Liu
As the second most common gynecologic malignant tumors with a high mortality rate, cervical cancer jeopardizes women's life worldwide. The low cure rate in cervical cancer patients is mainly attributed to the lack of effective therapies. One feasible novel strategy is to develop immune-based approaches such as adoptive cell immunotherapy of DCCIKs which represents a promising nontoxic antineoplastic immunotherapy preferred in clinic practice. However, the therapeutic effect is not as efficient as anticipated...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
A K S Salama, S J Moschos
BACKGROUND: Cancers escape immune surveillance via distinct mechanisms that involve central (negative selection within the thymus) or peripheral (lack of costimulation, receipt of death/anergic signals by tumor, immunoregulatory cell populations) immune tolerance. During the 1990s, moderate clinical benefit was seen using several cytokine therapies for a limited number of cancers. Over the past 20 years, extensive research has been performed to understand the role of various components of peripheral immune tolerance, with the co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1) being the most well characterized at preclinical and clinical levels...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Tobias Eggert, Katharina Wolter, Juling Ji, Chi Ma, Tetyana Yevsa, Sabrina Klotz, José Medina-Echeverz, Thomas Longerich, Marshonna Forgues, Florian Reisinger, Mathias Heikenwalder, Xin Wei Wang, Lars Zender, Tim F Greten
Oncogene-induced senescence causes hepatocytes to secrete cytokines, which induce their immune-mediated clearance to prevent tumor initiation, a process termed "senescence surveillance." However, senescent hepatocytes give rise to hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), if the senescence program is bypassed or if senescent cells are not cleared. Here, we show context-specific roles for CCR2(+) myeloid cells in liver cancer. Senescence surveillance requires the recruitment and maturation of CCR2(+) myeloid cells, and CCR2 ablation caused outgrowth of HCC...
October 10, 2016: Cancer Cell
Susan J Lee, Ivan Borrello
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer derived from malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow. Unlike most solid tumors, which originate from epithelial cells, the myeloma tumor is a plasma cell derived from the lymphoid cell lineage originating from a post-germinal B-cell. As such, the MM plasma cell represents an integral component of the immune system in terms of both antibody production and antigen presentation, albeit not efficiently. This fundamental difference has significant implications when one considers the implications of immunotherapy...
2016: Cancer Treatment and Research
María Del Mar Valenzuela-Membrives, Francisco Perea-García, Abel Sanchez-Palencia, Francisco Ruiz-Cabello, Mercedes Gómez-Morales, María Teresa Miranda-León, Inmaculada Galindo-Angel, María Esther Fárez-Vidal
Immune cell infiltration is a common feature of many human solid tumors. Innate and adaptative immune systems contribute to tumor immunosurveillance. We investigated whether tumors evade immune surveillance by inducing states of tolerance and/or through the inability of some immune subpopulations to effectively penetrate tumor nests. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry analysis were used to study the composition and distribution of immune subpopulations in samples of peripheral blood, tumor tissue (TT), adjacent tumor tissue (ATT), distant non-tumor tissue (DNTT), cancer nests, cancer stroma, and invasive margin in 61 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients...
September 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Ferenc Sipos, Gábor Firneisz, Györgyi Műzes
Colonic inflammation is required to heal infections, wounds, and maintain tissue homeostasis. As the seventh hallmark of cancer, however, it may affect all phases of tumor development, including tumor initiation, promotion, invasion and metastatic dissemination, and also evasion immune surveillance. Inflammation acts as a cellular stressor and may trigger DNA damage or genetic instability, and, further, chronic inflammation can provoke genetic mutations and epigenetic mechanisms that promote malignant cell transformation...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Asma Beldi-Ferchiou, Marion Lambert, Stéphanie Dogniaux, Frédéric Vély, Eric Vivier, Daniel Olive, Stéphanie Dupuy, Frank Levasseur, David Zucman, Céleste Lebbé, Damien Sène, Claire Hivroz, Sophie Caillat-Zucman
Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated lymphocytes, is involved in regulating T- and B-cell responses. PD-1 and its ligands are exploited by a variety of cancers to facilitate tumor escape through PD-1-mediated functional exhaustion of effector T cells. Here, we report that PD-1 is upregulated on Natural Killer (NK) cells from patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS). PD-1 was expressed in a sub-population of activated, mature CD56dimCD16pos NK cells with otherwise normal expression of NK surface receptors...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
B Seliger
Although the human immune system can recognize and eradicate tumor cells, tumors have also been shown to develop different strategies to escape immune surveillance, which has been described for the first time in different mouse models. The evasion of immune recognition was often associated with a poor prognosis and reduced survival of patients. During the last years the molecular mechanisms, which protect tumor cells from this immune attack, have been identified and appear to be more complex than initially expected...
November 2016: HLA
Andrea Tuettenberg, Kerstin Steinbrink, Detlef Schuppan
Macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells are central players of a heterogeneous myeloid cell population, with the ability to suppress innate and adaptive immune responses and thus to promote tumor growth. Their influx and local proliferation are mainly induced by the cancers themselves, and their numbers in the tumor microenvironment and the peripheral blood correlate with decreased survival. Therapeutic targeting these innate immune cells, either aiming at their elimination or polarization toward tumor suppressive cells is an attractive novel approach to control tumor progression and block metastasis...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
M Kuttke, E Sahin, J Pisoni, S Percig, A Vogel, D Kraemmer, L Hanzl, J S Brunner, H Paar, K Soukup, A Halfmann, A M Dohnal, C W Steiner, S Blüml, J Basilio, B Hochreiter, M Salzmann, B Hoesel, G Lametschwandtner, R Eferl, J A Schmid, G Schabbauer
Tumor-host interaction is determined by constant immune surveillance, characterized by tumor infiltration of myeloid and lymphoid cells. A malfunctioning or diverted immune response promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Recent advances had been made, by treating of certain tumor types, such as melanoma, with T-cell checkpoint inhibitors. This highlights the importance of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between tumors and their environment, in particular myeloid and lymphoid cells...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
Iwona Homa-Mlak, Aleksandra Majdan, Radosław Mlak, Teresa Małecka-Massalska
In response to various stimuli, neutrophils and eosinophils can release neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) consisting of proteolytic enzymes, DNA and other components of the cell nucleus. The NETosis process has been characterized as a mechanism of programmed cell death, which leads to chromatin decondensation and disintegration of organelles, followed by lysis of the cell membrane. In recent years the significant role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of cancer has been highlighted. The presence of two subpopulations of TAN with different phenotypes and functions - acting antitumor "N1" and the pro-cancerous "N2" - has been discovered...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
E E Mowers, M N Sharifi, K F Macleod
Autophagy is a highly conserved self-degradative process that has a key role in cellular stress responses and survival. Recent work has begun to explore the function of autophagy in cancer metastasis, which is of particular interest given the dearth of effective therapeutic options for metastatic disease. Autophagy is induced upon progression of various human cancers to metastasis and together with data from genetically engineered mice and experimental metastasis models, a role for autophagy at nearly every phase of the metastatic cascade has been identified...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Hiroyuki Kanzaki, Fumiaki Shinohara, Maiko Suzuki, Satoshi Wada, Yutaka Miyamoto, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Yuta Katsumata, Seicho Makihira, Toshi Kawai, Martin A Taubman, Yoshiki Nakamura
Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts anti-tumor and anti-osteoclastogenic effects. Although transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IFN-γ is well understood, subsequent modifications of secreted IFN-γ are not fully elucidated. Previous research indicates that some cancer cells escape immune surveillance and metastasize into bone tissue by inducing osteoclastic bone resorption. Peptidases of the a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family are implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lingbing Tan, Chaocan Zhang, Julien Dematos, Linlin Kuang, Jae U Jung, Xiaozhen Liang
: While CD95 is an apoptosis-inducing receptor and has emerged as a potential anticancer therapy target, mounting evidence shows that CD95 is also emerging as a tumor promoter by activating nonapoptotic signaling pathways. Gammaherpesviral infection is closely associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, including B cell lymphomas. The nonapoptotic function of CD95 in gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomas is largely unknown. Here, we show that stimulation of CD95 agonist antibody drives the majority of sensitive gammaherpesvirus-transformed B cells to undergo caspase-dependent apoptosis and promotes the survival and proliferation of a subpopulation of apoptosis-resistant B cells...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Juan Carlos Higareda-Almaraz, Juan S Ruiz-Moreno, Jana Klimentova, Daniela Barbieri, Raquel Salvador-Gallego, Regina Ly, Ilse A Valtierra-Gutierrez, Christiane Dinsart, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Jiri Stulik, Frank Rösl, Bladimiro Rincon-Orozco
BACKGROUND: Galectin-7 (Gal-7) is negatively regulated in cervical cancer, and appears to be a link between the apoptotic response triggered by cancer and the anti-tumoral activity of the immune system. Our understanding of how cervical cancer cells and their molecular networks adapt in response to the expression of Gal-7 remains limited. METHODS: Meta-analysis of Gal-7 expression was conducted in three cervical cancer cohort studies and TCGA. In silico prediction and bisulfite sequencing were performed to inquire epigenetic alterations...
2016: BMC Cancer
Peter P Ruvolo
Aberrant activation of signal transduction pathways can transform a normal cell to a malignant one and can impart survival properties that render cancer cells resistant to therapy. A diverse set of cascades have been implicated in various cancers including those mediated by serine/threonine kinases such RAS, PI3K/AKT, and PKC. Signal transduction is a dynamic process involving both "On" and "Off" switches. Activating mutations of RAS or PI3K can be viewed as the switch being stuck in the "On" position resulting in continued signaling by a survival and/or proliferation pathway...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
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