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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811347/tifa-signaling-in-gastric-epithelial-cells-initiates-the-cag-type-4-secretion-system-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#1
Alevtina Gall, Ryan G Gaudet, Scott D Gray-Owen, Nina R Salama
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798748/role-of-type-i-and-ii-interferons-in-colorectal-cancer-and-melanoma
#2
REVIEW
Simone Di Franco, Alice Turdo, Matilde Todaro, Giorgio Stassi
Cancer can be considered an aberrant organ with a hierarchical composition of different cell populations. The tumor microenvironment, including the immune cells and related cytokines, is crucial during all the steps of tumor development. In particular, type I and II interferons (IFNs) are involved in a plethora of mechanisms that regulate immune responses in cancer, thus balancing immune escape versus immune surveillance. IFNs are involved in both the direct and indirect regulation of cancer cell proliferation and metastatic potential...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765517/the-hedgehog-gli-pathway-in-embryonic-development-and-cancer-implications-for-pulmonary-oncology-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Armas López Leonel, Zúñiga Joaquín, Arrieta Oscar, Ávila-Moreno Federico
Transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms closely control gene expression through diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. These include the development of germ layers and post-natal epithelial cell-tissue differentiation, as well as, involved with the induction, promotion and/or progression of human malignancies.Diverse studies have shed light on the molecular similarities and differences involved in the stages of embryological epithelial development and dedifferentiation processes in malignant tumors of epithelial origin, of which many focus on lung carcinomas...
July 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759001/tumor-immunoevasion-by-the-conversion-of-effector-nk-cells-into-type-1-innate-lymphoid-cells
#4
Yulong Gao, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Tobias Bald, Susanna S Ng, Arabella Young, Shin Foong Ngiow, Jai Rautela, Jasmin Straube, Nic Waddell, Stephen J Blake, Juming Yan, Laurent Bartholin, Jason S Lee, Eric Vivier, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Meriem Messaoudene, Laurence Zitvogel, Michele W L Teng, Gabrielle T Belz, Christian R Engwerda, Nicholas D Huntington, Kyohei Nakamura, Michael Hölzel, Mark J Smyth
Avoiding destruction by immune cells is a hallmark of cancer, yet how tumors ultimately evade control by natural killer (NK) cells remains incompletely defined. Using global transcriptomic and flow-cytometry analyses and genetically engineered mouse models, we identified the cytokine-TGF-β-signaling-dependent conversion of NK cells (CD49a(-)CD49b(+)Eomes(+)) into intermediate type 1 innate lymphoid cell (intILC1) (CD49a(+)CD49b(+)Eomes(+)) populations and ILC1 (CD49a(+)CD49b(-)Eomes(int)) populations in the tumor microenvironment...
July 31, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751623/tumacrophage-macrophages-transformed-into-tumor-stem-like-cells-by-virulent-genetic-material-from-tumor-cells
#5
Yizhuang Zhang, Na Zhou, Xiuyan Yu, Xuehui Zhang, Shanxin Li, Zhen Lei, Ruobi Hu, Hui Li, Yiqing Mao, Xi Wang, Jinshu Zhang, Yuan Li, Hongyan Guo, David M Irwin, Gang Niu, Huanran Tan
Tumor-associated macrophages are regarded as tumor-enhancers as they have key roles in the subversion of adaptive immunity and in inflammatory circuits that promote tumor progression. Here, we show that cancer cells can subvert macrophages yielding cells that have gained pro-tumor functions. When macrophages isolated from mice or humans are co-cultured with dead cancer cell line cells, induced to undergo apoptosis to mimic chemotherapy, up-regulation of pro-tumor gene expression was identified. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cancer cells by macrophages resulted in their transformation into tumor stem (initiating)-like cells, as indicated by the expression of epithelial markers (e...
July 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748356/pd-l1-induced-by-ifn-%C3%AE-from-tumor-associated-macrophages-via-the-jak-stat3-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathways-promoted-progression-of-lung-cancer
#6
Xiaohui Zhang, Yuanyuan Zeng, Qiuxia Qu, Jianjie Zhu, Zeyi Liu, Weiwei Ning, Hui Zeng, Nan Zhang, Wenwen Du, Cheng Chen, Jian-An Huang
BACKGROUND: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is conventionally regarded as an inflammatory cytokine that has a pivotal role in anti-infection and tumor immune surveillance. It has been used clinically to treat a variety of malignancies. However, increased evidence has suggested IFN-γ can act to induce tumor progression. The role of IFN-γ in regulating antitumor immunity appears to be complex and paradoxical. The mechanism underlying the dual aspects of IFN-γ function in antitumor immunity is not clear...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718425/nlrc5-cita-a-key-player-in-cancer-immune-surveillance
#7
REVIEW
Sayuri Yoshihama, Saptha Vijayan, Tabasum Sidiq, Koichi S Kobayashi
Cancer cells need to escape immune surveillance for successful tumor growth. Loss of MHC class I has been described as a major immune evasion strategy in many cancers. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), NLRC5 [nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing (NLR) family, caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domain containing 5], is a key transcription coactivator of MHC class I genes. Recent genetic studies have revealed that NLRC5 is a major target for cancer immune evasion mechanisms...
January 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716899/hdac1-upregulation-by-nanog-promotes-multidrug-resistance-and-a-stem-like-phenotype-in-immune-edited-tumor-cells
#8
Kwon-Ho Song, Chel Hun Choi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Se Jin Oh, Seon Rang Woo, Soon-Oh Hong, Kyung Hee Noh, Hanbyoul Cho, Eun Joo Chung, Jae-Hoon Kim, Joon-Yong Chung, Stephen M Hewitt, Seungki Baek, Kyung-Mi Lee, Cassian Yee, Minjoo Son, Chih-Ping Mao, T-C Wu, Tae Woo Kim
Cancer immunoediting drives the adaptation of tumor cells to host immune surveillance. Immunoediting driven by antigen (Ag)-specific T cells enriches NANOG expression in tumor cells, resulting in a stem-like phenotype and immune resistance. Here we identify HDAC1 as a key mediator of the NANOG-associated phenotype. NANOG upregulated HDAC1 through promoter occupancy, thereby decreasing histone H3 acetylation on K14 and K27. NANOG-dependent, HDAC1-driven epigenetic silencing of cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2D and CDKN1B induced stem-like features...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716896/poor-prognosis-indicated-by-venous-circulating-tumor-cell-clusters-in-early-stage-lung-cancers
#9
Vasudha Murlidhar, Rishindra M Reddy, Shamileh Fouladdel, Lili Zhao, Martin K Ishikawa, Svetlana Grabauskiene, Zhuo Zhang, Jules Lin, Andrew C Chang, Philip W Carrott, William R Lynch, Mark B Orringer, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Nallasivam Palanisamy, David G Beer, Max S Wicha, Nithya Ramnath, Ebrahim Azizi, Sunitha Nagrath
Early detection of metastasis can be aided by circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which also show potential to predict early relapse. Due to the limited CTC numbers in peripheral blood in early stages, we investigated CTCs in pulmonary vein blood accessed during surgical resection of tumors. Pulmonary vein (PV) and peripheral vein (Pe) blood specimens from patients with lung cancer were drawn during the perioperative period and assessed for CTC burden using a microfluidic device. From 108 blood samples analyzed from 36 patients, PV had significantly higher number of CTCs compared to pre-operative Pe (p<0...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709825/the-ambiguous-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-lymphocytes-in-antitumor-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Guranda Chitadze, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Daniela Wesch, Dieter Kabelitz
γδ T cells play a role in immune surveillance because they recognize stress-induced surface molecules and metabolic intermediates that are frequently dysregulated in transformed cells. Hence, γδ T cells have attracted much interest as effector cells in cell-based immunotherapy. Recently, however, it has been realized that γδ T cells can also promote tumorigenesis through various mechanisms including regulatory activity and IL-17 production. In this review we outline both the pathways involved in cancer cell recognition and killing by γδ T cells as well as current evidence for their protumorigenic activity in various models...
July 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707199/radiation-induced-inflammatory-cascade-and-its-reverberating-crosstalks-as-potential-cause-of-post-radiotherapy-second-malignancies
#11
REVIEW
Sonia Gandhi, Sudhir Chandna
The disease-free survival following radiotherapy is often limited by the development of second/secondary cancers. This significant impediment to effective cancer treatment implicated even in the modern-day radiotherapy needs to be countered effectively. Critical analysis reveals that besides achieving effective tumor control, radiotherapy elicits certain cellular and systemic inflammatory events in tumor infiltrate, which remain relatively stable and tend to facilitate "in-field" or "out of field" oncogenesis in due course of time...
July 13, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694326/genomic-analysis-of-220-ctcls-identifies-a-novel-recurrent-gain-of-function-alteration-in-rltpr-p-q575e
#12
Joonhee Park, Jingyi Yang, Alexander T Wenzel, Akshaya Ramachandran, Wung J Lee, Jay C Daniels, Juhyun Kim, Estela Martinez-Escala, Nduka Amankulor, Barbara Pro, Joan Guitart, Marc L Mendillo, Jeffrey N Savas, Titus J Boggon, Jaehyuk Choi
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is an incurable non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the skin-homing T cell. In early stage disease, lesions are limited to the skin, but in later stage disease, the tumor cells can escape into the blood, the lymph nodes, and at times the visceral organs. To clarify the genomic basis of CTCL, we performed genomic analysis of 220 CTCLs. Our analyses identify 55 putative driver genes, including 17 genes not previously implicated in CTCL. These novel mutations are predicted to affect chromatin (BCOR, KDM6A, SMARCB1, TRRAP), immune surveillance (CD58, RFXAP), MAPK signaling (MAP2K1, NF1), NF-κB signaling (PRKCB, CSNK1A1), PI-3-Kinase signaling (PIK3R1, VAV1), RHOA/cytoskeleton remodeling (ARHGEF3), RNA-splicing (U2AF1), T cell receptor signaling (PTPRN2, RLTPR), and T cell differentiation (RARA)...
July 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684637/interferon-stimulated-genes-are-transcriptionally-repressed-by-pr-in-breast-cancer
#13
Katherine Walter, Merit L Goodman, Hari Singhal, Jade Hall, Tianbao Li, Sean Holloran, Gloria Trinca, Katelin Gibson, Victor X Jin, Geoffrey Greene, Christy Hagan
The progesterone receptor (PR) regulates transcriptional programs that drive proliferation, survival, and stem cell phenotypes. Although the role of native progesterone in the development of breast cancer remains controversial, PR clearly alters the transcriptome in breast tumors. This study identifies a class of genes, interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), potently downregulated by ligand-activated PR which have not been previously shown to be regulated by PR. Progestin-dependent transcriptional repression of ISGs was observed in breast cancer cell line models and human breast tumors...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679835/new-b7-family-checkpoints-in-human-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Ling Ni, Chen Dong
T cells are the main effector cells in immune response against tumors. The activation of T cells is regulated by the innate immune system through positive and negative costimulatory molecules. Targeting immune checkpoint regulators such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4) has achieved notable benefit in a variety of cancers, which leads to multiple clinical trials with antibodies targeting the other related B7/CD28 family members. Recently, five new B7 family ligands, B7-H3, B7-H4, B7-H5, B7-H6, and B7-H7, were identified...
July 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679300/the-emerging-role-of-immune-checkpoint-based-approaches-in-aml-and-mds
#15
Prajwal Boddu, Hagop Kantarjian, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, James Allison, Padmanee Sharma, Naval Daver
The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major breakthrough in the field of cancer therapeutics. Pursuant to their success in melanoma and numerous solid tumor malignancies, these agents are being investigated in hematological malignancies including acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Although AML/MDS have traditionally been considered to be less immunogenic than solid tumor malignancies, recent pre-clinical models suggest a therapeutic role for immune checkpoint inhibition in these diseases...
July 6, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673937/exercise-protects-from-cancer-through-regulation-of-immune-function-and-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Pernille Hojman
Exercise training has been extensively studied in cancer settings as part of prevention or rehabilitation strategies, yet emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can also directly affect tumor-specific outcomes. The underlying mechanisms for this exercise-dependent cancer protection are just starting to be elucidated. To this end, evasion of immune surveillance and tumor-associated inflammation are established as hallmarks of cancer, and exercise may target cancer incidence and progression through regulation of these mechanisms...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661031/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-important-contributors-to-tumor-progression-and-metastasis
#17
Elham Safarzadeh, Mona Orangi, Hamed Mohammadi, Farhad Babaie, Behzad Baradaran
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are traditionally considered among the major components of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). However, there is currently increasing evidence indicating that MDSCs in addition to suppression of immune surveillance is also involved in an array of non-immunological functions like augmenting metastatic potential of tumor cells. Indeed, MDSCs can promote metastasis in animal models and cancer patients through promoting premetastatic niche formation, tumor angiogenesis and invasion...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655789/acquired-immune-resistance-follows-complete-tumor-regression-without-loss-of-target-antigens-or-ifn%C3%AE-signaling
#18
Marco Donia, Katja Harbst, Marit van Buuren, Pia Kvistborg, Mattias F Lindberg, Rikke Andersen, Manja Idorn, Shamaila Munir Ahmad, Eva Ellebæk, Anja Mueller, Paolo Fagone, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Massimo Libra, Martin Lauss, Sine Reker Hadrup, Henrik Schmidt, Mads Hald Andersen, Per Thor Straten, Jonas A Nilsson, Ton N Schumacher, Barbara Seliger, Göran Jönsson, Inge Marie Svane
Cancer immunotherapy can result in durable tumor regressions in some patients. However, patients who initially respond often experience tumor progression. Here, we report mechanistic evidence of tumoral immune escape in an exemplary clinical case: a patient with metastatic melanoma who developed disease recurrence following an initial, unequivocal radiologic complete regression after T-cell-based immunotherapy. Functional cytotoxic T-cell responses, including responses to one mutant neoantigen, were amplified effectively with therapy and generated durable immunologic memory...
June 27, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655520/the-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cancer-and-immune-surveillance
#19
REVIEW
Luca Simula, Francesca Nazio, Silvia Campello
Mitochondria-shaping proteins control the dynamic equilibrium between fusion and fission of the mitochondrial network. Their balance is strictly required to regulate various processes, including the quality of mitochondria, cell metabolism, cell death, proliferation and cell migration. Alterations in these processes are frequently encountered in cancer, during both its onset and later progression, as evidence emerge connecting alterations in mitochondrial dynamics with cancer development. In recent years, novel therapeutic approaches to fight against different human tumors aim at exploiting the immune system's ability to specifically recognize tumor antigens, thus killing malignant cells in a process named immune-surveillance...
June 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651074/chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-natural-killer-and-natural-killer-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Dominique Bollino, Tonya J Webb
Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system and natural killer T (NKT) cells, which have roles in both the innate and adaptive responses, are unique lymphocyte subsets that have similarities in their functions and phenotypes. Both cell types can rapidly respond to the presence of tumor cells and participate in immune surveillance and antitumor immune responses. This has incited interest in the development of novel cancer therapeutics based on NK and NKT cell manipulation. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), generated through the fusion of an antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody or other ligand to intracellular signaling domains, can enhance lymphocyte targeting and activation toward diverse malignancies...
June 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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