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cancer cell,tumor,immune surveilance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334915/monitoring-the-responsiveness-of-t-and-antigen-presenting-cell-compartments-in-breast-cancer-patients-is-useful-to-predict-clinical-tumor-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#1
David A Bernal-Estévez, Oscar García, Ramiro Sánchez, Carlos A Parra-López
BACKGROUND: Vaccination of mice with tumors treated with Doxorubicin promotes a T cell immunity that relies on dendritic cell (DC) activation and is responsible for tumor control in vaccinated animals. Despite Doxorubicin in combination with Cyclophosphamide (A/C) is widely used to treat breast cancer patients, the stimulating effect of A/C on T and APC compartments and its correlation with patient's clinical response remains to be proved. METHODS: In this prospective study, we designed an in vitro system to monitor various immunological readouts in PBMCs obtained from a total of 17 breast cancer patients before, and after neoadjuvant anti-tumor therapy with A/C...
January 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320562/m1-like-macrophages-change-tumor-blood-vessels-and-microenvironment-in-murine-melanoma
#2
Magdalena Jarosz-Biej, Natalia Kamińska, Sybilla Matuszczak, Tomasz Cichoń, Jolanta Pamuła-Piłat, Justyna Czapla, Ryszard Smolarczyk, Daria Skwarzyńska, Klaudia Kulik, Stanisław Szala
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a significant role in at least two key processes underlying neoplastic progression: angiogenesis and immune surveillance. TAMs phenotypic changes play important role in tumor vessel abnormalization/ normalization. M2-like TAMs stimulate immunosuppression and formation of defective tumor blood vessels leading to tumor progression. In contrast M1-like TAMs trigger immune response and normalize irregular tumor vascular network which should sensitize cancer cells to chemo- and radiotherapy and lead to tumor growth regression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308299/platelet-mediated-shedding-of-nkg2d-ligands-impairs-nk-cell-immune-surveillance-of-tumor-cells
#3
Stefanie Maurer, Korbinian Nepomuk Kropp, Gerd Klein, Alexander Steinle, Sebastian P Haen, Juliane S Walz, Clemens Hinterleitner, Melanie Märklin, Hans-Georg Kopp, Helmut Rainer Salih
Platelets promote metastasis, among others by coating cancer cells traveling through the blood, which results in protection from NK cell immune-surveillance. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain to be fully elucidated. Here we report that platelet-coating reduces surface expression of NKG2D ligands, in particular MICA and MICB, on tumor cells, which was mirrored by enhanced release of their soluble ectodomains. Similar results were obtained upon exposure of tumor cells to platelet-releasate and can be attributed to the sheddases ADAM10 and ADAM17 that are detectable on the platelet surface and in releasate following activation and at higher levels on platelets of patients with metastasized lung cancer compared with healthy controls...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305519/antigen-specific-antitumor-responses-induced-by-ox40-agonist-are-enhanced-by-ido-inhibitor-indoximod
#4
Zuzana Berrong, Mikayel Mkrtichyan, Shamim Ahmad, Mason Webb, Eslam Mohamed, Grigori Okoev, Adelaida Matevosyan, Rajeev Shrimali, Rasha Abu Eid, Scott Hammond, John E Janik, Samir N Khleif
Although an immune response to tumors may be generated using vaccines, so far, this approach has only shown minimal clinical success. This is attributed to the tendency of cancer to escape immune surveillance via multiple immune suppressive mechanisms. Successful cancer immunotherapy requires targeting these inhibitory mechanisms along with enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses to promote sustained tumor-specific immunity. Here we evaluated the effect of indoximod, an inhibitor of the immunosuppressive indoleamine-(2,3)-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway, on antitumor efficacy of anti-OX40 agonist in the context of vaccine in the IDO- TC-1 tumor model...
January 5, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303993/endolysosomal-cation-channels-and-cancer-a-link-with-great-potential
#5
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Karin Bartel, Angelika M Vollmar, Martin Biel
The endolysosomal system (ES) consists of lysosomes; early, late, and recycling endosomes; and autophagosomes. It is a key regulator not only of macromolecule degradation and recycling, plasma membrane repair, homeostasis, and lipid storage, but also of antigen presentation, immune defense, cell motility, cell death signaling, tumor growth, and cancer progression. In addition, it plays a critical role in autophagy, and the autophagy-lysosome pathway is intimately associated with the hallmarks of cancer, such as escaping cell death pathways, evading immune surveillance, and deregulating metabolism...
January 5, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285416/cancer-immunotherapy-and-personalized-medicine-emerging-technologies-and-biomarker-based-approaches
#6
Laura Maciejko, Munisha Smalley, Aaron Goldman
Purpose of review: The vision and strategy for the 21st century treatment of cancer calls for a personalized approach in which therapy selection is designed for each individual patient. While genomics has led the field of personalized cancer medicine over the past several decades by connecting patient-specific DNA mutations with kinase-targeted drugs, the recent discovery that tumors evade immune surveillance has created unique challenges to personalize cancer immunotherapy. In this mini-review we will discuss how personalized medicine has evolved recently to accommodate the emerging era of cancer immunotherapy...
September 2017: Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285252/immunological-landscape-of-consensus-clusters-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Pawel Karpinski, Joanna Rossowska, Maria Malgorzata Sasiadek
Recent, large-scale expression-based subtyping has advanced our understanding of the genomic landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC) and resulted in a consensus molecular classification that enables the categorization of most CRC tumors into one of four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS). Currently, major progress in characterization of immune landscape of tumor-associated microenvironment has been made especially with respect to microsatellite status of CRCs. While these studies profoundly improved the understanding of molecular and immunological profile of CRCs heterogeneity less is known about repertoire of the tumor infiltrating immune cells of each CMS...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250078/mevalonate-metabolism-in-immuno-oncology
#8
REVIEW
Georg Gruenbacher, Martin Thurnher
Immuno-oncology not only refers to the multifaceted relationship between our immune system and a developing cancer but also includes therapeutic approaches that harness the body's immune system to fight cancer. The recognition that metabolic reprogramming governs immunity was a key finding with important implications for immuno-oncology. In this review, we want to explore how activation and differentiation-induced metabolic reprogramming affects the mevalonate pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis in immune and cancer cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247824/high-throughput-sequencing-of-the-immune-repertoire-in-oncology-applications-for-clinical-diagnosis-monitoring-and-immunotherapies
#9
Baixin Ye, Daniel Smerin, Qingping Gao, Chunsheng Kang, Xiaoxing Xiong
The diagnostic, monitoring and therapeutic options for cancers currently remain limited. These limitations represent a large threat to human health. Adaptive immunity, which is dependent on diverse repertoires of B cell receptors (BCRs) and T cell receptors (TCRs), plays a critical role in the anti-tumor immune response. Modulation and surveillance of adaptive immunity has become a powerful weapon to combat cancers. Recently, the high-throughput sequencing of immune repertoire (HTS-IR) technology, which provides a robust tool for deep sequencing repertoires of BCRs or TCRs, has been applied in the development of tumor biomarkers and immunotherapeutics for cancers...
December 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244250/human-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilcs-towards-a-uniform-immune-phenotyping
#10
REVIEW
Sara Trabanelli, Alejandra Gomez Cadena, Domenico Mavilio, Basile Nicolas Landis, Peter Jandus, Camilla Jandus
Helper Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs), the most recently identified population of the Innate Lymphoid Cell family, plays a fundamental role in the restoration of tissue integrity, in the protection against infiltrating pathogens as well as in tumor immune-surveillance. ILCs have been divided into three main subsets, ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3, that can be specifically activated by different signals coming either from pathogens or from other cell populations, including cancer cells. Following activation, ILCs are in turn able to promptly secrete a wide range of soluble mediators that modulate effector cell functions...
December 15, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242097/emerging-trends-in-the-immunotherapy-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Kasturi Banerjee, Sushil Kumar, Kathleen A Ross, Shailendra Gautam, Brittany Poelaert, Mohd Wasim Nasser, Abhijit Aithal, Rakesh Bhatia, Michael J Wannemuehler, Balaji Narasimhan, Joyce C Solheim, Surinder K Batra, Maneesh Jain
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S., claiming approximately 45,000 lives every year. Much like other solid tumors, PC evades the host immune surveillance by manipulating immune cells to establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Therefore, targeting and reinstating patient's immune system could serve as a powerful therapeutic tool. Indeed, immunotherapy has emerged in recent years as a potential adjunct treatment for solid tumors including PC...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212301/convergence-of-cancer-metabolism-and-immunity-an-overview
#12
REVIEW
Chi Van Dang, Jung-Whan Kim
Cancer metabolism as a field of research was founded almost 100 years ago by Otto Warburg, who described the propensity for cancers to convert glucose to lactate despite the presence of oxygen, which in yeast diminishes glycolytic metabolism known as the Pasteur effect. In the past 20 years, the resurgence of interest in cancer metabolism provided significant insights into processes involved in maintenance metabolism of non-proliferating cells and proliferative metabolism, which is regulated by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors in normal proliferating cells...
January 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207896/rho-gtpase-effectors-and-nad-metabolism-in-cancer-immune-suppression
#13
Mahmoud Chaker, Audrey Minden, Suzie Chen, Robert H Weiss, Eduardo N Chini, Amit Mahipal, Asfar S Azmi
Sustained proliferative signaling and de-regulated cellular bioenergetics are two of the chief hallmarks of cancer. Alterations in the Ras pathway and its downstream effectors are among the major drivers for uncontrolled cell growth in many cancers. The GTPases are one of the signaling molecules that activate crucial signal transducing pathways downstream of Ras through several effector proteins. The GTPases (GTP bound) interact with several effectors and modulate a number of different biological pathways including those that regulate cytoskeleton, cellular motility, cytokinesis, proliferation, apoptosis, transcription and nuclear signaling...
December 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198089/-exosomes-as-mediators-of-intercellular-communication-the-cancer-and-telomerase-connection
#14
REVIEW
Orit Uziel, Anna Gutkin, Einat Beery, Meir Lahav
Exosomes, nano-vesicles secreted from all types of cells in the human body, function as inter-cell communicators. This role of exosomes is fulfilled by their specific content, dependent on the origin of donor cells from which they are secreted. Exosomes contain a plethora of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and micro RNA), proteins and lipids. These molecules are packed in the donor cells into the exosomes which are subsequently secreted and transferred through various body fluids into the target cells which may be located far from the donor cells...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190949/association-between-pd-l1-expression-combined-with-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-and-the-prognosis-of-patients-with-advanced-hypopharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Takeharu Ono, Koichi Azuma, Akihiko Kawahara, Tetsuro Sasada, Satoshi Hattori, Fumihiko Sato, Buichiro Shin, Shun-Ich Chitose, Jun Akiba, Umeno Hirohito
Limited information is available regarding the immune-related prognostic factors of patients with advanced hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC). The expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells contributes to a mechanism that allows cancer cells to escape immune surveillance. We investigated whether PD-L1 or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression in tumor cells and the tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density were associated with the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and survival in patients with advanced HPSCC...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190182/checkpoint-inhibition-in-pediatric-hematologic-malignancies
#16
Kara L Davis, Archana M Agarwal, Anupam R Verma
Immune surveillance comprising of adaptive and innate immune systems is naturally designed to eliminate cancer development; overexpression of inhibitory receptors and their ligands prevent this check and lead to evasion and hence cancer progression and metastasis. The use of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting these checkpoint regulators is promising and has led to this novel field of cancer immunotherapy. The first antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), ipilimumab, showed promising results in clinical trials and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma in 2011...
November 30, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189263/b7-h4-is-inversely-correlated-with-t-cell-infiltration-in-clear-cell-but-not-serous-or-endometrioid-ovarian-cancer
#17
Gabriel M Pagnotti, Richard M Atkinson, Jamie Romeiser, Ali Akalin, Mallory B Korman, Kenneth R Shroyer
B7-H4, a tumor-associated cell surface protein, is expressed in endometrioid (EM), serous (SE), and clear cell (CC) ovarian carcinomas. Prior in vitro studies from other groups indicated that elevated B7-H4 expression by tumor cells blocks T-cell activation; therefore, it had been postulated to play a role in shielding cancer cells from immune surveillance and averting apoptotic programs. To test the validity of these hypotheses, the present study was designed to compare the immunohistochemical staining intensity of B7-H4 in tumor cells of ovarian cancers with the number of tumor-infiltrating T cells and macrophages and with the levels of caspase-3 staining in apoptotic debris...
October 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160310/cyclin-d-cdk4-kinase-destabilizes-pd-l1-via-cul3-spop-to-control-cancer-immune-surveillance
#18
Jinfang Zhang, Xia Bu, Haizhen Wang, Yasheng Zhu, Yan Geng, Naoe Taira Nihira, Yuyong Tan, Yanpeng Ci, Fei Wu, Xiangpeng Dai, Jianping Guo, Yu-Han Huang, Caoqi Fan, Shancheng Ren, Yinghao Sun, Gordon J Freeman, Piotr Sicinski, Wenyi Wei
Treatments that target immune checkpoints, such as the one mediated by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1, have been approved for treating human cancers with durable clinical benefit(1,2). However, many cancer patients fail to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, and the underlying mechanism(s) is not well understood(3-5). Recent studies revealed that response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade might correlate with PD-L1 expression levels in tumor cells(6,7). Hence, it is important to mechanistically understand the pathways controlling PD-L1 protein expression and stability, which can offer a molecular basis to improve the clinical response rate and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in cancer patients...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156447/pd-1-blockade-in-advanced-nsclc-a-focus-on-pembrolizumab
#19
REVIEW
Solange Peters, Keith M Kerr, Rolf Stahel
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and is responsible for a large proportion of all cancer-related deaths. Current treatment options are inadequate, reflecting a substantial unmet clinical need. Increasing knowledge regarding the mechanisms and genetic aberrations underlying tumor development and growth has heralded a new era of therapy in oncology, moving away from indiscriminate cytotoxic chemotherapy toward more finely focused, targeted medicine. The development of small-molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies directed toward specific components of dysfunctional molecular or immune pathways, and mutated genes specific to particular cancer types, is leading the field to more personalized and less toxic treatment options, many of which have demonstrated greater efficacy and survival benefits than their chemotherapeutic counterparts...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155516/association-of-il-12bpro-polymorphism-with-tumor-infiltrating-dendritic-cells-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Elina Aleksandrova, Tatyana Vlaykova, Julian Ananiev, Maya Gulubova
PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation is a key component in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). A notable hallmark of the inflammation process is the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by infiltrating cells of the immune system. Defects in dendritic cells (DCs) recruitment, maturation and cytokine release are a hallmark of the CRC strategy to escape immune surveillance.The purpose of our study was to evaluate the possible role of IL-12B polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-12B gene (rs17860508) as a genetic factor contributing to the risk for CRC development...
July 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
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