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cancer cell,tumor,immune surveilance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337291/cholecystokinin-attenuates-radiation-induced-lung-cancer-cell-apoptosis-by-modulating-p53-gene-transcription
#1
Yi Han, Chongyu Su, Daping Yu, Shijie Zhou, Xiaoyun Song, Shuku Liu, Ming Qin, Yunsong Li, Ning Xiao, Xiaoqing Cao, Kang Shi, Xu Cheng, Zhidong Liu
The deregulation of p53 in cancer cells is one of the important factors by which cancer cells escape from the immune surveillance. Cholecystokinin (CCK) has strong bioactivity in the regulation of a number of cell activities. This study tests a hypothesis that CCK interferes with p53 expression to affect the apoptotic process in lung cancer (tumor) cells. In this study, tumor-bearing mice and A549 cells (a tumor cell line) were irradiated. The expression of CCK and p53 in tumor cells was assessed with RT-qPCR and Western blotting...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336214/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-ido1-inhibitors-activate-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor
#2
Benjamin J Moyer, Itzel Y Rojas, Iain A Murray, Seokwon Lee, Haley F Hazlett, Gary H Perdew, Craig R Tomlinson
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) plays a key role in the immune system by regulating tryptophan levels and T cell differentiation. Several tumor types overexpress IDO1 to avoid immune surveillance making IDO1 of interest as a target for therapeutic intervention. As a result, several IDO1 inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment as well as several other diseases. Many of the IDO1 inhibitors in clinical trials naturally bear structural similarities to the IDO1 substrate tryptophan, as such, they fulfill many of the structural and functional criteria as potential AHR ligands...
March 20, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332165/low-microchimeric-cell-density-in-tumors-suggests-alternative-antineoplastic-mechanism
#3
Timothy W Jolis, Brenna M Brucker, Christoph Schorl, James N Butera, Peter J Quesenberry
Microchimerism has generally been shown to protect against cancer (Gilmore et al. in Exp Hematol 36(9):1073-1077, 2008). The mechanism of how this occurs is an area of intense study, as it may lead to new cancer treatments. The leading theory is that microchimeric cells perform immune surveillance by directly fighting cancerous cells and that they also act as stem cells, repairing damaged tissue (Khosrotehrani et al. in JAMA 292:75-80, 2004). However, there is conflicting evidence to support this theory. Several small studies have found few microchimeric cells in tumor tissue (Gadi in Breast Cancer Res Treat 121(1):241-244, 2010; Cirello et al...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321814/immunotherapy-in-nsclc-a-promising-and-revolutionary-weapon
#4
Christian Rolfo, Christian Caglevic, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Antonio Araujo, Elisa Giovannetti, Carolina Diaz Gallardo, Patrick Pauwels, Mauricio Mahave
Lung cancer is the leader malignancy worldwide accounting 1.5 millions of deaths every year. In the United States the 5 year-overall survival is less than 20% for all the newly diagnosed patients. Cisplatin-based cytotoxic chemotherapy for unresectable or metastatic NSCLC patients in the first line of treatment, and docetaxel in the second line, have achieved positive results but with limited benefit in overall survival. Targeted therapies for EGFR and ALK mutant patients have showed better results when compared with chemotherapy, nevertheless most of patients will fail and need to be treated with chemotherapy if they still have a good performance status...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321810/overview-of-basic-immunology-for-clinical-investigators
#5
Bettzy Stephen, Joud Hajjar
Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. The location, density, functionality, and the cross talk between the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment influence the nature of immune response, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in cancer patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319049/resisting-fatal-attraction-a-glioma-oncometabolite-prevents-cd8-t-cell-recruitment
#6
Liliana E Lucca, David A Hafler
Immunotherapy has emerged as a potent approach for treating aggressive cancers, such as non-small-cell lung tumors and metastatic melanoma. Clinical trials are now in progress for patients with malignant gliomas; however, a better understanding of how these tumors escape immune surveillance is required to enhance antitumor immune responses. With gliomas, the recruitment of CD8+ T cells to the tumor is impaired, in part preventing containment or elimination of the tumor. In this issue of the JCI, Kohanbash and colleagues present an elegant dissection of how gliomas exploit an enzymatic activity acquired through a common mutation to abrogate the migration of CD8+ T cells to the tumor...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317069/deciphering-the-role-of-ectosomes-in-cancer-development-and-progression-focus-on-the-proteome
#7
REVIEW
Magdalena Surman, Ewa Stępień, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Małgorzata Przybyło
Ectosomes are small heterogeneous membrane vesicles generated by budding from the plasma membrane in a variety of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. They are shed into the extracellular space and are proposed as a novel form of intracellular communication in which information is transmitted from the originating cell to recipient cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. This review focuses on a single population of extracellular vesicles-ectosomes. We summarize recent studies of tumor-derived ectosomes which examine their biogenesis and protein cargo, and their influence on different aspects of cancer progression...
March 19, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275576/the-unique-molecular-and-cellular-microenvironment-of-ovarian-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Worzfeld, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Magdalena Huber, Till Adhikary, Uwe Wagner, Silke Reinartz, Rolf Müller
The reciprocal interplay of cancer cells and host cells is an indispensable prerequisite for tumor growth and progression. Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, in particular tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and T cells, as well as cancer-associated fibroblasts enter into a malicious liaison with tumor cells to create a tumor-promoting and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Ovarian cancer, the most lethal of all gynecological malignancies, is characterized by a unique TME that enables specific and efficient metastatic routes, impairs immune surveillance, and mediates therapy resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275390/dual-role-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
T G Shrihari
Inflammation is the body's response to noxious stimuli such as infectious, physiological or chemical agents, it releases various inflammatory mediators via immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. These inflammatory mediators are growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) activate transcriptional factors (NF-KB, STAT-3) and bring about cellular proliferation, genomic instability, angiogenesis, resistance to apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271447/guards-at-the-gate-physiological-and-pathological-roles-of-tissue-resident-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-lung
#10
REVIEW
Hang Cheng, Chengyan Jin, Jing Wu, Shan Zhu, Yong-Jun Liu, Jingtao Chen
The lung is an important open organ and the primary site of respiration. Many life-threatening diseases develop in the lung, e.g., pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs), pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. In the lung, innate immunity serves as the frontline in both anti-irritant response and anti-tumor defense and is also critical for mucosal homeostasis; thus, it plays an important role in containing these pulmonary diseases. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), characterized by their strict tissue residence and distinct function in the mucosa, are attracting increased attention in innate immunity...
March 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270513/a-shortcut-for-early-macrophage-recruitment-into-tumors-by-activated-oncogenes
#11
REVIEW
Liv Austenaa, Gioacchino Natoli
Macrophages play an important role in tumor promotion, usually acting as facilitators of cancer initiation and progression. However, it is not clear how macrophages impact early phases of tumorigenesis. Using genetically modified mouse models, Guo et al. (pp. 247-259) demonstrated that tumor-initiating cells with an activated Hippo pathway are able to recruit macrophages starting from the very early phases of cancer development, mainly through direct activation of genes encoding macrophage chemoattractants and survival factors...
February 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267587/cancer-acidity-an-ultimate-frontier-of-tumor-immune-escape-and-a-novel-target-of-immunomodulation
#12
REVIEW
Veronica Huber, Chiara Camisaschi, Angela Berzi, Simona Ferro, Luana Lugini, Tiziana Triulzi, Alessandra Tuccitto, Elda Tagliabue, Chiara Castelli, Licia Rivoltini
The link between cancer metabolism and immunosuppression, inflammation and immune escape has generated major interest in investigating the effects of low pH on tumor immunity. Indeed, microenvironmental acidity may differentially impact on diverse components of tumor immune surveillance, eventually contributing to immune escape and cancer progression. Although the molecular pathways underlying acidity-related immune dysfunctions are just emerging, initial evidence indicates that antitumor effectors such as T and NK cells tend to lose their function and undergo a state of mostly reversible anergy followed by apoptosis, when exposed to low pH environment...
March 3, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264447/the-escape-of-cancer-from-t-cell-mediated-immune-surveillance-hla-class-i-loss-and-tumor-tissue-architecture
#13
REVIEW
Federico Garrido, Francisco Perea, Mónica Bernal, Abel Sánchez-Palencia, Natalia Aptsiauri, Francisco Ruiz-Cabello
Tumor immune escape is associated with the loss of tumor HLA class I (HLA-I) expression commonly found in malignant cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of immunotherapy depends on the expression levels of HLA class I molecules on tumors cells. It also depends on the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of HLA expression, which could be reversible/"soft" or irreversible/"hard" due to genetic alterations in HLA, β2-microglobulin or IFN genes. Immune selection of HLA-I negative tumor cells harboring structural/irreversible alterations has been demonstrated after immunotherapy in cancer patients and in experimental cancer models...
February 27, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245780/nano-chitosan-particles-in-anticancer-drug-delivery-an-up-to-date-review
#14
Pooja R Kamath, Dhanya Sunil
Cancer is one of the most awful lethal diseases all over the world and the success of its current chemotherapeutic treatment strategies is limited due to several associated drawbacks. The exploration of cancer cell physiology and its microenvironment have exposed the potential of various classes of nanocarriers to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutic agents at the tumor target site. These nanocarriers must evade the immune surveillance system and achieve target selectivity. Besides, they must gain access in to the interior of cancerous cells, evade endosomal entrapment and discharge the drugs in a sustained manner...
February 27, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223316/energy-metabolism-drives-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-differentiation-and-functions-in-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Laura Strauss
Over the last decade, a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with major regulatory functions has been described in cancer and other pathologic conditions and ultimately defined as MDSCs. Most of the early work on the origins and functions of MDSCs has been in murine and human tumor bearers in which MDSCs are known to be immunosuppressive and to result in both reduced immune surveillance and antitumor cytotoxicity. More recent studies, however, suggest that expansion of these immature myeloid cells may be linked to most, if not all, chronic and acute inflammatory processes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202530/therapeutic-potential-of-bacteria-against-solid-tumors
#16
Haralampos Hatzikirou, Juan Carlos Lopez Alfonso, Sara Leschner, Siegfried Weiss, Michael Meyer-Hermann
Intentional bacterial infections can produce efficacious anti-tumor responses in mice, rats, dogs and humans. However, low overall success rates and intense side-effects prevent such approaches from being employed clinically. In this work, we titered bacteria and/or the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in a set of established murine models of cancer. To interpret the experiments conducted, we considered and calibrated a tumor-effector cell recruitment model under the influence of functional tumor-associated vasculature...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197363/small-gtpase-rbj-promotes-cancer-progression-by-mobilizing-mdscs-via-il-6
#17
Qiuyan Liu, Ha Zhu, Chaoxiong Zhang, Taoyong Chen, Xuetao Cao
RBJ has been identified to be dysregulated in gastrointestinal cancer and promotes tumorigenesis and progression by mediating nuclear accumulation of active MEK1/2 and sustained activation of ERK1/2. Considering that nuclear accumulation and constitutive activation of MEK/ERK not only promotes tumor progression directly, but also induces chronic inflammation, we wonder whether and how RBJ impairs host immune-surveillance via chronic inflammation and consequently supports tumor progression. Here, we report that higher expression of RBJ in human breast cancer tissue has been significantly correlated with poorer prognosis in breast cancer patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185193/activation-and-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Pravin J Mishra, Debabrata Banerjee
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells and exhibit two main characteristics that define stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. MSCs can migrate to sites of injury, inflammation, and tumor. Moreover, MSCs undergo myofibroblast like differentiation, including increased production of α-SMA in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a growth factor commonly secreted by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Based on our previous finding hMSCs become activated and resemble carcinoma-associated myofibroblasts upon prolonged exposure to conditioned medium from MDAMB231 human breast cancer cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166767/microparticles-shed-from-multidrug-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-provide-a-parallel-survival-pathway-through-immune-evasion
#19
Ritu Jaiswal, Michael S Johnson, Deep Pokharel, S Rajeev Krishnan, Mary Bebawy
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined...
February 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153581/delivery-of-tlr7-agonist-to-monocytes-and-dendritic-cells-by-dcir-targeted-liposomes-induces-robust-production-of-anti-cancer-cytokines
#20
Thomas C B Klauber, Janne M Laursen, Daniel Zucker, Susanne Brix, Simon S Jensen, Thomas L Andresen
Tumor immune escape is today recognized as an important cancer hallmark and is therefore a major focus area in cancer therapy. Monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), which are central to creating a robust anti-tumor immune response and establishing an anti-tumorigenic microenvironment, are directly targeted by the tumor escape mechanisms to develop immunosuppressive phenotypes. Providing activated monocytes and DCs to the tumor tissue is therefore an attractive way to break the tumor-derived immune suppression and reinstate cancer immune surveillance...
January 30, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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