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Neutrophil activation

Sukanta Das, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Shabir Hussain, Shvetank Sharma, Paul David, S Sukriti, Shasthry S M, Rakhi Maiwall, Nirupama Trehanpati, T P Singh, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Albumin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, modifications in albumin structure may reduce its antioxidant properties and modulate its immune-regulatory functions. We examined alterations in circulating albumin in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) patients and its contribution in neutrophil activation, intracellular stress plus alteration in associated molecular-pathways. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Albumin modifications and plasma oxidative-stress were assessed in SAH (n=90), alcoholic cirrhosis (AC, n=60) and healthy control (HC, n=30) using LC/MS and spectrophotometry...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Vipul R Thummar, Subramani Parasuraman, Debdatta Basu, Ramasamy Raveendran
To evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of cleistanthin B in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DAL) cell lines induced malignant ascites mouse models and DAL cell line induced solid tumor mouse model. All animals were injected with 2 × 10(6) EAC/DAL cells i.p./s.c. to induce malignant ascites and solid tumor and treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 20 mg/kg or cleistanthin B for 10 days. Cleistanthin B was given at three doses viz. 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. The percentage increase in life span and the overall survival in malignant ascites animals and the tumor volume in solid tumor animals were measured...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Wan K Kim-Park, Eman S Allam, Jadesada Palasuk, Michael Kowolik, Kichuel K Park, L Jack Windsor
Green tea (Camellia sinensis; lǜ chá) extracts have been shown to possess anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in various cell types. Green tea extract (GTX) has been shown to significantly inhibit the activity of collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13)) in vitro. MMPs, such as MMP-9, are known to be involved in many inflammatory diseases including periodontal disease. GTX and a major catechin, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), were examined for their ability to inhibit purified MMP-9 activity and its release from stimulated neutrophils...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
S Zappavigna, M Scuotto, A M Cossu, D Ingrosso, M De Rosa, C Schiraldi, R Filosa, M Caraglia
BACKGROUND: Embelin is a potent dual inhibitor of 5-lipoxigenase (5-LOX) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 that suppresses proliferation of human glioma cells and induces apoptosis by inhibiting XIAP and NF-κB signaling pathway. Synthetic structural modification yielded the derivative 3-((decahydronaphthalen-6-yl)methyl)-2,5-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (RF-Id), an embelin constrained analogue, with improved efficiency against 5-LOX in human neutrophils and anti-inflammatory activity in vivo...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Mírian Feliciano Costa, Tais Iara Jesus, Bruno Rafael Pereira Lopes, Célio Fernando Figueiredo Angolini, Abner Montagnolli, Lorraine de Paula Gomes, Gabriela Sterle Pereira, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois Ruiz, João Ernesto Carvalho, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, Catarina Dos Santos, Karina Alves Toledo
BACKGROUND: Eugenia spp. are used in popular medicine in the treatment of pain, diabetes, intestinal disorders and cough. The aim of the work is to evaluate, ex vivo and in vivo, the anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroethanolic extracts of the leaves of Eugenia aurata (EA) and Eugenia punicifolia HBK (EP) upon neutrophils. METHODS: Ex vivo, isolated human neutrophils were sensitized by Eugenia extracts (0.1-1000 μg/mL) and stimulated by PMA. In these conditions, different neutrophil activities related to inflammatory process were measured: adhesion, degranulation and NET release...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Carsten Deppermann, Paul Kubes
The primary function of platelets is to patrol the vasculature and seal vessel breaches to limit blood loss. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that they also contribute to pathophysiological conditions like thrombosis, atherosclerosis, stroke and infection. Severe sepsis is a devastating disease that claims hundreds of thousands of lives every year in North America and is a major burden to the public health system. Platelet surface receptors like GPIb, αIIbβ3, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in direct platelet-bacteria interactions...
October 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Berna Akıncı Özyürek, Özlem Özmen, Tuğçe Şahin Özdemirel, Yurdanur Erdoğan, Bekir Kaplan, Tuğba Kaplan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the pre-treatment blood neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLR) with the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) of primary masses on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) taken before treatment in patients diagnosed with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and to evaluate the contribution to prognosis. A retrospective evaluation was made of 73 patients diagnosed with MPM in our hospital between January 2006 and January 2014. The SUVmax value of the primary mass on pre-treatment PET/CT, the haemogram parameters (Hb, Hct, NLR, MPV, PLT) at the time of diagnosis, the progression history, the date of the final visit and the date of death of exitus patients was recorted from patient files PET/CT...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Mark Shepherd, Maud E S Achard, Adi Idris, Makrina Totsika, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Sohinee Sarkar, Cláudia A Ribeiro, Louise V Holyoake, Dimitrios Ladakis, Glen C Ulett, Matthew J Sweet, Robert K Poole, Alastair G McEwan, Mark A Schembri
Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic free radical produced by neutrophils and macrophages in response to infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induces a variety of defence mechanisms in response to NO, including direct NO detoxification (Hmp, NorVW, NrfA), iron-sulphur cluster repair (YtfE), and the expression of the NO-tolerant cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase (CydAB). The current study quantifies the relative contribution of these systems to UPEC growth and survival during infection. Loss of the flavohemoglobin Hmp and cytochrome bd-I elicit the greatest sensitivity to NO-mediated growth inhibition, whereas all but the periplasmic nitrite reductase NrfA provide protection against neutrophil killing and promote survival within activated macrophages...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tobias Wiedemann, Stefan Hofbaur, Eva Loell, Gabriele Rieder
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil-activating chemokine which triggers the infiltration and migration of neutrophils into areas of bacterial infection. Helicobacter pylori-infected patient studies as well as animal models have revealed that H. pylori type I strains carrying an intact cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) with a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) induce IL-8 expression and secretion in gastric mucosa. This gastric mucosal IL-8 expression correlates with severe histological changes due to H...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Sanna Turunen, Johanna Huhtakangas, Tomi Nousiainen, Maarit Valkealahti, Jukka Melkko, Juha Risteli, Petri Lehenkari
BACKGROUND: Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by autoantibodies binding to citrullinated and homocitrullinated proteins. We wanted to study the expression patterns of these disease-associated protein forms and if the rheumatoid nodule and synovial tissue itself contain biologically active levels of citrullinating peptidyl arginine deiminases 2, 3 and 4 and homocitrullination-facilitating neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase. METHOD: Total of 195 synovial samples from metatarsal joints from five ACPA/RF-positive RA patients (n = 77), synovial samples from knees of eight seropositive RA (n = 60), seven seronegative RA (n = 33) and five osteoarthritis (n = 25) patients were analyzed for citrulline and homocitrulline contents using HPLC...
October 20, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Hitendra S Chand, Yohannes A Mebratu, Marena Montera, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the resolution process required a period of 40 d for the inflammation to subside and the lung epithelia to resemble the non-exposed condition...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Liang Gao, Gülce Sila Gülcüler, Lieke Golbach, Helena Block, Alexander Zarbock, Ana Martin-Villalba
Integrin activation is crucial for regulation of leukocyte rolling, adhesion and trans-vessel migration during inflammation and occurs by engagement of myeloid cells through factors presented by inflamed vessels. However, endothelial-dependent mechanisms of myeloid cell recruitment are not fully understood. Here we show using an autoperfused flow chamber assay of whole blood neutrophils and intravital microscopy of the inflamed cremaster muscle that CD95 mediates leukocyte slow rolling, adhesion and transmigration upon binding of CD95-ligand (CD95L) that is presented by endothelial cells...
October 20, 2016: ELife
Katherine Zukor, Hong Wang, Brett L Hurst, Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud Van Wettere, Paul M Pilowsky, John D Morrey
Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Wataru Kikuchi, Motoi Nishimura, Takahisa Kuga, Sachio Tsuchida, Tatsuya Saito, Mamoru Satoh, Kenta Noda, Yoshio Kodera, Takeshi Tomonaga, Fumio Nomura
BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen alpha C chain 5.9 kDa fragment (FIC5.9) is a new serum biomarker for chronic hepatitis that was discovered by proteomics analysis. Previous studies have shown that FIC5.9 is derived from the C-terminal region of fibrinogen alpha chain and the serum levels of FIC5.9 decrease in chronic hepatitis. It also have been reported that FIC5.9 cannot be detected in the blood stream of the systemic circulation and it is released from fibrinogen during blood clotting in collecting tube...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
Birong Li, Babitha Haridas, Ashley R Jackson, Hanna Cortado, Nicholas Mayne, Rebecca Kohnken, Brad Bolon, Kirk M McHugh, Andrew L Schwaderer, John D Spencer, Christina B Ching, David S Hains, Sheryl S Justice, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Brian Becknell
Acquired renal scarring occurs in a subset of patients following febrile urinary tract infections and is associated with hypertension, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease. Limited knowledge of histopathology, immune cell recruitment and gene expression changes during pyelonephritis restricts the development of therapies to limit renal scarring. Here, we address this knowledge gap using immunocompetent mice with vesicoureteral reflux. Transurethral inoculation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in C3H/HeOuJ mice leads to renal mucosal injury, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and cortical fibrosis...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation induced complications of pregnancy including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 µg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Geraint P Williams, Peter Nightingale, Sue Southworth, Alastair K O Denniston, Paul J Tomlins, Stephen Turner, John Hamburger, Simon J Bowman, S John Curnow, Saaeha Rauz
Purpose: Ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (OcMMP) is a rare autoimmune disorder resulting in progressive conjunctival fibrosis and ocular surface failure leading to sight loss in up to 50%. This study was designed to optimize an ocular surface sampling technique for identification of novel biomarkers associated with disease activity and/or progressive fibrosis. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with OcMMP underwent detailed examination of conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis using fornix depth measurement...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yu-Ming Hsu, Fang-Rong Chang, I-Wen Lo, Kuei-Hung Lai, Mohamed El-Shazly, Tung-Ying Wu, Ying-Chi Du, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Yang-Chang Wu
Zoanthus kuroshio is a colorful zoanthid with a fluorescent pink oral disc and brown tentacles, which dominates certain parts of the Taiwanese and Japanese coasts. This sea anemone is a rich source of biologically active alkaloids. In the current investigation, two novel halogenated zoanthamines [5α-iodozoanthenamine (1) and 11β-chloro-11-deoxykuroshine A (2)], along with four new zoanthamines [18-epi-kuroshine A (3), 7α-hydroxykuroshine E (4), 5α-methoxykuroshine E (5), and 18-epi-kuroshine E (6)], and six known compounds were isolated from Z...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Mitsutoshi Asakura, Fumika Karaki, Hideaki Fujii, Koichiro Atsuda, Tomoo Itoh, Ryoichi Fujiwara
Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Delphine Ohayon, Alessia De Chiara, Nicolas Chapuis, Céline Candalh, Julie Mocek, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Lamya Haddaoui, Norbert Ifrah, Olivier Hermine, Frédéric Bouillaud, Philippe Frachet, Didier Bouscary, Véronique Witko-Sarsat
Cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a scaffolding protein involved in DNA replication, has been described as a key element in survival of mature neutrophil granulocytes, which are non-proliferating cells. Herein, we demonstrated an active export of PCNA involved in cell survival and chemotherapy resistance. Notably, daunorubicin-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60R) have a prominent cytosolic PCNA localization due to increased nuclear export compared to daunorubicin-sensitive HL-60 cells (HL-60S)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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