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Neutrophil activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351433/%C3%AE-nitrostyrene-derivatives-attenuate-lps-mediated-acute-lung-injury-via-the-inhibition-of-neutrophil-platelet-interactions-and-net-release
#1
Yao-Wen Chang, Ching-Ping Tseng, Chih-Hsun Lee, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yu-Li Chen, Mei-Tzu Su, Kowit-Yu Chong, Ying-Wei Lan, Chin-Chung Wu, Kung-Ju Chen, Fen-Hua Lu, Hsiang-Ruei Liao, Chuen Hsueh, Pei-Wen Hsieh
Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high-mortality and life-threatening diseases that are associated with neutrophil activation and accumulation within lung tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that neutrophil-platelet aggregates (NPAs) at sites of injury increases acute inflammation and contributes to the development of ALI. Even though numerous studies have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of ALI, there is still a lack of innovative and useful treatments that reduce mortality, emphasizing that there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350834/proton-pump-inhibitors-elevate-infection-rate-in-cardiothoracic-surgery-patients-by-influencing-pmn-function-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Carolin Maria Haas, Martina Maywald, Andreas Goetzenich, Christian Stoppe, Lothar Rink
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) as pantoprazole are highly effective acid suppressive agents that belong to the world's most sold medication. However, they are pronounced to have immunosuppressive aspects. In our study, a negative influence of PPI on functions of polymorphonuclear cells in vitro like phagocytosis, oxidative burst, chemotaxis, and killing activity was shown, whereas formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)osis remained unaffected. Pantoprazole stimulation additionally reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in whole blood assay as well as the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ after whole blood stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348638/changes-in-cytokine-responses-to-tb-antigens-esat-6-cfp-10-and-tb-7-7-and-inflammatory-markers-in-peripheral-blood-during-therapy
#3
Ah Young Leem, Joo Han Song, Eun Hye Lee, Hyejon Lee, Bora Sim, Song Yee Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Young Ae Kang
Multiple cytokines and inflammatory markers control TB infection. We aimed to investigate the changes in multiple cytokines and inflammatory markers in active TB patients following anti-TB drug therapy. Twenty-nine patients with active TB were recruited prospectively between December 2010 and July 2017. Blood samples were collected before (T0), after 2 months (T2), and at the end of anti-TB treatment (Tend). We measured the levels of Interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-10, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in supernatants collected from the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT-GIT), as well as the WBC, neutrophil, platelet count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in whole blood...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348630/expression-of-inflammasome-proteins-and-inflammasome-activation-occurs-in-human-but-not-in-murine-keratinocytes
#4
Jennifer Sand, Eric Haertel, Thomas Biedermann, Emmanuel Contassot, Ernst Reichmann, Lars E French, Sabine Werner, Hans-Dietmar Beer
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that assemble upon sensing of a variety of stress factors. Their formation results in caspase-1-mediated activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines pro-interleukin(IL)-1β and -18, which induce an inflammatory response. Inflammation is supported by a lytic form of cell death, termed pyroptosis. Innate immune cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, express and activate inflammasomes. However, it has also been demonstrated that human primary keratinocytes activate different types of inflammasomes in vitro, for example, upon UVB irradiation or viral infection...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348500/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-coming-of-age
#5
REVIEW
Filippo Veglia, Michela Perego, Dmitry Gabrilovich
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells generated during a large array of pathologic conditions ranging from cancer to obesity. These cells represent a pathologic state of activation of monocytes and relatively immature neutrophils. MDSCs are characterized by a distinct set of genomic and biochemical features, and can, on the basis of recent findings, be distinguished by specific surface molecules. The salient feature of these cells is their ability to inhibit T cell function and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases...
January 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346422/nanoparticle-effect-on-neutrophil-produced-myeloperoxidase
#6
Elodie Sanfins, Alexandra Correia, Stefan B Gunnarsson, Manuel Vilanova, Tommy Cedervall
Nanoparticles affect the immune system as they may interact directly with immune cells and activate them. However, it is possible that nanoparticles also interact with released cytokines and immunologically active enzymes. To test this hypothesis, the activity of myeloperoxidase released from activated neutrophils was measured in the presence of nanoparticles with different chemistry and size. In high concentrations of nanoparticles, myeloperoxidase activity is decreased whereas in low concentrations of nanoparticles the activity is increased...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346149/testing-elevated-protease-activity-prospective-analysis-of-160-wounds
#7
Anike Lockmann, Tillmann Schill, Franziska Hartmann, Lisa-Lena Grönemeyer, Ricarda Holzkamp, Michael P Schön, Kai-Martin Thoms
OBJECTIVE: Given that local elevated protease activity (EPA) has been implicated in impaired wound healing, a prospective single-center study was conducted to assess protease activity in various wound types. METHODS: Protease activity was determined using an easy-to-use test system (Woundchek Protease Status Test Kit; Systagenix, Gatwick, United Kingdom) in 160 wounds in 143 patients. The assay detects the combined activity of inflammatory proteases, mainly matrix metalloproteinases 8 and 9 and human neutrophil elastase...
February 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345376/role-of-negative-regulation-of-immune-signaling-pathways-in-neutrophil-function
#8
REVIEW
Veronica Azcutia, Charles A Parkos, Jennifer C Brazil
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a critical role in host defense against infection and in the resolution of inflammation. However, immune responses mediated by PMN must be tightly regulated to facilitate elimination of invading pathogens without inducing detrimental inflammation and host tissue damage. Specific engagement of cell surface immunoreceptors by a diverse range of extracellular signals regulates PMN effector functions through differential activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Although mechanisms of PMN activation mediated via cell signaling pathways have been well described, less is known about negative regulation of PMN function by immune signaling cascades...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345350/activation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-modulates-neutrophil-function
#9
Alyce J Nicholls, Shu Wen Wen, Pam Hall, Michael J Hickey, Connie H Y Wong
Emerging evidence has revealed that noradrenaline (NA), the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), regulates a variety of immune functions via binding to adrenergic receptors present on immune cells. In this study, we examined the role of NA in the regulation of neutrophil functions. Neutrophils were isolated from the bone marrow of naïve mice and treated with NA at various concentrations to assess the effect on various neutrophil functions. Additionally, we performed cremaster intravital microscopy to examine neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions following NA superfusion in vivo...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345346/galectin-3-type-c-self-association-on-neutrophil-surfaces-the-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-regulates-cell-function
#10
Martina Sundqvist, Amanda Welin, Jonas Elmwall, Veronica Osla, Ulf J Nilsson, Hakon Leffler, Johan Bylund, Anna Karlsson
Galectin-3 is an endogenous β-galactoside-binding lectin comprising a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) linked to a collagen-like N-domain. Both domains are required for galectin-3 to induce cellular effects; a C-terminal fragment of galectin-3, galectin-3C, containing the CRD but lacking the N-domain, binds cell surface glycoconjugates but does not induce cellular effects since cross-linking promoted by the N-domain is thought to be required. Instead, galectin-3C is proposed to antagonize the effects of galectin-3 by competing for binding sites...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345066/protease-activated-receptor-2-is-necessary-for-neutrophil-chemorepulsion-induced-by-trypsin-tryptase-or-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv
#11
Michael J V White, Luis E Chinea, Darrell Pilling, Richard H Gomer
Compared to neutrophil chemoattractants, relatively little is known about the mechanism neutrophils use to respond to chemorepellents. We previously found that the soluble extracellular protein dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a neutrophil chemorepellent. In this report, we show that an inhibitor of the protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) blocks DPPIV-induced human neutrophil chemorepulsion, and that PAR2 agonists such as trypsin, tryptase, 2f-LIGRL, SLIGKV, and AC55541 induce human neutrophil chemorepulsion...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345065/fingolimod-targets-cerebral-endothelial-activation-to-block-leukocyte-recruitment-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Yawei Zhao, Dongyan Shi, Kelei Cao, Fengjiao Wu, Xingxing Zhu, Shuang Wen, Qiang You, Keqi Zhang, Lixin Liu, Hong Zhou
Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunomodulator, is approved as an oral treatment for patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Its effects are largely attributed to its mechanism of selectively retaining lymphocytes in the lymph nodes to reduce autoreactive T-cell recruitment in the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of FTY720 on an animal model of CNS inflammation induced by intracerebral ventricle LPS injection. We found that FTY720 treatment significantly prevented LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment in the CNS by inhibiting leukocyte recruitment in cerebral microvessels...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344139/nls-rar%C3%AE-is-a-novel-transcriptional-factor
#13
Kai-Ling Jiang, Liang Zhong, Xiao-Qun Yang, Peng-Peng Ma, Hui Wang, Xin-Yu Zhu, Bei-Zhong Liu
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the presence of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α) fusion protein. PML-RARα can be cleaved by neutrophil elastase (NE) in several positions in cells in the promyelocytic stage, nuclear location signal (NLS)-negative PML and NLS-RARα may be the products of PML-RARα by NE. The function of NLS-RARα may be affected by the addition of NLS, which would alter its localization in cells, as the role of NLS is to identify proteins for transport to the nucleus...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343604/urbanization-and-anticoagulant-poisons-promote-immune-dysfunction-in-bobcats
#14
Laurel E K Serieys, Amanda J Lea, Marta Epeldegui, Tiffany C Armenta, Joanne Moriarty, Sue VandeWoude, Scott Carver, Janet Foley, Robert K Wayne, Seth P D Riley, Christel H Uittenbogaart
Understanding how human activities influence immune response to environmental stressors can support biodiversity conservation across increasingly urbanizing landscapes. We studied a bobcat (Lynx rufus) population in urban southern California that experienced a rapid population decline from 2002-2005 due to notoedric mange. Because anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) exposure was an underlying complication in mange deaths, we aimed to understand sublethal contributions of urbanization and ARs on 65 biochemical markers of immune and organ function...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343436/motile-collectors-platelets-promote-innate-immunity
#15
Emily E Rosowski, Anna Huttenlocher
Platelets migrate in vitro but the significance of platelet migration in vivo remains unclear. In a recent issue of Cell, Gaertner et al. (2017) demonstrate that active platelet migration in vivo promotes mechano-scavenging of bacterial pathogens and neutrophil activation.
January 16, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343310/effect-of-dietary-fish-oil-on-selected-inflammatory-markers-in-pigs
#16
T Komprda, P Ondráčková, M Vícenová, V Rozíková, N Procházková, L Levá, M Faldyna
The present study tested a hypothesis that dietary fish oil (eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid) in a commonly achievable dose ameliorates a systemic inflammation in pigs. Two groups of pigs of 16 animals each were fed a diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F) or a control diet with 2.5% of palm oil (P). After 70 days of fattening, eight F and eight P pigs were challenged (F+; P+) i.v. by lipopolysaccharide. After 3 h, all pigs were sacrificed and blood, liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples were taken...
January 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342213/circulating-neutrophil-transcriptome-may-reveal-intracranial-aneurysm-signature
#17
Vincent M Tutino, Kerry E Poppenberg, Kaiyu Jiang, James N Jarvis, Yijun Sun, Ashish Sonig, Adnan H Siddiqui, Kenneth V Snyder, Elad I Levy, John Kolega, Hui Meng
BACKGROUND: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are typically asymptomatic and undetected except for incidental discovery on imaging. Blood-based diagnostic biomarkers could lead to improvements in IA management. This exploratory study examined circulating neutrophils to determine whether they carry RNA expression signatures of IAs. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients receiving cerebral angiography. Eleven samples were collected from patients with IAs and 11 from patients without IAs as controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342206/silymarin-prevents-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#18
Zuzana Papackova, Marie Heczkova, Helena Dankova, Eva Sticova, Alena Lodererova, Lenka Bartonova, Martin Poruba, Monika Cahova
Acetaminophen or paracetamol (APAP) overdose is a common cause of liver injury. Silymarin (SLM) is a hepatoprotective agent widely used for treating liver injury of different origin. In order to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of SLM, Balb/c mice were pretreated with SLM (100 mg/kg b.wt. per os) once daily for three days. Two hours after the last SLM dose, the mice were administered APAP (300 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) and killed 6 (T6), 12 (T12) and 24 (T24) hours later. SLM-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in APAP-induced liver injury, assessed according to AST and ALT release and histological examination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340626/suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-by-oral-treatment-with-sulforaphane-alleviates-acute-gouty-inflammation
#19
Gabsik Yang, Sang Hyeon Yeon, Hye Eun Lee, Han Chang Kang, Yong Yeon Cho, Hye Suk Lee, Joo Young Lee
Objective: The aetiology of gout is closely linked to the deposition of monosodium uric acid (MSU) crystals and the consequent activation of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of an NLRP3 inhibitor would be effective to attenuate the symptoms of gout. Methods: The effects of oral administration with sulforaphane (SFN) were examined in two mouse models of acute gout induced by injection of MSU crystals into footpads or air pouch...
January 10, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340623/pharmacokinetics-of-rituximab-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis
#20
Divi Cornec, Brian F Kabat, John R Mills, Melissa Cheu, Amber M Hummel, Darrell R Schroeder, Matthew D Cascino, Paul Brunetta, David L Murray, Melissa R Snyder, Fernando Fervenza, Gary S Hoffman, Cees G M Kallenberg, Carol A Langford, Peter A Merkel, Paul A Monach, Philip Seo, Robert F Spiera, E William St Clair, John H Stone, David R Barnidge, Ulrich Specks
Objectives: To study the determinants of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of rituximab (RTX) in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and its association with clinical outcomes. Methods: This study included data from 89 patients from the RTX in AAV trial who received the full dose of RTX (four weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2). RTX was quantified at weeks 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24, and summarized by computing the trapezoidal area under the curve. We explored potential determinants of the PK-RTX, and analysed its association with clinical outcomes: achievement of remission at 6 months, duration of B-cell depletion and time to relapse in patients who achieved complete remission...
January 10, 2018: Rheumatology
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