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Rapid tranquilization

Edoardo G Ostinelli, Melanie J Brooke-Powney, Xue Li, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Haloperidol used alone is recommended to help calm situations of aggression or agitation for people with psychosis. It is widely accessible and may be the only antipsychotic medication available in limited-resource areas. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether haloperidol alone is an effective treatment for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation, wherein clinicians are required to intervene to prevent harm to self and others. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (26th May 2016)...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Piotr Popik, Małgorzata Hołuj, Tomasz Kos, Gabriel Nowak, Tadeusz Librowski, Kinga Sałat
The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine (KET) produces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in patients. Tiletamine (TIL; 2-ethylamino-2-thiophen-2-yl-cyclohexan-1-one) is another uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, used in a medical (veterinary) setting as an anesthetic tranquilizer. Here, we compared the behavioral actions of KET and TIL in a variety of tests, focusing on antidepressant-like and dissociative-like effects in mice and rats. The minimum effective doses of KET and TIL were 10 mg/kg to reduce mouse forced swim test immobility and 15 mg/kg to reduce marble-burying behavior...
June 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Clayton Gonçalves de Almeida, Mariana Del Grossi Moura, Silvio Barberato-Filho, Fernando de Sá Del Fiol, Rogério Heládio Lopes Motta, Cristiane de Cássia Bergamaschi
Rapid tranquilization is an intervention used in control of agitation or aggression in patients with mental disorders. This study synthesized the available evidence regarding efficacy and safety of drugs used for rapid tranquilization in psychiatric patients with psychomotor agitation. It is an overview study of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) identified in the database MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and LILACS until April 2015. A team of reviewers, in pairs and independently, identified eligible studies and assessed methodological quality using AMSTAR...
March 9, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
JeongWoo Kang, Su-Jeong Park, Hae-Chul Park, Md Akil Hossain, Myeong-Ae Kim, Seong-Wan Son, Chae-Mi Lim, Tae-Wan Kim, Byung-Hoon Cho
New approaches to veterinary drug screening based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF/MS) are rapid and have high selectivity and sensitivity. In this study, we developed a multiresidue method for screening over 100 veterinary drug residues using ion trap (IT)-ToF/MS. The screened compounds comprised major drug classes used in veterinary practice, representing the following: amphenicols, anthelmintics, benzimidazoles, β-lactams, coccidiostats, ionophores, macrolides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and tranquilizers...
June 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Po-Hao Chen, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is one of the most severe iatrogenic emergencies in clinical service. The symptoms including sudden consciousness change, critical temperature elevation and electrolytes imbalance followed by mutli-organ system failure were common in NMS. In addition to aggressive interventions with intravenous fluid resuscitation and antipyretics, several antidotes have been suggested to prevent further progression of the muscle damage. Dantrolene has been reported to be one of the most effective treatments for NMS...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Eun Jung Chang, Eun Ji Choi, Kyung Hoon Kim
Tapentadol is a novel oral analgesic with a dual mode of action as an agonist of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR), and as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) all in a single molecule. Immediate release (IR) tapentadol shows its analgesic effect quickly, at around 30 minutes. Its MOR agonistic action produces acute nociceptive pain relief; its role as an NRI brings about chronic neuropathic pain relief. Absorption is rapid, with a mean maximal serum concentration at 1.25-1.5 h after oral intake. It is present primarily in the form of conjugated metabolites after glucuronidation, and excretes rapidly and completely via the kidneys...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
E Pompili, C Carlone, C Silvestrini, G Nicolò
This work aims to define the aggression in all its forms, with notes on management and rapid tranquilization. The pathological aggression is described as a non-homogeneous phenomenon, it is variable in according to social, psychological and biological agents. The distinction of violence between affective aggression and predatory aggression can be functional to the prediction of outcome of any treatment. In general, a pattern of predatory violence tend to match with patients unresponsive and not compliant to treatment, a low probability to predict future violence and, therefore, a difficulty in managing risk...
March 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
B de Toffol, K Kanemoto
Psychosis in epilepsy can be categorized in relation to seizures in two main categories: interictal psychosis and postictal psychosis. Postictal psychosis (PIP) is a specific syndrome in relation to seizure activity: a clear temporal relation exists between the psychotic state of sudden onset and a precipitating bout of complex partial or generalized seizures. However, this very specific syndrome is not included as such within the DSM-5, and PIP belongs to the category "Psychotic disorder due to another medical condition"...
October 2016: L'Encéphale
María Eva González-Trujano, Fernando Brindis, Edith López-Ruiz, Ignacio Ramírez-Salado, Adrián Martínez, Francisco Pellicer
Although Salvia divinorum is traditionally known as a 'mind-altering' or psychoactive herb used, among others things, as a tranquilizer, this property has not been validated with regard to its efficacy and safety. The objective of this study is to provide evidence for the sedative effects of S. divinorum and discriminate the nature of the responsible constituents by examining different experimental models. A battery of tests, including the open-field, hole-board, exploration cylinder, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis potentiation, were used in mice after administration of non-polar, medium polar and/or polar extracts of the plant (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg)...
July 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Akihiro Hitani, Waka Yamaya, Masako To, Ichino Kano, Natsue Honda-Hosono, Tomohiko Takasaki, Kosuke Haruki
Recovery from dengue fever is generally rapid and uneventful. However, recuperation is often prolonged and may be accompanied by noticeable depression. We present herein on a traveler to Indonesia who developed long-lasting depression after the classic symptoms of dengue fever such as fever, arthralgia, and macropapular rash had resolved. A previously healthy 42-year old japanese woman presented to the Travel Clinic of Seirei Yokohama Hospital with complaints of 4 days of fever, joint aches, bone pain, and a macropapular rash on her torso...
March 2015: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Constantine A Manthous, Babak Mokhlesi
The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea are increasing rapidly in the United States in parallel with the obesity epidemic. As the pathogenesis of this chronic illness is better understood, effective evidence-based therapies are being deployed to reduce morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, patients with obesity hypoventilation still fall prey to at least four avoidable types of therapeutic errors, especially at the time of hospitalization for respiratory or cardiovascular decompensation: (1) patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome may develop acute hypercapnia in response to administration of excessive supplemental oxygen; (2) excessive diuresis for peripheral edema using a loop diuretic such as furosemide exacerbates metabolic alkalosis, thereby worsening daytime hypoventilation and hypoxemia; (3) excessive or premature pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illnesses can exacerbate sleep-disordered breathing and worsen hypercapnia, thereby exacerbating psychiatric symptoms; and (4) clinicians often erroneously diagnose obstructive lung disease in patients with obesity hypoventilation, thereby exposing them to unnecessary and potentially harmful medications, including β-agonists and corticosteroids...
January 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Qiufen Lu, Hui Chin Ng, Huiting Xie
BACKGROUND: In the mental health care setting, patients are more vulnerable to choking and the risk of cardiac and respiratory problems due to behavioral problems and use of rapid tranquilization. Poorly maintained, incomplete or damaged equipment in emergency trolleys have previously been documented in various articles as a major contributing factor to deaths and delayed response to resuscitation attempts. OBJECTIVE: This project aimed to examine the current practices for managing emergency equipment...
April 2015: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Osnat Wittmann, Efraim Sadot, Orly Bisker-Kassif, Dennis Scolnik, Oren Tavor, Miguel M Glatstein
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), an idiosyncratic reaction comprising muscular rigidity, altered level of consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction, is a rare but serious medical condition. It is most commonly precipitated by major tranquilizers such as butyrophenones, phenothiazines, and thioxanthines. Metoclopramide, a chlorbenzamide derivative with antidopaminergic properties, is widely used to treat nausea and emesis. We describe the first reported case of a boy who developed NMS in association with the use of this drug...
September 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Giorgio Famiglini, Fabiana Capriotti, Pierangela Palma, Veronica Termopoli, Achille Cappiello
Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are widely used as tranquilizers and anti-depressive drugs in common clinical practice. However, their ready availability and their synergistic effects with alcohol make them attractive for criminal intentions. To prove criminal action for legal reasons, it is often necessary to analyze beverage residues from a crime scene. Milk-based alcoholic drinks (whiskey creams) are gaining popularity due to their lower alcohol content pleasant taste. However, the complexity of this sample, containing proteins and fatty acids, can mask the presence of drugs or other substances in standard analysis methods...
May 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Celia Burrell, Leroy C Edozien
Surrogacy is rising in profile and prevalence, which means that perinatal care providers face an increasing likelihood of encountering a case in their clinical practice. Rapidly expanding scientific knowledge (for example, fetal programming) and technological advances (for example, prenatal screening and diagnosis) pose challenges in the management of the surrogate mother; in particular, they could exacerbate conflict between the interests of the baby, the surrogate mother, and the intending parent(s). Navigating these often-tranquil-but-sometimes-stormy waters is facilitated if perinatal care providers are aware of the relevant ethical, legal, and service delivery issues...
October 2014: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
A H Alexander, C E Alexander, R E Woodruff, D M Lichtman
The need for adequate analgesia to perform potentially painful procedures on our orthopedic patients is of paramount importance. Narcotics and tranquilizers, although effective, often cause prolonged somnolence lasting long after the orthopedic procedure is completed. Nitrous oxide, on the other hand, takes effect within minutes and its pharmacological effects subside rapidly upon termination of inhalation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of using nitrous oxide analgesia for minor orthopedic procedures...
March 1, 1983: Orthopedics
Alessio Vigani, Fernando L Garcia-Pereira
Morbidity and mortality rate in equine anesthesia is still unacceptably high. Thus it is critical contemplating whether the benefit of general anesthesia for a specific patient and procedure outweighs the risks. Sedative protocols that would allow performing diagnostic and surgical procedures with the patient remaining standing would therefore be ideal. Infusion of short-acting agents allows to rapidly achieve a titratable steady state of sedation. Supplementing sedatives and tranquilizers with systemic analgesic or regional anesthetic techniques (i...
April 2014: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Nabila El-Bassel, Louisa Gilbert, Assel Terlikbayeva, Chris Beyrer, Elwin Wu, Stacey A Shaw, Xin Ma, Mingway Chang, Tim Hunt, Leyla Ismayilova, Sholpan Primbetova, Yelena Rozental, Baurzhan Zhussupov
BACKGROUND: Kazakhstan and other countries in Central Asia are experiencing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic, which has historically been driven by injection drug use, but is more recently being fueled by heterosexual transmission. METHODS: This paper examines HIV and HCV infection, as well as sexual and drug-related risks among female partners of men who inject drugs (MWID), comparing females who inject drugs (FWID) to non-injecting female partners on socio-demographic, relationship context, and structural characteristics...
November 2014: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sebastian Walther, Franz Moggi, Helge Horn, Konstantin Moskvitin, Christoph Abderhalden, Nadja Maier, Werner Strik, Thomas J Müller
INTRODUCTION: Agitation is a major problem in acute schizophrenia. Only a few studies have tested antipsychotic agents in severely agitated patients, mainly because of legal issues. Furthermore, most studies were limited to the first 24 hours. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of oral haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine in reducing psychotic agitation in severely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder over 96 hours using a prospective, randomized, rater-blinded, controlled design within a naturalistic treatment regimen...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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