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Acute on chronic liver failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748119/uric-acid-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-renal-and-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Usama A A Sharaf El Din, Mona M Salem, Dina O Abdulazim
The association between uric acid (UA) on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn), dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities. These studies disclosed the strong association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, Htn, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and increased mortality among cardiac and CKD patients...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733221/incidence-predictors-and-outcomes-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-outpatients-with-cirrhosis
#2
Salvatore Piano, Marta Tonon, Elia Vettore, Marialuisa Stanco, Chiara Pilutti, Antonietta Romano, Sara Mareso, Carmine Gambino, Alessandra Brocca, Antonietta Sticca, Silvano Fasolato, Paolo Angeli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Prevalence and outcomes of ACLF have been recently described in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. However, no data is currently available on the prevalence and the risk factors of ACLF in outpatients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate incidence, predictors and outcomes of ACLF in a large cohort of outpatients with cirrhosis. METHODS: 466 patients with cirrhosis consecutively evaluated in a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic were included and followed up until death and/or liver transplantation for a mean of 45±44 months...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730699/elevated-cardiac-troponin-t-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-emergency-care-admissions-is-associated-with-mortality
#3
Mayada Elnegouly, Katrin Umgelter, Wajima Safi, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Roland M Schmid, Andreas Umgelter
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mortality of cirrhotic patients after emergency care admission is high and prognostic factors can help in prioritizing patients. The aim of our study was to assess the association between levels of cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) and one-year mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis without known cardiac disease, who were admitted to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: All patients with cirrhosis presented to the ED from October 2009 until August 2015 who had an initial cTnT value measured with the first lab-panel were retrospectively analyzed with a follow-up of 365 days...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729056/discovery-and-structure-activity-relationship-of-auriculatone-a-potent-hepatoprotective-agent-against-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#4
Meng Zhou, Min Wang, Rui-Feng Zhong, Xiang-Ming Liao, Lian-Li Deng, Guo-Bo Xu, Xun He, Jing Li, Yong-Jun Li, Ting Liu, Yong-Lin Wang, Shang-Gao Liao
Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) overdose has been the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure. APAP-induced liver toxicity can be fatal in many cases even with treatment of the clinically used N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and the need for novel therapeutic agents is apparent. Through evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of the co-occurring substances present in oleanolic acid tablets which have been used in China for decades as an adjuvant therapy for acute and chronic hepatitis, auriculatone was found to protect HL-7702 cells from APAP-induced liver injury comparable to NAC at the concentration of 10μM...
July 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714083/acute-liver-failure-with-amiodarone-infusion-a-case-report-and-systematic-review
#5
P Jaiswal, B M Attar, J E Yap, K Devani, R Jaiswal, Y Wang, R Szynkarek, D Patel, M Demetria
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Amiodarone, a commonly used class III antiarrhythmic agent notable for a relatively long half-life of up to 6 months and its pronounced adverse effect profile, is used for both acute and chronic management of cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic use of amiodarone has been associated with asymptomatic hepatotoxicity; however, acute toxicity is thought to be uncommon. There are only six reported cases of acute liver failure (ALF) secondary to amiodarone. In all these cases the outcome of death during the same hospitalization resulted...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706581/early-acute-kidney-injury-after-liver-transplantation-predisposing-factors-and-clinical-implications
#6
Suehana Rahman, Brian R Davidson, Susan V Mallett
AIM: To investigate the additional clinical impact of hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) on patients sustaining acute kidney injury (AKI) following liver transplantation. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study of consecutive adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between January 2013 and June 2014. Early AKI was identified by measuring serum creatinine at 24 h post OLT (> 1.5 × baseline) or by the use of continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVHF) during the early post-operative period...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700328/additional-n-glycosylation-mutation-in-the-major-hydrophilic-region-of-hepatitis-b-virus-s-gene-is-a-risk-indicator-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-occurrence-in-patients-with-coexistence-of-hbsag-anti-hbs
#7
Yan Qiao, Shanshan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Xiaodong Li, Kai Zhang, Yan Liu, Li Zhao, Rongjuan Chen, Lanlan Si, Shumei Lin, Dongping Xu, Jin Li
The study aimed to determine the association of additional N-glycosylation mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) S gene with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent patients. A total of 288 HBsAg/anti-HBs coexistent patients and 490 single HBsAg-positive patients were enrolled, including 193 with HCC, 433 with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 152 with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The HBV S genes were amplified from serum and sequenced...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690936/a-case-of-imatinib-induced-hepatitis
#8
Osman Bhatty, Mohammad Selim, Thamer Kassim, Lakshmi Chintalacheruvu, Manuel Urra, Sonia Shah, Joseph Haggerty, John Gross, Aravdeep Jhand, Gene Pershwitz, Jaya Gupta
A 71-year-old female with a past medical history of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia on imatinib therapy, Sjogren's syndrome, and hypothyroidism presents with acute hepatitis. After a comprehensive workup ruling out viral, infectious and metabolic etiologies imatinib is stopped which results in immediate improvement. The biopsy is consistent with drug-induced liver damage; the patient is started on oral prednisone and discharged. Unfortunately, our patient's liver function does not improve over the course of the next week and she is readmitted for hepatic and renal failure...
June 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688155/critical-care-management-of-the-cirrhotic-patient-awaiting-liver-transplant-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#9
REVIEW
J C Olson, C J Karvellas
Patients with cirrhosis who are awaiting liver transplantation are at high risk for development of critical illness. Current liver allocation policies which dictate a "sickest first" approach coupled with a mismatch between need and availability of organs results in longer wait times and thus, patients are becoming increasingly ill while awaiting organ transplantation. Even patients with well compensated cirrhosis may suffer acute deterioration, the syndrome of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) results in multi-system organ dysfunction and a marked increase in associated short-term morbidity and mortality...
July 8, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688141/incidence-predictive-factors-and-impacts-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-cirrhotic-patients-hospitalized-for-cellulitis
#10
Ana Garcia Garcia de Paredes, Luis Tellez, Miguel Angel Rodriguez-Gandia, Javier Martinez, Enrique Rodriguez De Santiago, Lara Aguilera Castro, Francisco Gea, Agustín Albillos
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cellulitis is a common infection in patients with cirrhosis but its impact on progression of liver disease has been hardly addressed. This study examines the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), predictive factors, and its impacts on mortalilty in cirrhotic patients hospitalized for cellulitis. METHODS: Retrospective data from cirrhotic patients hospitalized for cellulitis over the period January 2006 to September 2015 were analyzed. AKI was defined according to revised criteria of the International Club of Ascites...
July 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688140/pro-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#11
REVIEW
Elsa Solà, Pere Ginès
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684104/acid-base-disorders-in-liver-disease
#12
REVIEW
Scheiner Bernhard, Lindner Gregor, Reiberger Thomas, Schneeweiss Bruno, Trauner Michael, Zauner Christian, Funk Georg-Christian
Next to the kidneys and lungs, the liver has been recognized as an important regulator of acid-base homeostasis. While respiratory alkalosis is the most common acid-base disorder in chronic liver disease, various complex metabolic acid-base disorders may occur with liver dysfunction. Although the standard variables of acid-base equilibrium, such as pH and overall base excess, often fail to unmask the underlying cause of acid-base disorders, the physical-chemical acid-base model allows a more in-depth pathophysiological understanding and clinical judgement of acid-base disorders in patients with liver diseases...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681347/new-concepts-on-the-clinical-course-and-stratification-of-compensated-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#13
REVIEW
Gennaro D'Amico, Alberto Morabito, Mario D'Amico, Linda Pasta, Giuseppe Malizia, Paola Rebora, Maria Grazia Valsecchi
The clinical course of cirrhosis has been typically described by a compensated and a decompensated state based on the absence or, respectively, the presence of any of bleeding, ascites, encephalopathy or jaundice. More recently, it has been recognized that increasing portal hypertension and several major clinical events are followed by a marked worsening in prognosis, and disease states have been proposed accordingly in a multistate model. The development of multistate models implies the assessment of the probabilities of more than one possible outcome from each disease state...
July 5, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676943/aberrant-gstp1-promoter-methylation-predicts-poor-prognosis-of-acute-on-chronic-hepatitis-b-pre-liver-failure
#14
Chen-Yang Qiao, Feng Li, Yue Teng, Jing Zhao, Na Hu, Yu-Chen Fan, Kai Wang
It has been demonstrated that glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) could protect cells from DNA damage mediated by oxidizing agents or electrophiles in hepatic inflammatory response. Our study evaluated the methylation status and the predictive value for prognosis of GSTP1 promoter region in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B pre-liver failure (pre-ACHBLF). Methylation status of GSTP1 promoter in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma was measured in 103 patients with pre-ACHBLF, 80 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 30 healthy controls (HCs) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction...
July 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675359/the-romanian-national-program-for-liver-transplantation-852-procedures-in-815-patients-over-17-years-2000-2017-a-continuous-evolution-to-success
#15
Irinel Popescu, Mihnea Ionescu, Vladislav Braşoveanu, Doina Hrehoreţ, Narcis Copca, Cristian Lupaşcu, Florin Botea, Bogdan Dorobanţu, Sorin Alexandrescu, Mihai Grigorie, Emil Matei, Radu Zamfir, Vasile Lungu, Dana Tomescu, Gabriela Droc, Daniela Ungureanu, Ruxandra Fota, Graţiela Manga, Mihai Popescu, Laura Popa, Liana Gheorghe, Speranţa Iacob, Corina Pietrăreanu, Mariana Mihailă, Laurenţiu Mic, Sanda Constantinescu, Cristian Gheorghe, Bogdan Cotruta, Ioana Lupescu, Mugur Grasu, Mirela Boroş, Radu Dumitru, Mihai Toma, Liliana Paslaru, Laura Vlad, Ileana Constantinescu, Ileana Dima, Vlad Herlea, Gabriel Becheanu, Cătălin Pecheanu, Daniela Sasalovici
Background: Liver transplantation (LT) has become an established treatment for end-stage liver disease, with more than 20.000 procedures yearly worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of Romanian National Program of LT. Methods: Between April 2000 and April 2017, 817 pts received 852 LTs in Romania. Male/female ratio was 487/330, while adult/pediatric ratio was 753/64, with a mean age of 46 years (median 50 yrs; range 7 months - 68 yrs). Main LT indications were HBV cirrhosis (230 pts; 28...
May 2017: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671553/the-ultra-short-virological-dynamics-in-response-to-entecavir-or-lamivudine-during-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-spontaneous-severe-acute-exacerbation
#16
Teng-Yu Lee, Chi-Yi Chen, Hsueh-Chou Lia, Yu-Chung Hsu, Sheng-Shun Yang
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy could be life-saving in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation (SAE). We aimed to investigate the ultra-short virological responses to NA. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which CHB patients with spontaneous SAE were randomized to receive lamivudine (LVD) or entecavir (ETV) between July 2012 and April 2016 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01627223). The serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) viral loads on day 1 (baseline), 3, 5, 8, 15, 22, 29, 85, and 180 after initiating NA therapy were checked and analyzed...
July 3, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667037/a-programmed-cell-death-1-haplotype-is-associated-with-clearance-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Zhouhua Hou, Qing Zhou, Menghou Lu, Deming Tan, Xuwen Xu
PURPOSE: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an important immune checkpoint of T cells response and plays a critical role in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between PD-1 polymorphisms and susceptibility and disease progression of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: In this case-control study, 299 cases with chronic HBV infection comprised of 99 asymptomatic carriers (ASCs), 96 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and 104 patients with HBV-related acute on chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) were enrolled...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663678/a-dynamic-definition-of-acute-kidney-injury-does-not-improve-prognosis-assessment-in-acutely-decompensated-patients-with-cirrhosis
#18
Sebastián Marciano, Ezequiel Mauro, Melisa Dirchwolf, María Emilia Debernardi, Diego Giunta, Vanina Pagotto, Liliana Rojas, Adrián Gadano
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: to compare the prognostic accuracy for 28 and 90-day transplant-free mortality of a modified CLIF-SOFA score (including a dynamic definition of acute kidney injury) with that of the classic CLIF-SOFA score and KDIGO score for acute kidney injury in patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all admissions of acutely decompensated patients with cirrhosis was carried out from January 2012 to December 2014...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663066/successful-management-of-acute-liver-failure-in-italian-children-a-16-year-experience-at-a-referral-centre-for-paediatric-liver-transplantation
#19
A Di Giorgio, A Sonzogni, A Piccichè, G Alessio, E Bonanomi, M Colledan, L D'Antiga
BACKGROUND: Identifying the causes of acute liver failure (ALF) and predictors of death or liver transplantation (LTX) is crucial to decide its management. We aimed to describe features and outcome of ALF in Italian children. METHODS: Retrospective review of cases presenting between 1996-2012. ALF was defined by high transaminases, INR ≥2.0 regardless of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), no evidence of underlying chronic liver disease. RESULTS: 55 children (median age 2...
June 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660146/bile-cast-nephropathy-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-due-to-hepatorenal-syndrome-a-postmortem-kidney-biopsy-study
#20
Suman Lata Nayak, Manoj Kumar, Chhagan Bihari, Archana Rastogi
Background and Aims: The role of bile cast nephropathy (BCN) in pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in decompensated cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the frequency of BCN detected on postmortem renal biopsy among patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ACLF who had been admitted with acute kidney injury due to HRS (HRA-AKI) and expired during that hospitalization. Methods: One-hundred-twenty-seven postmortem renal biopsies with adequate size (>1 cm in length) were included for analysis...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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