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Acute on chronic liver failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088461/changes-in-the-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-among-patients-with-cirrhosis-or-liver-failure-on-the-waitlist-for-liver-transplantation
#1
David Goldberg, Ivo C Ditah, Kia Saeian, Mona Lalehzari, Andrew Aronsohn, Emmanuel C Gorospe, Michael Charlton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Concurrent to development of more effective drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), infection, there has been an increase in the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Data indicate that liver transplantation prolongs survival times of patient with acute hepatitis associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We compared data on disease prevalence in the population with data from liver transplantation waitlists to evaluate changes in the burden of liver disease in the United States...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079670/impact-of-genetic-variation-in-the-vasopressin-1a-receptor-on-the-development-of-organ-failure-in-patients-admitted-for-acute-decompensation-of-liver-cirrhosis
#2
Annarein J C Kerbert, Jelte J Schaapman, Johan J van der Reijden, Àlex Amorós Navarro, Aiden McCormick, Bart van Hoek, Vicente Arroyo, Pere Ginès, Rajiv Jalan, Victor Vargas, Rudolf Stauber, Hein W Verspaget, Minneke J Coenraad
BACKGROUND: Vasopressin receptor-mediated vasoconstriction is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of organ failure in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied the association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vasopressin 1a receptor gene and the development of organ failure in 826 patients admitted for acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis (n=641) or ACLF (n=185). RESULTS: No associations were found for SNPs with the presence of circulatory or renal failure...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076340/telomere-length-assessment-for-prediction-of-organ-transplantation-outcome-future-or-failure-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Karolina Kłoda, Leszek Domański, Artur Mierzecki
Telomeres are located at each end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Their functional role is genomic stability maintenance. The protective role of telomeres depends on various factors, including number of nucleotides repeats, telomere-binding proteins, and telomerase activity. Organ transplantation is the preferred replacement therapy in the case of chronic kidney disease and the only possibility of sustaining recipients' life in the case of advanced liver failure. While the prevalence of acute rejection is constantly decreasing, prevention of transplanted organ long-term function loss is still challenging...
January 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073418/-current-status-and-perspectives-of-artificial-liver-for-treatment-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#4
J R Huang
This article briefly introduces the mechanisms and characteristics of several new artificial liver therapies, the advantages and disadvantages of different sites for placement of the drainage tube, and commonly used anticoagulation methods, as well as the prevention and treatment of common complications of the artificial liver support system. The future direction of development of artificial liver includes new regimens for "individualized treatment" based on patients' conditions, combination of non-biological artificial liver and biological active ingredients, and development of efficient and perfected hybrid bioartificial liver, which can further improve the therapeutic outcome of liver failure...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067752/efficacy-and-safety-of-lamivudine-versus-entecavir-for-treating-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-exacerbation-and-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Kuang-Wei Huang, Ka-Wai Tam, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Yi-Chun Kuan
BACKGROUND: Oral nucleos(t)ide analogs are recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute exacerbation (AE) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The efficacy and safety of administering entecavir (ETV) and lamivudine (LAM) to such patients remain unclear. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to select studies published before December 2015 on therapy involving ETV or LAM for chronic HBV-related AE with or without ACLF...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058019/clinical-features-of-acute-hepatitis-e-super-infections-on-chronic-hepatitis-b
#6
Chong Chen, Shu-Ye Zhang, Dan-Dan Zhang, Xin-Yan Li, Yu-Ling Zhang, Wei-Xia Li, Jing-Jing Yan, Min Wang, Jing-Na Xun, Chuan Lu, Yun Ling, Yu-Xian Huang, Liang Chen
AIM: To examine the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) superimposed with hepatitis E virus (HEV). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 228 patients with acute HEV infection (showing clinical acute hepatitis symptomology and positivity for anti-HEV immunoglobulin M) with underlying CHB (confirmed by positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA over 6 mo) who had been admitted to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, which represents the regional tertiary hospital for infectious diseases in Shanghai city, China...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053053/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Ruben Hernaez, Elsa Solà, Richard Moreau, Pere Ginès
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome characterised by acute decompensation of chronic liver disease associated with organ failures and high short-term mortality. Alcohol and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common underlying liver diseases. Up to 40%-50% of the cases of ACLF have no identifiable trigger; in the remaining patients, sepsis, active alcoholism and relapse of chronic viral hepatitis are the most common reported precipitating factors. An excessive systemic inflammatory response seems to play a crucial role in the development of ACLF...
January 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052486/impact-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-on-90-day-mortality-following-a-first-liver-transplantation
#8
Eric Levesque, Audrey Winter, Zaid Noorah, Jean-Pierre Daurès, Paul Landais, Cyrille Feray, Daniel Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) is associated with a significant short-term mortality rate (23% to 74%), depending on the number of organ failures. Some patients present with ACLF at the time of liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to assess whether ACLF was also a prognostic factor after LT and, if applicable, to construct a score that could predict 90-day mortality. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty cirrhotic patients, who underwent LT between January 2008 and December 2013, were enrolled...
January 4, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041935/role-of-interleukin-23-in-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-of-hbv-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-and-its-correlation-with-the-severity-of-liver-damage
#9
Suxia Bao, Jianming Zheng, Ning Li, Chong Huang, Mingquan Chen, Qi Cheng, Qian Li, Qing Lu, Mengqi Zhu, Qingxia Ling, Kangkang Yu, Shengshen Chen, Guangfeng Shi
BACKGROUND: The role of interleukin-23 (IL-23) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) from hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to observe the correlation between the activation of the IL-23 signaling pathway and the prognosis of HBV-ACLF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The baseline levels of serum IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from immune tolerant (IT), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), HBV-ACLF patients and healthy individuals who served as healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed using the Luminex system, whereas serum IL-23 from HBV-ACLF patients was measured by ELISA before and after treatment...
December 29, 2016: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030513/acute-circulatory-failure-chronic-liver-failure-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-score-a-novel-scoring-model-for-mortality-risk-prediction-in-critically-ill-cirrhotic-patients-with-acute-circulatory-failure
#10
Xiao-Dong Zhou, Qin-Fen Chen, Zheng-Xian Wang, Wen-Yue Liu, Sven Van Poucke, Zhi Mao, Sheng-Jie Wu, Wei-Jian Huang, Ming-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acute circulatory failure (ACF) is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill cirrhotic patients. Only a few accurate scoring models exist specific to critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute circulatory failure (CICCF) for mortality risk assessment. The aim was to develop and evaluate a novel model specific to CICCF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study collected and analyzed the data on CICCF from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care-III database...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009743/comparable-short-and-long-term-outcomes-in-living-donor-and-deceased-donor-liver-transplantations-for-patients-with-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-scores-%C3%A2-35-in-a-hepatitis-b-endemic-area
#11
Kenneth S H Chok, James Y Y Fung, Albert C Y Chan, Wing Chiu Dai, William W Sharr, Tan To Cheung, See Ching Chan, Chung Mau Lo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) should be offered to patients with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores ≥35. BACKGROUND: No data was available to support LDLT of such patients. METHODS: Data of 672 consecutive adult liver transplant recipients from 2005 to 2014 at our center were reviewed. Patients with MELD scores ≥35 were divided into the deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) group and the LDLT group and were compared...
January 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008344/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-a-single-center-from-argentina
#12
Cristian Dominguez, Eugenia Romero, Jorgelina Graciano, Jose Luis Fernandez, Luis Viola
AIM: To study the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and mortality at 28 d of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: A total of 100 cirrhotic patients admitted to our hospital for more than one day were included during the period between June 2013 and December 2015. We used the European Association for the Study of the Liver-Chronic Liver Failure-Consortium diagnostic criteria for ACLF, considering it as the acute decompensation of cirrhosis associated with the presence of one or more organ failure...
December 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002308/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-liver-disease-reproductive-considerations
#13
(no author information available yet)
All women are at risk of acute and chronic liver diseases. Of particular importance are those diseases that exclusively affect pregnant women and have adverse effects on maternal, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. Acute viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver disease in pregnant women, and hepatitis E infection is associated with substantial mortality. An increasing number of women have chronic liver diseases caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, and genetic liver diseases...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994488/an-unfortunate-case-of-acquired-hemochromatosis-a-case-report-review-of-the-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-management-and-prognosis
#14
Anam Tariq, Kevin Westra, Arben Santo
BACKGROUND: While blood transfusions are commonly used for prophylaxis and treatment for acute chest syndromes and strokes in sickle cell patients, accumulation of excess iron resulting in secondary hemochromatosis remains a rare disease. Chelation is the mainstay for preventing and treating iron overload to deter potential end-organ damages; it is rare when therapy fails. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old African American woman with chronic anemia secondary to sickle cell anemia and history of multiple blood transfusions presented with elevated serum ferritin (8000 ng/mL) and bilirubin (16...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989380/diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-aclf-in-cirrhosis
#15
Vicente Arroyo, Richard Moreau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984174/emergency-tips-in-a-child-pugh-b-patient-when-does-the-window-of-opportunity-open-and-close
#16
REVIEW
Jonel Trebicka
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to treat complications of cirrhosis such as variceal bleeding and refractory ascites, but it also bears the risk of liver failure, overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and cardiac decompensation. Variceal bleeding may be controlled using endoscopic and medical treatment in patients with compensated cirrhosis; in decompensated patients, however, TIPS improves survival. Therefore, an early TIPS (within 72h or if later, still early after bleeding) might improve the survival of patients by preventing an inflammatory response and bacterial translocation...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981303/erythropoietin-in-predicting-prognosis-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#17
Tamara Alempijevic, Simon Zec, Vladimir Nikolic, Aleksandar Veljkovic, Vladimir Milivojevic, Violeta Dopsaj, Sanja Stankovic, Tomica Milosavljevic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterized by a rapid progression to multiple organ failure and is associated with a very high mortality rate of 50-90%. Novel therapies are being investigated such as Erythropoietin (EPO). The aim of this prospective cohort study was to analyse the value of EPO in predicting prognosis and determine which patients may benefit most from EPO therapy. METHODS: According to the EASL-CLIF criteria, 104 consecutive patients were diagnosed with ACLF, and separated into two groups based on the type of insult: bleeding (Group A=31) or non-bleeding (Group B=73)...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978924/-promoting-translational-research-on-drug-induced-liver-injury
#18
Y M Mao
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most important drug-induced diseases and an important reason for failure to obtain approval, an increase in warnings, and withdrawal from market. DILI has a complex clinical phenotype and can cause almost all types of acute, subacute, and chronic liver injury, and it may cause liver failure and even death in patients with severe conditions. The diversity of drugs involved and heterogeneity of populations are the main reasons for unpredictability of most DILI cases in clinical practice...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974825/low-expression-of-cxcr1-2-on-neutrophils-predicts-poor-survival-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#19
Ruonan Xu, Chunmei Bao, Huihuang Huang, Fang Lin, Yue Yuan, Siyu Wang, Lei Jin, Tao Yang, Ming Shi, Zheng Zhang, Fu-Sheng Wang
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). But the utility of CXC chemokine receptor expression on PMNs as a biomarker for prediction of disease severity is still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on neutrophils, and found that patients with hepatitis B virus-related ACLF displayed low expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on peripheral neutrophils compared with healthy subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis B...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973467/correlation-between-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-with-severe-hepatitis-b-and-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-a-meta-analysis
#20
Yi B Hu, Dan P Hu, Rong Q Fu
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the correlation of High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression in the serum with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) related liver fibrosis, severe hepatitis B and acute-on- chronic liver failure (ACLF). METHODS: We made a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang with no language restriction. Pooled data were analyzed and mean difference with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated...
December 14, 2016: Minerva Medica
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