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Bacterial signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338646/type-iv-secretion-and-signal-transduction-of-helicobacter-pylori-caga-through-interactions-with-host-cell-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer
Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful human bacterium, which is exceptionally equipped to persistently inhabit the human stomach. Colonization by this pathogen is associated with gastric disorders ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to cancer. Highly virulent H. pylori strains express the well-established adhesins BabA/B, SabA, AlpA/B, OipA, and HopQ, and a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The adhesins ascertain intimate bacterial contact to gastric epithelial cells, while the T4SS represents an extracellular pilus-like structure for the translocation of the effector protein CagA...
March 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322874/reconstructing-the-genotype-to-fitness-map-for-the-bacterial-chemotaxis-network-and-its-emergent-behavioural-phenotypes
#2
Alberto Nakauma, G Sander van Doorn
The signal-transduction network responsible for chemotaxis in Escherichia coli has been characterised in extraordinary detail. Yet, relatively little is known about eco-evolutionary aspects of chemotaxis, such as how the network has been shaped by selection and to what extent natural populations may fine-tune their chemotactic behaviour to the ecological conditions. To address these questions, we here develop an evolutionary-systems-biology model of the chemotaxis network of E. coli, which we apply to estimate the resource accumulation rate (here used as a proxy for fitness) of wildtype and a large number of potential mutant genotypes...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319728/modulation-of-host-cell-apoptotic-pathways-by-intracellular-pathogens
#3
REVIEW
Anja Friedrich, Julian Pechstein, Christian Berens, Anja Lührmann
Nearly all steps of the host cell apoptotic cascade can be subverted by intracellular microorganisms. Some pathogens modulate early steps and interfere with sensing of extracellular signals, cellular stress or signal transduction; others target Bcl-2 proteins, caspases, or inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In many cases the exact molecular mechanisms leading to interference with the host cell apoptotic cascade are still unknown. However, there are some examples where bacterial factors that modulate host cell death have been identified...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314727/transcriptomic-analyses-elucidate-adaptive-differences-of-closely-related-strains-of-p-aeruginosa-in-fuel
#4
Thusitha S Gunasekera, Loryn L Bowen, Carol E Zhou, Susan C Howard-Byerly, William S Foley, Richard C Striebich, Larry C Dugan, Oscar N Ruiz
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can utilize hydrocarbons, but different strains have varying degrees of adaptation despite their highly conserved genome. P. aeruginosa ATCC 33988 is highly adapted to hydrocarbons while strain PAO1, a human pathogen, is less-adapted and degrades jet fuel at a slower rate than does ATCC 33988. We investigated fuel specific transcriptomic differences between these strains in order to ascertain the underling mechanisms utilized by the adapted strain to proliferate in fuel. During growth in fuel, the genes related to alkane degradation, heat-shock response, membrane proteins, efflux pumps and several novel genes were upregulated in ATCC 33988...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301773/progress-and-potential-of-electron-cryotomography-as-illustrated-by-its-application-to-bacterial-chemoreceptor-arrays
#5
Ariane Briegel, Grant Jensen
Electron cryotomography (ECT) can produce three-dimensional images of biological samples such as intact cells in a near-native, frozen-hydrated state to macromolecular resolution (∼4 nm). Because one of its first and most common applications has been to bacterial chemoreceptor arrays, ECT's contributions to this field illustrate well its past, present, and future. Although X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have revealed the structures of nearly all the individual components of chemoreceptor arrays, ECT has revealed the mesoscale information about how the components are arranged within cells...
February 23, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271471/structure-and-function-of-the-stressosome-signalling-hub
#6
Jan Pané-Farré, Maureen B Quin, Richard J Lewis, Jon Marles-Wright
The stressosome is a multi-protein signal integration and transduction hub found in a wide range of bacterial species. The role that the stressosome plays in regulating the transcription of genes involved in the general stress response has been studied most extensively in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. The stressosome receives and relays the signal(s) that initiate a complex phosphorylation-dependent partner switching cascade, resulting in the activation of the alternative sigma factor σ(B)...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270586/emergent-phototactic-responses-of-cyanobacteria-under-complex-light-regimes
#7
Rosanna Man Wah Chau, Devaki Bhaya, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Environmental cues can stimulate a variety of single-cell responses, as well as collective behaviors that emerge within a bacterial community. These responses require signal integration and transduction, which can occur on a variety of time scales and often involve feedback between processes, for example, between growth and motility. Here, we investigate the dynamics of responses of the phototactic, unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to complex light inputs that simulate the natural environments that cells typically encounter...
March 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264991/giga-and-gigb-are-master-regulators-of-antibiotic-resistance-stress-responses-and-virulence-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
Michael J Gebhardt, Howard A Shuman
A critical component of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability of an invading organism to sense and adapt to the harsh environment imposed by the host's immune system. This is especially important for opportunistic pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, a nutritionally versatile, environmental organism that has recently gained attention as a life-threatening human pathogen. The emergence of A. baumannii is closely linked to antibiotic resistance and many contemporary isolates are multi-drug resistant (MDR)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249794/identification-of-mycobacterial-gara-as-a-substrate-of-protein-kinase-g-from-m-tuberculosis-using-a-kestrel-based-proteome-wide-approach
#9
Philipp Mueller, Jean Pieters
Signal transduction in bacteria is generally mediated via two-component systems. These systems depend on the transfer of a phosphate molecule from a donor to an acceptor by histidine kinases, thereby activating the acceptor to allow downstream signaling/activation. Several bacterial genomes, including the genome of M. tuberculosis, were shown to encode eukaryotic-like kinases. To better understand the function of these kinases and the regulatory networks within which they operate, identification of downstream targets is essential...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237903/exploring-functional-membrane-microdomains-in-bacteria-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Lopez, Gudrun Koch
Recent studies show that internal organization of bacterial cells is more complex than previously appreciated. A clear example of this is the assembly of the nanoscale membrane platforms termed functional membrane microdomains. The lipid composition of these regions differs from that of the surrounding membrane; these domains confine a set of proteins involved in specific cellular processes such as protease secretion and signal transduction. It is currently thought that functional membrane microdomains act as oligomerization platforms and promote efficient oligomerization of interacting protein partners in bacterial membranes...
February 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230048/differential-regulation-of-the-epr3-receptor-coordinates-membrane-restricted-rhizobial-colonization-of-root-nodule-primordia
#11
Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Mette W Nielsen, Simon Kelly, Euan K James, Kasper R Andersen, Sheena R Rasmussen, Winnie Füchtbauer, Lene H Madsen, Anne B Heckmann, Simona Radutoiu, Jens Stougaard
In Lotus japonicus, a LysM receptor kinase, EPR3, distinguishes compatible and incompatible rhizobial exopolysaccharides at the epidermis. However, the role of this recognition system in bacterial colonization of the root interior is unknown. Here we show that EPR3 advances the intracellular infection mechanism that mediates infection thread invasion of the root cortex and nodule primordia. At the cellular level, Epr3 expression delineates progression of infection threads into nodule primordia and cortical infection thread formation is impaired in epr3 mutants...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220253/myd88-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#12
EDITORIAL
Jorge L Cervantes
MyD88 adaptor protein mediates numerous biologically important signal transduction pathways in innate immunity. MyD88 signaling fosters bacterial containment and is necessary to raise an adequate innate and acquired immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The phagosome is a crucial cellular location not only for Mtb replication, but it is also where components of the Myddosome and inflammasome are recruited. Besides its function as a TLR-adaptor protein, MyD88 may help stabilizing cytosolic receptors that are recruited to the phagosome...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217110/intra-species-and-inter-kingdom-signaling-of-legionella-pneumophila
#13
REVIEW
Ramon Hochstrasser, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila parasitizes environ mental amoebae and, upon inhalation, replicates in alveolar macrophages, thus causing a life-threatening pneumonia called "Legionnaires' disease." The opportunistic pathogen employs a bi-phasic life cycle, alternating between a replicative, non-virulent phase and a stationary, transmissive/virulent phase. L. pneumophila employs the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system as a major regulator of the growth phase switch. The Lqs system comprises the autoinducer synthase LqsA, the homologous sensor kinases LqsS and LqsT, as well as a prototypic response regulator termed LqsR...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202392/sophisticated-regulation-of-transcriptional-factors-by-the-bacterial-phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar-phosphotransferase-system
#14
REVIEW
Anne Galinier, Josef Deutscher
The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a carbohydrate transport and phosphorylation system present in bacteria of all different phyla and in archaea. It is usually composed of three proteins or protein complexes, enzyme I, HPr, and enzyme II, which are phosphorylated at histidine or cysteine residues. However, in many bacteria, HPr can also be phosphorylated at a serine residue. The PTS not only functions as a carbohydrate transporter but also regulates numerous cellular processes either by phosphorylating its target proteins or by interacting with them in a phosphorylation-dependent manner...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197924/sumoylation-as-an-integral-mechanism-in-bacterial-infection-and-disease-progression
#15
Chittur V Srikanth, Smriti Verma
Post translational modification pathways regulate fundamental processes of cells and thus govern vital functions. Among these, particularly the modification with Small Ubiquitin-like Modifiers (SUMO) is being recognized as a pathway crucial for cell homeostasis and health. Understandably, bacterial pathogens intervene with the SUMO pathway of the host for ensuring successful infection. Among the bacterial pathogens known to target host sumoylation varied points of intervention are utilized. Majority of them including Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Listeria monocytogenes target the E2 conjugating enzyme Ubc9...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179107/pro-inflammatory-immune-to-brain-signaling-is-involved-in-neuroendocrine-responses-to-acute-emotional-stress
#16
Jordi Serrats, Jan-Sebastian Grigoleit, Elena Alvarez-Salas, Paul E Sawchenko
Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by inflammatory stressors (e.g., bacterial lipopolysaccharide) is thought to involve vascular transduction of circulating cytokines, with perivascular macrophages (PVMs) along with endothelia, effecting activation of HPA control circuitry via inducible (cyclooxygenase-2- or COX-2- dependent) prostaglandin synthesis. To test the stressor-specificity of this mechanism, we examined whether ablation of PVMs or pharmacologic blockade of COX activity affected HPA responses to a representative emotional stressor, restraint...
February 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165358/extending-immunological-profiling-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-by-enriched-cdna-library-analysis-microarray-design-and-initial-studies-upon-the-inflammatory-response-to-pamps
#17
Sebastian Boltaña, Barbara Castellana, Giles Goetz, Lluis Tort, Mariana Teles, Victor Mulero, Beatriz Novoa, Antonio Figueras, Frederick W Goetz, Cristian Gallardo-Escarate, Josep V Planas, Simon Mackenzie
This study describes the development and validation of an enriched oligonucleotide-microarray platform for Sparus aurata (SAQ) to provide a platform for transcriptomic studies in this species. A transcriptome database was constructed by assembly of gilthead sea bream sequences derived from public repositories of mRNA together with reads from a large collection of expressed sequence tags (EST) from two extensive targeted cDNA libraries characterizing mRNA transcripts regulated by both bacterial and viral challenge...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155661/functional-analysis-for-gut-microbes-of-the-brown-tree-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-in-artificial-hibernation
#18
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
BACKGROUND: Annual hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals conserve energy during food shortage in winter. This natural cycle is also accompanied by a remodeling of the intestinal immune system, which is an aspect of host biology that is both influenced by, and can itself influence, the microbiota. In amphibians, the bacteria in the intestinal tract show a drop in bacterial counts. The proportion of pathogenic bacteria is greater in hibernating frogs than that found in nonhibernating frogs...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143938/sequence-structure-and-dynamics-based-comparisons-of-structurally-homologous-chey-like-proteins
#19
Yi He, Gia G Maisuradze, Yanping Yin, Khatuna Kachlishvili, S Rackovsky, Harold A Scheraga
We recently introduced a physically based approach to sequence comparison, the property factor method (PFM). In the present work, we apply the PFM approach to the study of a challenging set of sequences-the bacterial chemotaxis protein CheY, the N-terminal receiver domain of the nitrogen regulation protein NT-NtrC, and the sporulation response regulator Spo0F. These are all response regulators involved in signal transduction. Despite functional similarity and structural homology, they exhibit low sequence identity...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138928/analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-biofilm-protein-profile-after-exposure-to-n-butanolic-cyclamen-coum-extract-alone-and-in-combination-with-ciprofloxacin
#20
Morvarid Shafiei, Ahya Abdi-Ali, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Hojatollah Vali, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-related infections are the major cause of premature death in cystic fibrosis patients. Strategies to induce biofilm dispersal are of interest, because of their potential in preventing biofilm-related infections. Our previous work demonstrated that n-butanolic Cyclamen coum extract with ciprofloxacin could eliminate 1- and 3-day-old P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. To gain new insights into the role of C. coum extract and its synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin in eliminating P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with mass spectrometry-based protein identification were used...
January 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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