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Bacterial signal transduction

Jlenia Brunetti, Giulia Roscia, Ilaria Lampronti, Roberto Gambari, Leila Quercini, Chiara Falciani, Luisa Bracci, Alessandro Pini
The synthetic antimicrobial peptide SET-M33 has strong activity against bacterial infections due to Gram-negative bacteria. It is currently in preclinical development as a new drug to treat lung infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report its strong anti-inflammatory activity in terms of reduced expression of a number of cytokines, enzymes and signal transduction factors involved in inflammation triggered by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. Sixteen cytokines and other major agents involved in inflammation were analyzed in macrophages and bronchial cells after stimulation with LPS and incubation with SET-M33...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xiao-Pei Yang, Ji-Yang Fu, Rui-Cheng Yang, Wen-Tong Liu, Tao Zhang, Bo Yang, Ling Miao, Bei-Bei Dou, Chen Tan, Huan-Chun Chen, Xiang-Ru Wang
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic bacterial pathogen in both humans and animals, which can cause high morbidity and mortality. Meningitis is one of the major clinical manifestations of SS2 infection. However, the specific process of SS2 meningitis and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to initiate transduction of intracellular signals and regulate host inflammatory responses. Whether and how EGFR contributes to the development of S...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Huiting Su, Ning Na, Xiaodong Zhang, Yong Zhao
CD74 (MHC class II invariant chain, Ii) is a non-polymorphic type II transmembrane glycoprotein. It is clear that, in addition to be an MHC class II chaperone, CD74 has a diversity of biological functions in physiological and pathological situations. CD74 also participates in other non-MHC II protein trafficking, such as angiotensin II type I receptor. In addition, CD74 is a cell membrane high-affinity receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT/MIF-2) and bacterial proteins...
October 17, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Shantanu Bhatt, Marisa Egan, Valerie Jenkins, Sarah Muche, Jihad El-Fenej
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that disrupt the intestinal microvilli to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected cells and cause diarrhea. This pathomorphological trait is encoded within the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE houses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which upon assembly bridges the bacterial cytosol to that of the host and enables the bacterium to traffic dozens of effectors into the host where they hijack regulatory and signal transduction pathways and contribute to bacterial colonization and disease...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Till Bretschneider, Hans G Othmer, Cornelis J Weijer
Movement of cells and tissues is a basic biological process that is used in development, wound repair, the immune response to bacterial invasion, tumour formation and metastasis, and the search for food and mates. While some cell movement is random, directed movement stimulated by extracellular signals is our focus here. This involves a sequence of steps in which cells first detect extracellular chemical and/or mechanical signals via membrane receptors that activate signal transduction cascades and produce intracellular signals...
October 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Klaus Deckmann, Wolfgang Kummer
A peculiar cell type of the respiratory and gastrointestinal epithelia, originally termed "brush cell" or "tuft cell" by electron microscopists because of its apical tuft of microvilli, utilizes the canonical bitter taste transduction cascade known from oropharyngeal taste buds to detect potential hazardous compounds, e.g. bacterial products. Upon stimulation, this cell initiates protective reflexes and local inflammatory responses through release of acetylcholine and chemokines. Guided by the understanding of these cells as sentinels, they have been newly discovered at previously unrecognized anatomical locations, including the urethra...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Ekaterina V Filippova, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Jiapeng Ruan, Sergii Pshenychnyi, Richard M Schultz, Alan J Wolfe, Wayne F Anderson
RcsB, the transcription-associated response regulator of the Rcs phosphorelay two-component signal transduction system, activates cell stress responses associated with desiccation, cell wall biosynthesis, cell division, virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in enteric bacterial pathogens. RcsB belongs to the FixJ/NarL family of transcriptional regulators, which are characterized by a highly conserved C-terminal DNA-binding domain. The N-terminal domain of RcsB belongs to the family of two-component receiver domains...
September 27, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Anne-Florence Bitbol, Robert S Dwyer, Lucy J Colwell, Ned S Wingreen
Specific protein-protein interactions are crucial in the cell, both to ensure the formation and stability of multiprotein complexes and to enable signal transduction in various pathways. Functional interactions between proteins result in coevolution between the interaction partners, causing their sequences to be correlated. Here we exploit these correlations to accurately identify, from sequence data alone, which proteins are specific interaction partners. Our general approach, which employs a pairwise maximum entropy model to infer couplings between residues, has been successfully used to predict the 3D structures of proteins from sequences...
September 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Soumesh Kumar Padhi, Nikhil Kumar Maiti
Organic carbon sources play a significant role in heterotrophic nitrogen consumption. This quintessential exploration is focused on carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in heterotrophic bacteria, capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). A heterotrophic bacterial strain Achromobacter xylosoxidans CF-S36 isolated from domestic wastewater efficiently eliminated ammonia, nitrate and nitrite by utilizing different carbon sources. The type of carbon utilized by strain CF-S36 determined the rate of heterotrophic nitrogen removal...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Barbara Zambelli, Vladimir N Uversky, Stefano Ciurli
The interplay of the presence of nickel and protein disorder in processes affecting human health is the focus of the present review. Many systems involving nickel as either a cofactor or as a toxic contaminant are characterized by large disorder. The role of nickel in the biochemistry of bacterial enzymes is discussed here, covering both the beneficial effects of nickel in the human microbiota as well as the role of nickel-depending bacteria in human pathogenesis. In addition, the hazardous health effects caused by nickel exposure to humans, namely nickel-induced carcinogenesis and allergy, are triggered by non-specific interactions of nickel with macromolecules and formation of reactive compounds that mediate cellular damage...
September 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Diana López-Farfán, José Antonio Reyes-Darias, Tino Krell
Chemoreceptor-based signaling is a major bacterial signal transduction mechanism. Escherichia coli, the traditional model, has five chemoreceptors. Recent genome analyses have shown that many bacteria have a much higher number of chemoreceptors. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an alternative model that has 27 chemoreceptors and the cognate chemoeffector is known for many of them. Here, we address the question whether and which factors modulate chemoreceptor gene expression. We report reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR measurements of all KT2440 chemoreceptor genes...
September 8, 2016: Current Genetics
Jonathan W Willett, Sean Crosson
The environment of a cell has a profound influence on its physiology, development, and evolution. Accordingly, the capacity to sense and respond to physical and chemical signals in the environment is an important feature of cellular biology. In bacteria, environmental sensory perception is often regulated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTs). Canonical TCST entails signal-induced autophosphorylation of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) followed by phosphoryl transfer to a cognate response regulator (RR) protein, which may affect gene expression at multiple levels...
September 12, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Dietrich E Lorke, Anka Stegmeier-Petroianu, Georg A Petroianu
The recognition in the early 1960s by Morifusa Eto that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system to an intermediate that spontaneously cyclizes to a neurotoxic phosphate (saligenin phosphate ester) ignited the interest in this group of compounds. Only the ortho isomer can cyclize and clinically cause Organo Phosphate Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN); the meta and para isomers of tri-cresyl phosphate are not neuropathic because they are unable to form stable cyclic saligenin phosphate esters...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Stéphanie Borland, Claire Prigent-Combaret, Florence Wisniewski-Dye
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) are essential for many bacteria to maintain homeostasis and adapt to environmental changes. TCS typically involve a membrane-bound histidine kinase (HK) that senses stimuli, autophosphorylates in the transmitter region and then transfers the phosphoryl group to the receiver domain of a cytoplasmic response regulator (RR) that mediates appropriate changes in bacterial physiology. Although usually found on distinct proteins, the transmitter and receiver modules are sometimes fused into a so-called hybrid HK (HyHK)...
September 8, 2016: Microbiology
Eduardo A Groisman
Two-component systems are a dominant form of bacterial signal transduction. The prototypical two-component system consists of a sensor that responds to a specific input(s) by modifying the output of a cognate regulator. Because the output of a two-component system is the amount of phosphorylated regulator, feedback mechanisms may alter the amount of regulator, and/or modify the ability of a sensor or other proteins to alter the phosphorylation state of the regulator. Two-component systems may display intrinsic feedback whereby the amount of phosphorylated regulator changes under constant inducing conditions and without the participation of additional proteins...
September 8, 2016: Annual Review of Microbiology
Weipeng Zhang, Jin Sun, Huiluo Cao, Renmao Tian, Lin Cai, Wei Ding, Pei-Yuan Qian
BACKGROUND: Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is one important strategy employed by bacteria for environmental adaptation. However, PTM profiles in deep-sea microbes remain largely unexplored. RESULTS: We provide here insight into PTMs in a hydrothermal vent microbial community through integration of metagenomics and metaproteomics. In total, 2919 unique proteins and 1306 unique PTMs were identified, whereas the latter included acetylation, deamination, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosylation, oxidation, and phosphorylation...
2016: Microbiome
Thibaut Boibessot, Christopher P Zschiedrich, Alexandre Lebeau, David Bénimèlis, Catherine Dunyach-Rémy, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Hendrik Szurmant, Zohra Benfodda, Patrick Meffre
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria emphasizes the urgent need for novel antibacterial compounds targeting unique cellular processes. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are commonly used by bacteria to couple environmental stimuli to adaptive responses, are absent in mammals, and are embedded in various pathogenic pathways. To attenuate these signaling pathways, we aimed to target the TCS signal transducer histidine kinase (HK) by focusing on their highly conserved adenosine triphosphate-binding domain...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Adrien Ducret, Ellen M Quardokus, Yves V Brun
Single-cell analysis of bacteria and subcellular protein localization dynamics has shown that bacteria have elaborate life cycles, cytoskeletal protein networks and complex signal transduction pathways driven by localized proteins. The volume of multidimensional images generated in such experiments and the computation time required to detect, associate and track cells and subcellular features pose considerable challenges, especially for high-throughput experiments. There is therefore a need for a versatile, computationally efficient image analysis tool capable of extracting the desired relationships from images in a meaningful and unbiased way...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Rabea M Wagner, Lara Kricks, Daniel Lopez
Membrane organization is usually associated with the correct function of a number of cellular processes in eukaryotic cells as diverse as signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane trafficking, or pathogen invasion. It has been recently discovered that bacterial membranes are able to compartmentalize their signal transduction pathways in functional membrane microdomains (FMMs). In this review article, we discuss the biological significance of the existence of FMMs in bacteria and comment on possible beneficial roles that FMMs play on the harbored signal transduction cascades...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
Giovanna Carrà, Davide Torti, Sabrina Crivellaro, Cristina Panuzzo, Riccardo Taulli, Daniela Cilloni, Angelo Guerrasio, Giuseppe Saglio, Alessandro Morotti
The Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) family of transcription factors plays a key role in cancer pathogenesis due to the ability to promote cellular proliferation and survival, to induce resistance to chemotherapy and to mediate invasion and metastasis. NF-κB is recruited through different mechanisms involving either canonical (RelA/p50) or non-canonical pathways (RelB/p50 or RelB/p52), which transduce the signals originated from growth-factors, cytokines, oncogenic stress and DNA damage, bacterial and viral products or other stimuli...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
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