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Bacterial signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642750/non-pylori-helicobacters-nhphs-induce-shifts-in-gastric-microbiota-in-helicobacter-pylori-infected-patients
#1
Xianhui Peng, Liya Zhou, Yanan Gong, Zhiqiang Song, Lihua He, Sanren Lin, Jianzhong Zhang
To explore the effects of gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species(NHPH) on the structure and potential function of gastric microbiota, we employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 164 gastric biopsy specimens from NHPH (H. suis, H. felis, H. salomonis) /H. pylori coinfection individuals, H. pylori monoinfection individuals and healthy controls. The results demonstrated that marked structural and functional variations between H. pylori mono- and coinfection samples (HPHS, HPHF, HPHM). The changes in bacterial structure induced by NHPH are mainly attributed to their ability of gastric acid secretion inhibition as well as bacterial chemotaxis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642749/rna-seq-reveals-enhanced-sugar-metabolism-in-streptococcus-mutans-co-cultured-with-candida-albicans-within-mixed-species-biofilms
#2
Jinzhi He, Dongyeop Kim, Xuedong Zhou, Sang-Joon Ahn, Robert A Burne, Vincent P Richards, Hyun Koo
Early childhood caries (ECC), which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632994/role-of-the-small-gtpase-rap1-in-signal-transduction-cell-dynamics-and-bacterial-infection
#3
Hubert Hilbi, Arjan Kortholt
Rap1 belongs to the Ras family of small GTPases, which are involved in a multitude of cellular signal transduction pathways and have extensively been linked to cancer biogenesis and metastasis. The small GTPase is activated in response to various extracellular and intracellular cues. Rap1 has conserved functions in Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba and mammalian cells, which are important for cell polarity, substrate and cell-cell adhesion and other processes that involve the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630016/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-sinonovacula-constricta-in-gills-and-hepatopancreas-in-response-to-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-infection
#4
Xuelin Zhao, Xuemei Duan, Zhenhui Wang, Weiwei Zhang, Ye Li, Chunhua Jin, Jinbo Xiong, Chenghua Li
The razor clam Sinonovacula constricta is an important economic species in China. However, bacterial pathogenic diseases limits S. constricta farming industry for large-scale production. In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed on S. constricta gills and hepatopancreas under Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge for 12 h and 48 h, respectively. Transcripts assembly constructed 18,330 sequences, each of which was 500 bp long and functionally annotated, and 1781 and 490 transcripts were differentially expressed in the gills and hepatopancreas, respectively...
June 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629136/zinc-in-infection-and-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Nour Zahi Gammoh, Lothar Rink
Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618121/specificity-traits-consistent-with-legume-rhizobia-coevolution-displayed-by-ensifer-meliloti-rhizosphere-colonization
#6
María Eugenia Salas, Mauricio Javier Lozano, José Luis López, Walter Draghi, Javier Serrania, Gonzalo Arturo Torres Tejerizo, Francisco Javier Albicoro, Juliet Fernanda Nilsson, Mariano Pistorio, María Florencia Del Papa, Gustavo Parisi, Anke Becker, Antonio Lagares
Rhizobia are α- and ß-Proteobacteria that associate with legumes in symbiosis to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The chemical communication between roots and rhizobia begins in the rhizosphere. Using signature-tagged-Tn5 mutagenesis (STM) we performed a genome-wide screening for Ensifer meliloti genes that participate in colonizing the rhizospheres of alfalfa and other legumes. The analysis of ca. 6,000 mutants indicated that genes relevant for rhizosphere colonization account for nearly 2% of the rhizobial genome and that most (ca...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604915/emergence-of-compositionally-tunable-nanoscale-dynamical-heterogeneity-in-model-binary-lipid-biomembranes
#7
Roobala C, Jaydeep K Basu
While the existence of nanoscale dynamical heterogeneity in biological membranes has been suggested to act as an active functional platform for enabling various cellular processes like signal transduction and viral or bacterial entry, it has been extremely difficult to detect the existence of such domains. Model lipid bilayer membranes have been widely used to detect such dynamical heterogeneity in order to avoid complications arising from the compositional heterogeneity of cellular membranes. However, even in model biological membranes the issue of nanoscale lipid dynamics has remained controversial and unresolved due to the difficulty of detecting the existence of such dynamical heterogeneity on the scale of 10-300 nm...
June 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593565/aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-regulates-the-expression-of-integrins-and-reduces-cell-adhesion-via-integrin-%C3%AE-5-in-human-gingival-epithelial-cells
#8
Shinsuke Kochi, Keisuke Yamashiro, Shoichi Hongo, Tadashi Yamamoto, Yuki Ugawa, Masayuki Shimoe, Mari Kawamura, Chiaki Hirata-Yoshihara, Hidetaka Ideguchi, Hiroshi Maeda, Shogo Takashiba
Gingival epithelial cells form a physiological barrier against bacterial invasion. Excessive bacterial invasion destroys the attachment between the tooth surface and the epithelium, resulting in periodontitis. Integrins play a significant role in cell attachment; therefore, we hypothesized that bacterial infection might decrease the expressions of these integrins in gingival epithelial cells, resulting in reduced cell adhesion. Immortalized human gingival epithelial cells were co-cultured with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (Aa Y4), and the gene expression levels of IL-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and integrins (α2, α3, α5, β4, and β6) were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
June 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575802/themes-and-variations-in-gene-regulation-by-extracytoplasmic-function-ecf-sigma-factors
#9
REVIEW
Elena Sineva, Maria Savkina, Sarah E Ades
The ECF sigma family was identified 23 years ago as a distinct group of σ(70)-like factors. ECF sigma factors have since emerged as a major form of bacterial signal transduction that can be grouped into over 50 phylogenetically distinct subfamilies. Advances in our understanding of these sigma factors and the signaling pathways governing their activity have elucidated conserved features as well as aspects that have evolved over time. All ECF sigma factors are predicted to share a common streamlined domain structure and mode of promoter interaction...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549372/pgpr-strain-paenibacillus-polymyxa-sqr-21-potentially-benefits-watermelon-growth-by-re-shaping-root-protein-expression
#10
Yaoyao E, Jun Yuan, Fang Yang, Lei Wang, Jinghua Ma, Jing Li, Xiaowei Pu, Waseem Raza, Qiwei Huang, Qirong Shen
Paenibacillus polymyxa (SQR-21) is not only a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, but also an effective biocontrol agent against Fusarium wilt disease of watermelon. For the better understanding and clarifying the potential mechanisms of SQR-21 to improve watermelon growth and disease resistance, a split-root methodology in hydroponic and LC-MS technology with the label free method was used to analyze the key root proteins involved in watermelon metabolism and disease resistance after the inoculation of SQR-21...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539556/susceptibility-genes-for-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#11
Ho Namkoong, Naoki Hasegawa, Tomoko Betsuyaku
  The number of patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease is reportedly increasing both in Japan and worldwide. NTM diseases are classified into disseminated and pulmonary diseases based on their clinical characteristics. These two types of NTM diseases are thought to be controlled by different mechanisms. Disseminated NTM disease is caused by a defect in signal transduction of Th1 cellular immune responses, including the IFN-γ/IL-12 axis. The precise molecular mechanisms of disseminated NTM disease are understood in detail...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536675/an-overview-of-two-component-signal-transduction-systems-implicated-in-extra-intestinal-pathogenic-e-coli-infections
#12
REVIEW
Erin J Breland, Allison R Eberly, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536283/signal-integration-in-quorum-sensing-enables-cross-species-induction-of-virulence-in-pectobacterium-wasabiae
#13
Rita S Valente, Pol Nadal-Jimenez, André F P Carvalho, Filipe J D Vieira, Karina B Xavier
Bacterial communities can sense their neighbors, regulating group behaviors in response to cell density and environmental changes. The diversity of signaling networks in a single species has been postulated to allow custom responses to different stimuli; however, little is known about how multiple signals are integrated and the implications of this integration in different ecological contexts. In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia carotovora), two signaling networks-the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing system and the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway-control the expression of secreted plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, its major virulence determinants...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512450/host-plant-compatibility-shapes-the-proteogenome-of-frankia-coriariae
#14
Amir Ktari, Abdellatif Gueddou, Imen Nouioui, Guylaine Miotello, Indrani Sarkar, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari, Arnab Sen, Jean Armengaud, Maher Gtari
Molecular signaling networks in the actinorhizal rhizosphere select host-compatible Frankia strains, trigger the infection process and eventually the genesis of nitrogen-fixing nodules. The molecular triggers involved remain difficult to ascertain. Root exudates (RE) are highly dynamic substrates that play key roles in establishing the rhizosphere microbiome. RE are known to induce the secretion by rhizobia of Nod factors, polysaccharides, and other proteins in the case of legume symbiosis. Next-generation proteomic approach was here used to decipher the key bacterial signals matching the first-step recognition of host plant stimuli upon treatment of Frankia coriariae strain BMG5...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512349/the-winding-path-of-protein-methylation-research-milestones-and-new-frontiers
#15
REVIEW
Jernej Murn, Yang Shi
In 1959, while analysing the bacterial flagellar proteins, Ambler and Rees observed an unknown species of amino acid that they eventually identified as methylated lysine. Over half a century later, protein methylation is known to have a regulatory role in many essential cellular processes that range from gene transcription to signal transduction. However, the road to this now burgeoning research field was obstacle-ridden, not least because of the inconspicuous nature of the methyl mark itself. Here, we chronicle the milestone achievements and discuss the future of protein methylation research...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508421/subversion-of-host-kinases-a-key-network-in-cellular-signaling-hijacked-by-helicobacter-pylori-caga
#16
REVIEW
Nicole Tegtmeyer, Matthias Neddermann, Carmen Isabell Asche, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori is a paradigm of persistent pathogens and major risk factor for developing severe diseases including adenocarcinoma in the human stomach. An important bacterial factor linked to gastric disease progression is the cag pathogenicity island-encoded type-IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein CagA. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA-motifs and then activates or inactivates multiple host signaling proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent fashion...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508135/adaptations-of-archaeal-and-bacterial-membranes-to-variations-in-temperature-ph-and-pressure
#17
REVIEW
Melvin F Siliakus, John van der Oost, Servé W M Kengen
The cytoplasmic membrane of a prokaryotic cell consists of a lipid bilayer or a monolayer that shields the cellular content from the environment. In addition, the membrane contains proteins that are responsible for transport of proteins and metabolites as well as for signalling and energy transduction. Maintenance of the functionality of the membrane during changing environmental conditions relies on the cell's potential to rapidly adjust the lipid composition of its membrane. Despite the fundamental chemical differences between bacterial ester lipids and archaeal ether lipids, both types are functional under a wide range of environmental conditions...
July 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507245/conformational-changes-of-inter-domain-linker-mediate-mechanical-signal-transmission-in-sensor-kinase-bvgs
#18
Elodie Lesne, Elian Dupré, Camille Locht, Rudy Antoine, Françoise Jacob-Dubuisson
The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, controls the expression of its large virulence regulon in a coordinated manner through the two-component system BvgAS. BvgS is a dimeric, multi-domain sensor-kinase. Each monomer comprises in succession tandem periplasmic Venus flytrap (VFT) domains, a transmembrane segment, a cytoplasmic Per-ArnT-Sim (PAS) domain, a kinase module and additional phosphorelay domains. BvgS shifts between kinase and phosphatase modes of activity in response to chemical modulators that modify the clamshell motions of the VFT domains...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504641/helical-jackknives-control-the-gates-of-the-double-pore-k-uptake-system-ktrab
#19
Marina Diskowski, Ahmad Reza Mehdipour, Dorith Wunnicke, Deryck J Mills, Vedrana Mikusevic, Natalie Bärland, Jan Hoffmann, Nina Morgner, Heinz-Jürgen Steinhoff, Gerhard Hummer, Janet Vonck, Inga Hänelt
Ion channel gating is essential for cellular homeostasis and is tightly controlled. In some eukaryotic and most bacterial ligand-gated K(+) channels, RCK domains regulate ion fluxes. Until now, a single regulatory mechanism has been proposed for all RCK-regulated channels, involving signal transduction from the RCK domain to the gating area. Here, we present an inactive ADP-bound structure of KtrAB from Vibrio alginolyticus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy, which, combined with EPR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism for ligand-induced action at a distance...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500346/structural-studies-of-the-periplasmic-portion-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-cdgh-from-vibrio-cholerae
#20
Min Xu, Yi-Zhi Wang, Xiu-An Yang, Tao Jiang, Wei Xie
Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger involved in bacterial signal transduction and produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) generally containing highly variable periplasmic signal-recognition domains. CdgH is a DGC enzyme that regulates rugosity associated phenotypes in Vibrio cholerae. CdgH has two N-terminal tandem periplasmic substrate-binding (PBPb) domains for its signal recognition; however, the role of the tandem PBPb domains remains unclear. Here, we reported the crystal structure of the periplasmic portion of CdgH, which indicated that both tandem PBPb domains consist of typical interlobe ligand-binding architecture...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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