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Cytokine-producing cell

Akhilesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ajay Amit, Amir Zaidi, Raj Kishor Pandey, Ashish Kumar Singh, Shashi S Suman, Vahab Ali, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Krishna Pandey, Vikas Kumar, Shubhankar Kumar Singh, Shyam Narayan, Hirendra Kumar Chourasia, Pradeep Das, Sanjiva Bimal
We report here a Leishmania donovani ornithine decarboxylase (Ld-ODC) gene used as a DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in a murine Balb/c mouse model. This study also evaluated the possible mechanism of action directed by this candidate. We found a Th1 immune response after immunization using an Ld-ODC DNA vaccine, with results based on the rearrangement of TCR-V-α-2, proliferation of Carboxy fluorescein Succinimidyle ester positive T cells, which were able to produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2, but not IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, and modulations of the STAT-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Anders Blomqvist, David Engblom
Fever is a common symptom of infectious and inflammatory disease. It is well-established that prostaglandin E2 is the final mediator of fever, which by binding to its EP3 receptor subtype in the preoptic hypothalamus initiates thermogenesis. Here, we review the different hypotheses on how the presence of peripherally released pyrogenic substances can be signaled to the brain to elicit fever. We conclude that there is unequivocal evidence for a humoral signaling pathway by which proinflammatory cytokines, through their binding to receptors on brain endothelial cells, evoke fever by eliciting prostaglandin E2 synthesis in these cells...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Susan Malkiel, Ashley N Barlev, Yemil Atisha-Fregoso, Jolien Suurmond, Betty Diamond
Plasma cells (PCs) are responsible for the production of protective antibodies against infectious agents but they also produce pathogenic antibodies in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Traditionally, high affinity IgG autoantibodies are thought to arise through germinal center (GC) responses. However, class switching and somatic hypermutation can occur in extrafollicular (EF) locations, and this pathway has also been implicated in SLE. The pathway from which PCs originate may determine several characteristics, such as PC lifespan and sensitivity to therapeutics...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Judith A Smith
Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cell function. To safeguard this process in the face of environmental threats and internal stressors, cells mount an evolutionarily conserved response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Invading pathogens induce cellular stress that impacts protein folding, thus the UPR is well situated to sense danger and contribute to immune responses. Cytokines (inflammatory cytokines and interferons) critically mediate host defense against pathogens, but when aberrantly produced, may also drive pathologic inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hui Gao, Zhuo Dong, Xinkou Gong, Juancong Dong, Yuyu Zhang, Wei Wei, Rui Wang, Shunzi Jin
Exposure to ionizing radiation often induces T helper (Th) cell differentiation, resulting in an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cellular subtypes, which can affect the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze differential expression of Th1, Th2 and Th3/Type 1 regulatory T cell (Tr1) subtype-related genes and cytokines in mouse thymocytes after high- and low-dose systemic radiation, using functional classification gene arrays and Elisa assays, and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation's immune effects and their relationship with Th1/Th2 immunity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
E Ridolo, I Martignago, S Masieri
Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease caused by inhalation of an allergen to which the patients is sensitized. Etiopathogenesis of AR comprises a sensitization phase, an immediate phase and a late phase. In the sensitization phase, inhaled allergens are processed in peptides and come into contact with the nasal mucosa cells. Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs), especially represented by Dendritic Cells (DCs), capture them through the interaction with their own MHC class II complexes and migrate to lymph nodes...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Zong-Mei Bian, Matthew G Field, Susan G Elner, Victor M Elner
Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells play important immune-regulatory roles in a variety of retinal pathologic processes, including the production of inflammatory cytokines that are essential mediators of the innate immune response within the ocular microenvironment. The pro-inflammatory "alarmin" cytokine IL-1α has been implicated in both infectious and non-infectious retinal diseases, but its regulation in the retina is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the expression and regulation of IL-1α within hRPE cells...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Jéssica C Dos Santos, Michelle S M A Damen, Leo A B Joosten, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Interleukin 32 (IL-32) is an intracellular cytokine produced by immune and non immune cells after different stimuli. It contributes to inflammation and control of intracellular pathogens mainly by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and microbicidal molecules. Evidence is rising showing that IL-32 can be considered an endogenous danger signal after tissue injury, amplifying the inflammatory process and acquired immune responses. It seems to be a master regulator of intracellular infectious diseases. In this review, first the general properties of IL-32 are described followed by its role in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory and infectious diseases...
March 15, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Xueting Liu, Liping Zeng, Zhongqiu Zhao, Yang Xie, Shan Wang, Junyan Zhang, Ying He, Zehong Zou, Jianguo Zhang, Ailin Tao
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is well known as a superantigen and able to be used for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A was genetically conjugated to epidermal growth factor to produce a chimeric protein recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-epidermal growth factor expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-epidermal growth factor protein was purified using Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography and Endotoxin Removal Resin and identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropheresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Hyun Lee, Minoru Fujimoto, Tomoharu Ohkawara, Hiromi Honda, Satoshi Serada, Yoshio Terada, Tetsuji Naka
Recent evidence suggests that renal tubular injury plays a key role in deterioration of renal function in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Since commonly used biochemical indicators such as GFR, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance are inappropriate for detecting alteration in renal tubules, biomarkers reflecting renal tubular injury have been extensively explored. Our research group identified leucine rich α-2 glycoprotein (LRG) as a novel serum biomarker for various inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nadia A Al-Banna, Farhan Cyprian, M John Albert
Campylobacter jejuni is an important enteric pathogen that causes diarrheas of different degrees of severity and several extra-intestinal manifestations, including Guillain-Barre syndrome. The variability of disease outcomes is thought to be linked to the immune response induced by C. jejuni. The virulence factors of C. jejuni induce a pro-inflammatory response, that is initiated by the intestinal epithelial cells, propagated by innate immune cells and modulated by the cells of the adaptive immune response...
March 10, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Julia Brenmoehl, Daniela Ohde, Elisa Wirthgen, Andreas Hoeflich
Cytokines are required for normal growth and development of the mammary gland and TGF-β prominently represents an established effector of apoptosis, e.g., during involution of the mammary gland. By the control of intracellular signaling pathways, including JAK/STAT, MAPK, PI-3K, and NF-κB, cytokines efficiently regulate cell proliferation and inflammation in the breast. Therefore, cytokines are discussed also in a context of malignant mammary growth. As a group of tissue hormones produced by somatic cells or by cells from the immune system, cytokines are defined by their immunomodulatory potential...
January 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Yaowarin Nakornpakdee, Rasana W Sermswan, Santi Maneewatchararangsri, Surasakdi Wongratanacheewin
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease caused by the Leptospira interrogans. The hamster is considered a susceptible host while the mouse is resistant. The knowledge of hamster T cell immunity is limited compared to the mouse. The reason why the hamster and the mouse give different responses to leptospires remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the differential responses of CD4+ T cells between hamsters and mice using Leptospira interrogans as an infectious model...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Vishal Musale, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Long-standing Type 2 diabetes is associated with loss of both β-cell function and β-cell mass. Peptides derived from the frog-skin host-defense peptide esculentin-1 have been shown to exhibit potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study is to determine whether such peptides also show insulinotropic and β-cell protective activities. Esculentin-1a(1-21).NH2 , esculentin-1b(1-18).NH2 , and esculentin-1a(1-14).NH2 produced concentration-dependent stimulations of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells, 1...
March 17, 2018: Amino Acids
Keiko Aota, Koichi Kani, Tomoko Yamanoi, Koh-Ichi Nakashiro, Naozumi Ishimaru, Masayuki Azuma
CXCL10, a CXC chemokine induced by interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], has been observed in a wide variety of chronic inflammatory disorders and autoimmune conditions. Although CXCL10 is known to be overexpressed in the salivary glands of individuals with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), it is unclear which cells produce CXCL10 under what types of stimulations. Here, we investigated the precise molecular mechanisms by which CXCL10 was produced in human salivary gland ductal (NS-SV-DC) and acinar (NS-SV-AC) cell lines...
March 17, 2018: Inflammation
Belal Chami, Nathan J J Martin, Joanne M Dennis, Paul K Witting
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating disorder involving inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence of IBD is increasing worldwide. Immunological responses in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to altered gut microbiota, mucosal injury and loss of intestinal epithelial cell function all contribute to a complex mechanism underlying IBD pathogenesis. Immune cell infiltration, particularly neutrophils, is a histological feature of IBD. This innate immune response is aimed at resolving intestinal damage however, neutrophils and monocytes that are recruited and accumulate in the GI wall, participate in IBD pathogenesis by producing inflammatory cytokines and soluble mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS; one- and two-electron oxidants)...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Pei-Hui Wang, Sin-Yee Fung, Wei-Wei Gao, Jian-Jun Deng, Yun Cheng, Vidyanath Chaudhary, Kit-San Yuen, Ting-Hin Ho, Ching-Ping Chan, Yan Zhang, Kin-Hang Kok, Wanling Yang, Chi-Ping Chan, Dong-Yan Jin
STING is a core adaptor in innate nucleic acid sensing in mammalian cells, on which different sensing pathways converge to induce type I interferon (IFN) production. Particularly, STING is activated by 2'3'-cGAMP, a cyclic dinucleotide containing mixed phosphodiester linkages and produced by cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. Here, we reported on a novel transcript isoform of STING designated STING-β that dominantly inhibits innate nucleic acid sensing. STING-β without transmembrane domains was widely expressed at low levels in various human tissues and viral induction of STING-β correlated inversely with IFN-β production...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Laura Tarancon-Diez, Rebeca S De Pablo-Bernal, José Luis Jiménez, Ana I Álvarez-Ríos, Miguel Genebat, Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, María-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the main causes of morbimortality in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CVDs occurrence in HIV-infected patients. Additionally, the functional consequences of carrying these SNPs were analyzed. METHODS: The association of TLR4 SNPs, Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile with CVDs occurrence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Agata Schramm-Luc, Jolanta Schramm, Mateusz Siedliński, Tomasz J Guzik, Bogdan Batko
Younger age is a predictor of good clinical response to treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α inhibitors in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients; therefore, the aim of the study was to determine age-related differences in cellular functions, which can predict the response. High disease activity AS patients were treated with TNFα inhibitors for 12 weeks. Based on the percentage of Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) improvement, patients were divided into responding or non-responding groups...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Li Xue, Yan Geng, Ming Li, Yao-Feng Jin, Hui-Xun Ren, Xia Li, Feng Wu, Biao Wang, Wei-Ying Cheng, Teng Chen, Yan-Jiong Chen
Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (MA) influences host immunity; however, the effect of MA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses remains unknown. Mast cells (MCs) are considered to serve an important role in the innate and acquired immune response, but it remains unknown whether MA modulates MC activation and LPS-stimulated cytokine production. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of MA on LPS-induced MC activation and the production of MC-derived cytokines in mice...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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