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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723547/the-p2x7-receptor-in-infection-and-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Di Virgilio, Diego Dal Ben, Alba Clara Sarti, Anna Lisa Giuliani, Simonetta Falzoni
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) accumulates at sites of tissue injury and inflammation. Effects of extracellular ATP are mediated by plasma membrane receptors named P2 receptors (P2Rs). The P2R most involved in inflammation and immunity is the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), expressed by virtually all cells of innate and adaptive immunity. P2X7R mediates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, cytokine and chemokine release, T lymphocyte survival and differentiation, transcription factor activation, and cell death. Ten human P2RX7 gene splice variants and several SNPs that produce complex haplotypes are known...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722020/a-critical-role-of-gas6-axl-signal-in-allergic-airway-responses-during-rsv-vaccine-enhanced-disease
#2
Takehiko Shibata, Manabu Ato
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that causes lower respiratory infections across a wide range of ages. A licensed RSV vaccine is not available because vaccination with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) and the subsequent RSV infection cause not only insufficient induction of neutralizing antibodies but also severe allergic airway responses, termed FI-RSV vaccine enhanced disease (FI-RSV VED). However, the underlying mechanism has not been identified, although a Th2-biased immune response is known to be a hallmark of this disease...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719352/determination-of-il-6-tnf-%C3%AE-and-vegf-levels-in-the-serums-of-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#3
Ö Coşkun, Ö Öztopuz, Ö F Özkan
Cytokines are multifunctional polypeptides synthesized by different body cells. They have clinical significance in terms of disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 play an important role in the growth and differentiation of cells.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is excessively produced in epithelial, mesenchymal, and particularly in tumor cells. Studies have shown that the increased serum concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, VEGF are strongly associated with colorectal cancer  and directly with the clinical stage of the disease...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719141/neonatal-infection-produces-significant-changes-in-immune-function-with-no-associated-learning-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#4
Brittany F Osborne, Jasmine I Caulfield, Samantha A Solomotis, Jaclyn M Schwarz
The current experiments examined the impact of early-life immune activation and a subsequent mild immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 25µg/kg) on hippocampal-dependent learning, proinflammatory cytokine expression in the brain, and peripheral immune function in juvenile male and female rats at P24, an age when hippocampal-dependent learning and memory first emerges. Our results indicate that neonatal infection did not produce learning deficits in the hippocampal-dependent context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm in juvenile males and females, contrary to what has been observed in adults...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718957/elevated-levels-of-il-22-and-il-17a-producing-t-helper-cells-in-cholangiocarcinomarelated-to-liver-fluke-infection
#5
Si-Biao Su, Jian-Feng Zhang, Fei-Fei Huang, Yu Cen, Hai-Xing Jiang
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) associated with liver fluke infection appears to involve inflammatory and immune processes, but whether these involve the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and proliferative cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) is unclear.We compared levels of IL-22- or IL-17A-producing T helper cells and cytokine levels in 30 CCA patients with long-term liver fluke infection, 40 patients with liver-fluke infection but not CCA and 16 healthy controls. Analyses were performed using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, ELISA and RT-PCR...
July 18, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717171/the-aspirin-metabolite-salicylate-inhibits-lysine-acetyltransferases-and-muc1-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#6
Harvey R Fernandez, Sara K Lindén
MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin that can promote cancer progression, and its upregulation correlates with a worse prognosis in colon cancer. We examined the effects of overexpression of MUC1 in colon cancer cells, finding that it induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), including enhanced migration and invasion, and increased Akt phosphorylation. When the clones were treated with the aspirin metabolite salicylate, Akt phosphorylation was decreased and EMT inhibited. As the salicylate motif is necessary for the activity of the lysine acetyltransferase (KAT) inhibitor anacardic acid, we hypothesized these effects were associated with the inhibition of KAT activity...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717003/surface-toll-like-receptor-3-expression-in-metastatic-intestinal-epithelial-cells-induces-inflammatory-cytokine-production-and-promotes-invasiveness
#7
Marit Bugge, Bjarte Bergstrom, Oda Kamilla Eide, Helene Solli, Ingrid F Kjønstad, Jørgen Stenvik, Terje Espevik, Nadra J Nilsen
Toll-like receptors (TLR)s are innate immune receptors for sensing microbial molecules and damage-associated molecular patterns released from host cells. Double-stranded RNA and the synthetic analog polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly(I:C)) bind and activate TLR3. This stimulation leads to recruitment of the adaptor molecule TRIF and activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), classically inducing IFNβ production. Here, we report that unlike non-metastatic intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), metastatic IECs express TLR3, and that TLR3 promotes invasiveness of these cells...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716903/autophagy-related-protein-vps34-controls-the-homeostasis-and-function-of-antigen-cross-presenting-cd8%C3%AE-dendritic-cells
#8
Vrajesh V Parekh, Sudheer K Pabbisetty, Lan Wu, Eric Sebzda, Jennifer Martinez, Jianhua Zhang, Luc Van Kaer
The class III PI3K Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) plays a role in both canonical and noncanonical autophagy, key processes that control the presentation of antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to naive T lymphocytes. We generated DC-specific Vps34-deficient mice to assess the contribution of Vps34 to DC functions. We found that DCs from these animals have a partially activated phenotype, spontaneously produce cytokines, and exhibit enhanced activity of the classic MHC class I and class II antigen-presentation pathways...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716826/il-10-producing-infliximab-specific-t-cells-regulate-the-antidrug-t-cell-response-in-exposed-patients
#9
Alessandra Vultaggio, Francesca Nencini, Sara Pratesi, Daniele Cammelli, Maria Totaro, Sergio Romagnani, Enrico Maggi, Andrea Matucci
Infliximab (IFX) is a chimeric mAb that can lead to the appearance of anti-drug Abs. Recent research has identified the presence of circulating IFX-specific T cells in treated patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the functional characteristics of IFX-specific T cells, in particular their capability to produce biologically active regulatory cytokines. Drug-stimulated PBMCs or coculture systems were used to detect memory T cells in treated patients. The cytokines produced by IFX-specific T cells, T cell lines, and T cell clones were evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716390/impact-of-cytokine-genetic-polymorphisms-on-the-risk-of-renal-parenchymal-infection-in-children
#10
Almontaser Hussein, Eman Askar, Ahlam Badawy, Khaled Saad, Asmaa Zahran, Ahmad A Elderwy
BACKGROUND: Acute pyelonephritis is associated with renal scarring in up to 30% of patients. Renal scarring may cause significant long-term morbidity. The pathogenesis of acute pyelonephritis remains unclear, although it involves interaction among uroepithelium, the immune system cells, and the locally produced cytokines. That some UTI-prone children develop acute pyelonephritis, and eventually renal parenchymal scarring, suggests a genetic role. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, chemokine receptor-1 (CXCR1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), the key regulators of the host immune responses, are proteins whose secretion is controlled by genes...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715614/intraperitoneal-administration-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-for-the-rescue-of-retinal-degeneration-in-a-mouse-model-via-indigenous-cntf-up-regulation-by-il-6
#11
Jeong Hoon Heo, Jung Ae Yoon, Eun Kyung Ahn, Hyun Kim, Sang Hwa Urm, Chul Oh Oak, Byeng Chul Yu, Sang Joon Lee
As the world's population begins to age, retinal degeneration is an increasing problem, and various treatment modalities are being developed. However, there have been no therapies for degenerative retinal conditions that are not characterized by neovascularization. We investigated whether transplantation of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells (mADSC) into the intraperitoneal space has a rescue effect on NaIO3 -induced retinal degeneration in mice. In this study, mADSC transplantation recovered visual function and preserved the retinal outer layer structure compared to the control group without any integration of mADSC into the retina...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714991/resolution-of-inflammation-by-interleukin-9-producing-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#12
Simon Rauber, Markus Luber, Stefanie Weber, Lisa Maul, Alina Soare, Thomas Wohlfahrt, Neng-Yu Lin, Katharina Dietel, Aline Bozec, Martin Herrmann, Mark H Kaplan, Benno Weigmann, Mario M Zaiss, Ursula Fearon, Douglas J Veale, Juan D Cañete, Oliver Distler, Felice Rivellese, Costantino Pitzalis, Markus F Neurath, Andrew N J McKenzie, Stefan Wirtz, Georg Schett, Jörg H W Distler, Andreas Ramming
Inflammatory diseases such as arthritis are chronic conditions that fail to resolve spontaneously. While the cytokine and cellular pathways triggering arthritis are well defined, those responsible for the resolution of inflammation are incompletely characterized. Here we identified interleukin (IL)-9-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) as the mediators of a molecular and cellular pathway that orchestrates the resolution of chronic inflammation. In mice, the absence of IL-9 impaired ILC2 proliferation and activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, and resulted in chronic arthritis with excessive cartilage destruction and bone loss...
July 17, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712394/-human-rhinovirus-infection-promotes-mast-cell-apoptosis-and-increases-the-release-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#13
Haiwen Liu, Jingyu Tan, Huiquan Feng, Dianzhu Pan
Objective To investigate the regulation of innate immune response of HMC-1 mast cells to human rhinovirus (HRV) infection. Methods Virus replication in HMC-1 cells was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon α (IFN-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 produced by HMC-1 cells were measured using ELISA. Results After HRV infected HMC-1 cells, the copy numbers of virus RNA and apoptotic cells increased obviously over time, what's more, the release of TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-6 and IL-8 from HMC-1 cells ascended significantly compared with control groups...
July 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#14
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711237/precise-role-of-dermal-fibroblasts-on-melanocyte-pigmentation
#15
REVIEW
Yinjuan Wang, Céline Viennet, Sophie Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Li He, Philippe Humbert
Dermal fibroblasts are traditionally recognized as synthesizing, remodeling and depositing collagen and extracellular matrix, the structural framework for tissues, helping to bring thickness and firmness to the skin. However, the role of fibroblasts on skin pigmentation arouses concern recently. More is known about the interactions between epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes. This review highlights the importance of fibroblast-derived melanogenic paracrine mediators in the regulation of melanocyte activities...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710904/m1-macrophage-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-promotes-infantile-hemangioma-regression
#16
Keith Q Wu, Christopher S Muratore, Eui Y So, Changqi Sun, Patrycja M Dubielecka, Anthony M Reginato, Olin D Liang
Infantile hemangiomas are benign tumors of vascular endothelial cells (ECs), characterized by three distinct stages: proliferating phase, involuting phase, and involuted phase. The mechanisms that trigger involution of hemangioma into fibro-fatty tissue remain unknown. We report a novel mechanism by which M1-polarized macrophages induce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and promote hemangioma regression. M1- but not M2-polarized macrophages induced EndMT in ECs. Tumor necrosis factor-α and, to a lesser extent, IL-1β and interferon-γ were the most potent cytokines produced by the M1 macrophages that induce in vitro EndMT...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710773/reciprocal-modulation-of-helper-th1-and-th17-cells-by-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-drug-terbutaline
#17
Catalina M Carvajal Gonczi, Mahdieh Tabatabaei Shafiei, Ashley East, Erika Martire, Meagane H I Maurice-Ventouris, Peter J Darlington
Catecholamine hormones are powerful regulators of the immune system produced by the sympathetic nervous system. They regulate the adaptive immune system by altering T cell differentiation into T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell subsets, but the effect on Th17 cells is not known. Th17 cells, defined in part by chemokine receptor CCR6 and cytokine IL-17A, are crucial for mediating certain pathogen-specific responses, and are linked with several autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated that a proportion of human Th17 cells express β2-adrenergic receptor, a G protein coupled receptor that responds to catecholamines...
July 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709568/current-and-emerging-topical-therapies-for-atopic-dermatitis
#18
Jeremy Udkoff, Andrea Waldman, Jusleen Ahluwalia, Jenna Borok, Lawrence F Eichenfield
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves epidermal barrier dysfunction and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-driven inflammation. Cytokines, such as interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13, are important in this reaction. They stimulate B cells to produce immunoglobulin E, causing atopic disease. This process has been well characterized, and new therapies for AD, such as phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4) inhibitors, Th2-expressed chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule antagonists, and Janus kinase inhibitors, work by antagonizing this cellular pathway...
July 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709031/bisphenol-a-induces-cox-2-through-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-and-is-associated-with-levels-of-inflammation-related-markers-in-elderly-populations
#19
Heewon Song, Joonwoo Park, Phuong T C Bui, KeunOh Choi, Myung Chan Gye, Yun-Chul Hong, Jin Hee Kim, Young Joo Lee
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical, and it is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. Even though several in vivo and in vitro studies showed positive associations of BPA exposure with pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, the mechanism by which BPA induces inflammation is unclear. We investigated the mechanism by which BPA induces inflammation (expression of inflammation-related genes, changes in oxidative stress, and cell proliferation and migration) and evaluated the effect of BPA exposure on inflammation-related markers in epidemiologic studies using repeat urine and serum samples from elderly subjects...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707492/bisphenol-a-bpa-aggravates-multiple-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetes-in-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Marina Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Sinduja Thinamany, Kylie A Bruner
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorder characterized by destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Whereas epidemiological data implicate environmental factors in the increasing incidence of T1D, their identity remains unknown. Though exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with several disorders, no epidemiologic evidence has linked BPA exposure and T1D. The goal of this study was to elucidate diabetogenic potentials of BPA and underlying mechanisms in the context of T-cell immunity, in a multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ)-induced autoimmune mouse T1D model...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
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