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Cytokine-producing cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936497/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-ifn%C3%AE-and-microbiome-derived-metabolites-dictate-epigenetic-switch-between-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease-regulation-of-foxp3-isoforms-in-celiac-disease
#1
Gloria Serena, Shu Yan, Stephanie Camhi, Shilpi Patel, Rosiane S Lima, Anna Sapone, Maureen M Leonard, Rupa Mukherjee, Barbara J Nath, Karen M Lammers, Alessio Fasano
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten and characterized by a strong Th1/Th17 immune response in the small intestine. Treg cells are CD4(+) CD25(++) FOXP3(+) cells that regulate the immune response. Conversely to its counterpart, FOXP3 full length (FL), the alternatively spliced isoform FOXP3 Δ2 cannot properly down-regulate Th17 driven immune response. Since the active state of CD has been associated with impairments in Treg cell function, we aimed at determining whether imbalances between FOXP3 isoforms may be associated with the disease...
December 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935844/cooperative-evolutionary-strategy-between-the-bacteriome-and-mycobiome
#2
Mahmoud Ghannoum
Nonhealing chronic wounds are all unique in origin and circumstance, and attempting to isolate a single etiology for the failure of a wound to heal is daunting. Wounds represent complex systems of multispecies fungal and bacterial biofilms. The survival strategies of interactive microbial communities have led to cooperative evolutionary strategies that culminate in biofilm formation. In microbial dysbiosis, biofilms are beneficial to both bacterial and fungal communities but detrimental to the host. Fungi benefit by a surge in their virulence factors, while bacteria become tolerant to antibacterials as a consequence of living under the protective umbrella of the biofilm matrix...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935843/siderophores-more-than-stealing-iron
#3
Judith Behnsen, Manuela Raffatellu
Siderophores are small molecular iron chelators that are produced by microbes and whose most notable function is to sequester iron from the host and provide this essential metal nutrient to microbes. Recent studies have proposed additional, noncanonical roles for siderophores, including the acquisition of noniron metals and modulation of host functions. Recently, Holden et al. (V. I. Holden, P. Breen, S. Houle, C. M. Dozois, and M. A. Bachman, mBio 7:e01397-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01397-16) showed that siderophores secreted by Klebsiella pneumoniae during lung infection induce stabilization of the transcription factor HIF-1α, increase the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the lung, and promote dissemination of K...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934944/overexpression-of-glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-gilz-increases-susceptibility-to-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-and-involves-cutaneous-activation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#4
Elena Carceller, Marlies Ballegeer, Julie Deckers, Carlo Riccardi, Stefano Bruscoli, Tino Hochepied, Claude Libert, Paloma Pérez
Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting millions of people. Its pathophysiology is complex and involves a skin compartment with epidermal and immune cells which produce cytokines, e.g. belonging to the IL-23-Th17-cell axis. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common therapeutics used in cutaneous inflammatory disorders and GC-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) has emerged as a mediator of GCs due to its anti-inflammatory actions, theoretically lacking GC side-effects. We evaluated whether GILZ may provide a better therapeutic index in comparison to GCs during the onset and progression of psoriasis by generating and characterizing a mouse model with generalized overexpression of this protein (GILZ-Tg mice) and the imiquimod (IMQ) psoriasis model...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933593/inflammation-induced-cd69-kupffer-cell-feedback-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#5
Xiang Zhang, Zhengping Jiang, Yan Gu, Yanfang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yanmei Han
Kupffer cells, tissue-resident macrophage lineage cell, are enriched in vertebrate liver. The mouse F4/80(+) Kupffer cells have been subclassified into two subpopulations according to their phenotype and function: CD68(+) subpopulation with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytic capacities, and CD11b(+) subpopulation with a potent capacity to produce T helper 1 cytokines. In addition, CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages may be migrated from the bone marrow or spleen, especially in inflammatory conditions of the liver...
December 6, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933304/preclinical-validation-lv-il-12-transduction-of-patient-leukemia-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-aml
#6
Ju Huang, Yuanfeng Liu, Bryan C Au, Dwayne L Barber, Andrea Arruda, Axel Schambach, Michael Rothe, Mark D Minden, Christopher J Paige, Jeffrey A Medin
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent cytokine that may be harnessed to treat cancer. To date, nearly 100 IL-12-based clinical trials have been initiated worldwide. Yet systemic administration of IL-12 is toxic. Different strategies are being developed to reduce such toxicities by restricting IL-12 distribution. Our previous studies employed lentivector-mediated expression of murine IL-12 in tumor cells and demonstrated effective protection in both mouse leukemia and solid tumor challenge models. In this study, we carried out preclinical validation studies using a novel lentivector to engineer expression of human IL-12 in acute myeloid leukemia blast cells isolated from 21 patients...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933277/lectins-from-synadenium-carinatum-scll-and-artocarpus-heterophyllus-artinm-are-able-to-induce-beneficial-immunomodulatory-effects-in-a-murine-model-for-treatment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#7
Eliézer L P Ramos, Silas S Santana, Murilo V Silva, Fernanda M Santiago, Tiago W P Mineo, José R Mineo
Infection by Toxoplasma gondii affects around one-third of world population and the treatment for patients presenting toxoplasmosis clinically manifested disease is mainly based by a combination of sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid. However, this therapeutic protocol is significantly toxic, causing relevant dose-related bone marrow damage. Thus, it is necessary to improve new approaches to investigate the usefulness of more effective and non-toxic agents for treatment of patients with toxoplasmosis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933184/coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-expression-is-enhanced-in-pancreas-from-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
M Hodik, M Anagandula, J Fuxe, L Krogvold, K Dahl-Jørgensen, H Hyöty, L Sarmiento, G Frisk
OBJECTIVES: One of the theories connecting enterovirus (EV) infection of human islets with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the development of a fertile field in the islets. This implies induction of appropriate proteins for the viral replication such as the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent CAR is expressed in human islets of Langerhans, and what conditions that would change the expression. DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for CAR was performed on paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue from patients with T1D (n=9 recent onset T1D, n=4 long-standing T1D), islet autoantibody-positive individuals (n=14) and non-diabetic controls (n=24) individuals...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933160/post-sensitization-administration-of-non-digestible-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-reduces-allergic-symptoms-in-mice
#9
Betty C A M van Esch, Suzanne Abbring, Mara A P Diks, Gemma M Dingjan, Lucien F Harthoorn, A Paul Vos, Johan Garssen
To support dietary management of severe cow's milk allergic infants, a synbiotic mixture of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (B. breve) was designed from source materials that are completely cow's milk-free. It was investigated whether this specific synbiotic concept can reduce an established food allergic response in a research model for hen's egg allergy. Mice were orally sensitized once a week for 5 weeks to ovalbumin (OVA) using cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Non-sensitized mice received CT in PBS only...
June 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932255/triolein-reduces-mmp-1-upregulation-in-dermal-fibroblasts-generated-by-ros-production-in-uvb-irradiated-keratinocytes
#10
Gustavo J Leirós, Ana Gabriela Kusinsky, María Eugenia Balañá, Karin Hagelin
BACKGROUND: Cytokine production and oxidative stress generated by ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) skin exposure are main factors of skin photoaging. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by irradiated keratinocytes is proposed to have a role in metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression activation in dermal fibroblasts. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of triolein treatment of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes on MMP1 (interstitial collagenase) expression response of dermal fibroblasts...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931982/jak-inhibitor-tofacitinib-suppresses-interferon-alfa-production-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-and-inhibits-arthrogenic-and-antiviral-effects-of-interferon-alfa
#11
Patrick P C Boor, Petra E de Ruiter, Patrick S Asmawidjaja, Erik Lubberts, Luc J W van der Laan, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor that is effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and shows encouraging therapeutic effects in several other autoimmune diseases. A prominent adverse effect of tofacitinib therapy is the increased risk of viral infections. Despite its advanced stage of clinical development, the modes of action that mediate the beneficial and adverse effects of tofacitinib in autoimmune diseases remain unclear. Interferon alfa (IFNα) produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of many systemic autoimmune diseases and in immunity to viral infections...
November 20, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930978/mechanism-of-action-and-effect-of-immune-modulating-agents-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#12
Rehab M El-Gharabawy, Amira S Ahmed, Amal H Al-Najjar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to study the possible mechanisms through which different immune-modulating agents can produce their beneficial effects on treatment of psoriasis and to determine whether the supplementation of these agents for psoriasis patients induces regression of psoriasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty participants were included in this study. The participants were divided into five groups: 1. Normal control group, 2. Psoriasis patients not taking any treatment, 3...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930541/cytotoxic-th1-and-th17-cells-infiltrate-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-behcet-patients-and-exhibit-high-levels-of-tnf-%C3%AE-in-early-phases-of-the-disease
#13
Giacomo Emmi, Elena Silvestri, Chiara Della Bella, Alessia Grassi, Marisa Benagiano, Fabio Cianchi, Danilo Squatrito, Luca Cantarini, Lorenzo Emmi, Carlo Selmi, Domenico Prisco, Mario Milco D'Elios
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal involvement is one of the most serious in Behçet disease, potentially leading to severe complications. Aim of this study was to investigate at mucosal level the T-cell responses in Behçet patients with early intestinal involvement. METHODS: We isolated T cells from intestinal mucosa of 8 patients with intestinal symptoms started within 6 months. T lymphocytes were cloned and analyzed for surface phenotype and cytokines production. RESULTS: We obtained 382 T-cell clones: 324 were CD4+ and 58 were CD8+...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927969/combined-single-cell-measurement-of-cytokine-mrna-and-protein-identifies-t-cells-with-persistent-effector-function
#14
Benoit P Nicolet, Aurelie Guislain, Monika C Wolkers
Effective T cell responses entail the coproduction of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. Cytokine production is determined by transcriptional and posttranscriptional events. However, increased transcript levels do not always translate into protein production, and therefore simultaneous transcripts and protein measurement are essential for the appropriate analysis of T cell responses. In this study, we optimized flow cytometry-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (Flow-FISH) for IFN-γ to multicolor flow cytometry that allows for single-cell measurement of mRNA and protein levels...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926930/cytomegalovirus-specific-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells-are-governed-by-type-i-ifn-induced-il-27-and-promote-virus-persistence
#15
Mathew Clement, Morgan Marsden, Maria A Stacey, Juneid Abdul-Karim, Silvia Gimeno Brias, Diana Costa Bento, Martin J Scurr, Peter Ghazal, Casey T Weaver, Gianluca Carlesso, Simon Clare, Simon A Jones, Andrew Godkin, Gareth W Jones, Ian R Humphreys
CD4+ T cells support host defence against herpesviruses and other viral pathogens. We identified that CD4+ T cells from systemic and mucosal tissues of hosts infected with the β-herpesviridae human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) express the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. IL-10+CD4+ T cells co-expressed TH1-associated transcription factors and chemokine receptors. Mice lacking T cell-derived IL-10 elicited enhanced antiviral T cell responses and restricted MCMV persistence in salivary glands and secretion in saliva...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926504/the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibitors-on-human-th17-cells-via-ror%C3%AE-t-histone-acetylation
#16
Yi-Ching Lin, Yu-Chih Lin, Cheng-Chin Wu, Ming-Yii Huang, Wen-Chan Tsai, Chih-Hsing Hung, Po-Lin Kuo
The presence of interleukin (IL)-17-related cytokines correlates with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Epigenetic modifications, including histone acetylation, regulate gene expression in RA pathogenesis. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors such as etanercept and adalimumab, represent a breakthrough in RA treatment. We aimed to investigate the effects of etanercept and adalimumab on human Th17-polarized cells and the possible intracellular regulators of these effects, including the Th17-specific transcription factors signal transducer, activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), retinoid-related orphan receptor γ-T (RORγt) and epigenetic modification...
December 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925510/passive-therapy-with-humanized-anti-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-antibodies-attenuates-systemic-inflammatory-response-and-protects-from-lethal-pneumonia-caused-by-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-producing-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Melissa J Karau, Mulualem E Tilahun, Ashton Krogman, Barbara A Osborne, Richard A Goldsby, Chella S David, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Robin Patel, Govindarajan Rajagopalan
Drugs such as linezolid that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating infections caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus. As protein synthesis inhibitors have no effect on preformed toxins, neutralization of pathogenic exotoxins with anti-toxin antibodies may be beneficial in conjunction with antibacterial therapy. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of human-mouse chimeric high-affinity neutralizing anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antibodies in the treatment of experimental pneumonia caused by SEB-producing S...
December 7, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925481/mitochondrial-ros-uncoupled-from-atp-synthesis-determine-endothelial-activation-for-both-physiological-recruitment-of-patrolling-cells-and-pathological-recruitment-of-inflammatory-cells
#18
Xinyuan Li, Pu Fang, William Y Yang, Kylie Chan, Muriel Lavallee, Keman Xu, Tracy Gao, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are signaling molecules, which drive inflammatory cytokine production and T cell activation. In addition, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and autoimmune diseases all share a common feature of increased mtROS level. Both mtROS and ATP are produced as a result of electron transport chain activity, but it remains enigmatic whether mtROS could be generated independently from ATP synthesis. A recent study shed light on this important question and found that, during endothelial cell (EC) activation, mtROS could be upregulated in a proton leak-coupled, but ATP synthesis-uncoupled manner...
November 5, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925010/the-effects-of-a-simple-method-for-cryopreservation-and-thawing-procedures-on-cord-blood-derived-dc-based-esophageal-carcinoma-vaccine
#19
J Yu, L Xie, S Chen, J Zhang, G Guo, B Chen
BACKGROUND: Producing sufficient numbers of DCs at one time point and subsequently cryopreserving the generated DCs in ready-for-use aliquots for clinical application is useful in cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of a simplified cryopreservation method and thawing procedures acting on the biological characteristics and specific cytotoxic activity of cord blood derived DC-based esophageal carcinoma vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood using CD34+ Progenitor Cell Isolation Kit by magnetic cell sorting system (MACS)...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924718/co-activation-of-cultured-human-natural-killer-cells-enhanced-function-and-decreased-inhibition
#20
Doris Urlaub, Rauf Bhat, Birgitta Messmer, Carsten Watzl
Natural killer (NK) cells are important immune effector cells that protect the organism against viral infections and cancer. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells is induced by the engagement of a number of different activating surface receptors and controlled by inhibitory receptors to ensure self-tolerance. Resting NK cells need to be co-activated by involvement of at least two distinct activating receptors in order to induce their functional activity. However, in cultured NK cells, which have been expanded in cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2, the engagement of a single activating receptor may be sufficient to induce their function...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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