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Developmental trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143536/time-for-a-new-zeitgeist-in-perinatal-mental-health
#1
Fiona Judd, Louise Kathryn Newman, Angela A Komiti
Perinatal depression, and to a lesser extent anxiety, has been the focus of interest for perinatal psychiatrists for several decades. Policy and substantial funding has supported this. We argue that it is now time to change this focus and to invest greater funding to support clinical and research effort in 'high-risk' caregivers and their infants. We define high-risk caregivers as those who are likely to have attachment and relationship difficulties with their infant as a result of their own developmental experiences, personality difficulties and/or trauma-related mental disorders, often complicated by substance abuse, depression and anxiety...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132848/lymphedema-pathophysiology-and-clinical-manifestations
#2
REVIEW
Ayman A Grada, Tania J Phillips
Lymphedema is a localized form of tissue swelling resulting from excessive retention of lymphatic fluid in the interstitial compartment and caused by impaired lymphatic drainage. Lymphedema is classified as primary or secondary. Primary lymphedema is caused by developmental lymphatic vascular anomalies. Secondary lymphedema is acquired and arises as a result of an underlying systemic disease, trauma, or surgery. We performed PubMed and Google Scholar searches of the English-language literature (1966-2017) using the terms lymphedema, cancer-related lymphedema, and lymphatic complications...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130493/trajectories-of-resting-frontal-brain-activity-and-psychopathology-in-female-adolescents-exposed-to-child-maltreatment
#3
Alva Tang, Vladimir Miskovic, Ayelet Lahat, Masako Tanaka, Harriet MacMillan, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
Resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry patterns reflecting different affective and motivational tendencies have been proposed as a putative mechanism underlying resilience among maltreated youth. This 2-year prospective study examined whether developmental stability of resting frontal alpha asymmetry moderated the relation between child maltreatment severity and psychopathology in female adolescents (n = 43; ages 12-16) recruited from child protection agencies. Results identified two trajectories of resting frontal asymmetry: 60...
November 12, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125518/a-trauma-informed-approach-supports-health-and-development-in-children-and-youth-with-spina-bifida
#4
Veronica Meneses, Natalie Cruz
Children with developmental disabilities may be at greater risk for experiencing maltreatment and traumatic events, threats to their physical and psychological safety and well-being. Young children and youth with spina bifida benefit from being considered in light of this risk, and may be especially vulnerable given the complexity of their neurodevelopmental condition. A trauma-informed approach brings together evidence from the neurosciences, epidemiology and psychology to promote improved developmental, behavioral, physical and mental health status...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114160/clinical-characteristics-of-troublesome-pediatric-tinnitus
#5
Annett Szibor, Topi Jutila, Antti Mäkitie, Antti Aarnisalo
Objectives: The frequency of tinnitus in children and adults is practically the same. However, although adults reveal their symptoms and seek for medical aid, the suffering often remains unrecognized in the young. This is due to both the inability of children to properly describe their symptoms and the lack of recognition. Materials and methods: Among 5768 patients entering our department with complaints of tinnitus between 2010 and 2015, there were only 112 children...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112905/determinants-of-hair-cortisol-concentration-in-children-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
N A Gray, A Dhana, L Van Der Vyver, J Van Wyk, N P Khumalo, D J Stein
BACKGROUND: Several factors are known contribute to hair cortisol concentration (HCC) in adults. However, there is less research on determinants of HCC in children and adolescents. HCC is a valuable tool for medical research pertaining to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This review aims to assess the extent to which established determinants of HCC in adults have been consistently reported in children (birth - 18 years) and to identify determinants of HCC specific to this age group...
November 2, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109672/towards-a-developmentally-integrative-model-of-personality-change-a-focus-on-three-potential-mechanisms
#7
Elizabeth N Riley, Sarah J Peterson, Gregory T Smith
While the overall stability of personality across the lifespan has been well-documented, one does see incremental changes in a number of personality traits, changes that may impact overall life trajectories in both positive and negative ways. In this chapter, we present a new, developmentally-oriented and integrative model of the factors that might lead to personality change, drawing from the theoretical and empirical work of prior models (e.g. Caspi & Roberts, 2001; Roberts et al., 2005) as well as from our own longitudinal studies of personality change and risky behavior engagement in children, adolescents, and young adults (Boyle et al...
2017: Advances in Psychology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103210/insulin-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081882/derivation-of-telencephalic-oligodendrocyte-progenitors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Tamara Major, Ann Powers, Viviane Tabar
Oligodendrocytes are the main myelinating cell of the adult CNS and are vulnerable to injury in diverse disorders such as spinal cord injury, stroke, trauma, pharmacological and radiation toxicity, as well as neuroinflammation. Human pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and provide a promising treatment strategy for exogenous myelin repair through transplantation. This unit describes a protocol for the step-wise differentiation of forebrain late oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) from human pluripotent stem cells in defined chemical in vitro culture conditions...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077996/posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-preschool-children-in-foster-care-the-influence-of-placement-and-foster-family-environment
#10
Mira Vasileva, Franz Petermann
Children in foster care often experience traumatic events which increase their risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Until now, no research has investigated the developmentally sensitive PTSS criteria for preschoolers among children in foster care. The current study estimated the prevalence of potentially traumatic experiences and clinical PTSS in German foster care children aged 3 to 7 years. The foster parents of 324 children completed questionnaires about children's PTSS, foster parental stress, parenting, and family functioning...
October 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046917/effects-of-an-injectable-functionalized-self-assembling-nanopeptide-hydrogel-on-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-for-regeneration-of-the-central-nervous-system
#11
Tzu-Wei Wang, Kai-Chieh Chang, Liang-Hsin Chen, Shih-Yung Liao, Chia-Wei Yeh, Yung-Jen Chuang
Brain injury is a devastating medical condition and represents a major health problem. Tissue and organ reconstruction have been regarded as promising therapeutic strategies. Here, we propose a regenerative methodology focusing on the provision of functionalized nanopeptide scaffolds to facilitate angiogenesis and neurogenesis at the brain injury site. The peptide RADA16-SVVYGLR undergoes self-assembly to construct an interconnected network with intertwining nanofibers, and can be controlled to display various physicochemical properties by the adjustment of microenvironmental factors such as pH and ion concentration...
November 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046273/upright-versus-lying-down-position-in-second-stage-of-labour-in-nulliparous-women-with-low-dose-epidural-bumpes-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
(no author information available yet)
Objective To determine whether being upright in the second stage of labour in nulliparous women with a low dose epidural increases the chance of spontaneous vaginal birth compared with lying down.Design Multicentre pragmatic individually randomised controlled trial.Setting 41 UK hospital labour wards.Participants 3093 nulliparous women aged 16 or older, at term with a singleton cephalic presentation and in the second stage of labour with epidural analgesia.Interventions Women were allocated to an upright or lying down position, using a secure web based randomisation service, stratified by centre, with no masking of participants or clinicians to the trial interventions...
October 18, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039808/a-diagnosis-of-denial-how-mental-health-classification-systems-have-struggled-to-recognise-family-violence-as-a-serious-risk-factor-in-the-development-of-mental-health-issues-for-infants-children-adolescents-and-adults
#13
Wendy Bunston, Candice Franich-Ray, Sara Tatlow
Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood...
October 17, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024709/caffeine-administration-alters-the-behaviour-and-development-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae
#14
Ronan Maguire, Martin Kunc, Pavel Hyrsl, Kevin Kavanagh
The effect of feeding caffeine on the behaviour and neural proteome of Galleria mellonella larvae was assessed. Caffeine was administered to larvae by force feeding and the metabolites theobromine and theophylline were subsequently detected by RP-HPLC analysis. Administration of caffeine to larvae resulted in reduced movement and a reduction in the formation of pupae. The production of the muscle relaxant theophylline may contribute to the reduction in larval movement. Analysis of the changes in proteome of the brain and surrounding tissues of caffeine fed larvae revealed an increase in the abundance of immune related proteins such as immune-related Hdd1 (6...
October 9, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019747/masses-of-the-nose-nasal-cavity-and-nasopharynx-in-children
#15
Diana P Rodriguez, Emily S Orscheln, Bernadette L Koch
A wide range of masses develop in the nose, nasal cavity, and nasopharynx in children. These lesions may arise from the nasal ala or other structures of the nose, including the mucosa covering any surface of the nasal cavity, the cartilaginous or osseous portion of the nasal septum, the nasal turbinates, and the nasal bones. Lesions may also arise from the nasopharynx or adjacent structures and involve the nose by way of direct extension. The causes of nasal masses in children include congenital and developmental disorders such as congenital nasolacrimal duct mucocele, dermoid cyst, cephalocele, and nasal neuroglial heterotopia; inflammatory and infectious processes such as mucocele, polyp, and pyogenic granuloma; benign neoplasms such as infantile hemangioma and juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma; malignant lesions such as rhabdomyosarcoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma; and masses related to prior trauma such as septal hematoma...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988973/comparative-connectomics-mapping-the-inter-individual-variability-of-connections-within-the-regions-of-the-human-brain
#16
Csaba Kerepesi, Balázs Szalkai, Bálint Varga, Vince Grolmusz
The human braingraph, or connectome is a description of the connections of the brain: the nodes of the graph correspond to small areas of the gray matter, and two nodes are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow finds fibers between those brain areas. We have constructed 1015-vertex graphs from the diffusion MRI brain images of 392 human subjects and compared the individual graphs with respect to several different areas of the brain. The inter-individual variability of the graphs within different brain regions was discovered and described...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987187/spinal-cord
#17
Umberto de Girolami, Tejus A Bale
We first present a brief historic review of developments in the understanding of spinal cord clinical neuroanatomy and neurophysiology over the past 200 years. We then discuss the technical aspects that apply to the examination of the human spinal cord giving details on the interrelations between the spinal cord and the overlying structures, including the meninges and vertebrae. The subsequent discussion focuses on diseases of the spinal cord. Diseases that affect the spinal cord are vascular disease, diseases of spinal column, trauma, developmental abnormalities, central nervous system degenerative disease, inflammatory disease, metabolic and nutritional myelopathies, and tumors...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984117/sudden-unexpected-postnatal-collapse-at-20-hours-from-birth-during-skin-to-skin-care-related-to-brainstem-developmental-alterations-a-case-report
#18
Anna M Lavezzi, Francesco Piscioli, Teresa Pusiol
This report describes a case of sudden collapse of a 20-hour-old newborn, while he was placed close to their mother according to skin-to-skin care, attributed to developmental alterations of brainstem nuclei involved in regulation of the vital functions. The infant, after a normal pregnancy, appeared well developed at birth, with no evidence of malformations or trauma, but showing severe asphyxia. The routine autopsy did not reveal a possible cause of death. Only the in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system, according to the protocol developed by the "Lino Rossi" Research Center of Milan University, provided an explanation of the pathogenetic mechanism of this early death...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983193/maternal-lifetime-trauma-exposure-prenatal-cortisol-and-infant-negative-affectivity
#19
Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Katrina L Devick, Kelly J Brunst, Lianna R Lipton, Brent A Coull, Rosalind J Wright
Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947693/-oral-healthcare-for-the-persons-with-special-needs
#20
Ichijiro Morisaki
The field of special care dentistry is rapidly gaining recognition as a service that should be provided to the persons with physical, mental or intellectual disabilities by general practitioner, pediatric or geriatric dentists as well as dental hygienists. Because the oral healthcare and dental treatments are given in the narrow space of oral cavity and also accompanying technical difficulties with high risk of injury, the special needs patients are treated under being controlled their behavior or body motion by applying psychological, physical or pharmacological techniques...
2017: Clinical Calcium
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