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Developmental trauma

Anamaria Balic
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, became more evident...
March 13, 2018: Gerontology
Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw, Adam Bayes
OBJECTIVES: To determine if differing developmental factors show specificity to differing manifestations of borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: A clinical sample of 73 females diagnosed with BPD undertook a psychiatrist interview and completed self-report questionnaires, including the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV) assessing for BPD status. A set of negative and potentially traumatic developmental factors were included in the assessment...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Hilary B Hodgdon, Rachel Liebman, Lia Martin, Michael Suvak, Kari Beserra, Wendy Rosenblum, Joseph Spinazzola
Risk for traumatic sequelae is conveyed directly by risk factors (i.e., exposure to trauma), and via the disruption of developmental competencies. Exposure to caregiver trauma is an especially salient risk factor, as its early and pervasive nature is likely to undermine multiple facets of development, most notably the emergence of cognitive controls (i.e., executive function [EF]). Deficits in EF have been observed among youth exposed to multiple types of trauma and are associated with a range of functional impairments, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and behavioral disorders; they represent a mechanism by which the negative impact of caregiver trauma is conveyed...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Lauren A Demers, Kelly Jedd McKenzie, Ruskin H Hunt, Dante Cicchetti, Raquel A Cowell, Fred A Rogosch, Sheree L Toth, Kathleen M Thomas
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a history of maltreatment show altered amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli, atypical frontal regulatory control, and differences in frontolimbic connectivity compared with nonmaltreated controls. However, despite early trauma, many individuals who experience maltreatment show resilience or adaptive functioning in adulthood including positive social, educational, and occupational outcomes. METHODS: The present study used a psychophysiological interaction model to examine the effect of adult adaptive functioning on group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated adults in task-based amygdala functional connectivity...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Marilyn Ballantyne, Stephanie Bernardo, Aubrey Sozer, Taryn Orava, Amy C McPherson, Paige Church, Darcy Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Parents' experiences transitioning their children from neonatal to developmental/rehabilitation services (DRS) are unknown. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was used, including interviews with 18 parents (13 mothers and 5 fathers) of children born preterm and diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP), located in a large urban center in Canada. Interview data underwent thematic analysis. RESULTS: Parents' experiences with transition to DRS were a whole new world with three key themes: Wanting to know what to expect, feeling supported in their transition, and getting there emotionally and physically...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Yuliang Zha, Hao Liu, Yang Sun, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Jiuping Xu
BACKGROUND: Surviving an earthquake can greatly increase the risk of suicidality among children and adolescents, especially if they experience physical and emotional neglect or abuse within the family after the earthquake. How various types of childhood adversity affect the vulnerability of adolescents to suicidality after exposure to a natural disaster is not well understood. This study examined the relationships among different types of earthquake exposure, childhood trauma, psychopathology and suicidality...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jenna Rice, Raymond A Knight
Although adults who have sexually offended against both child and adult victims (i.e., adults with mixed aged sexual offense victims [MASOVs]) have been found at increased risk to reoffend, they have been a neglected and rarely studied group of individuals who have sexually offended. The present study explored their differentiating characteristics by comparing them with adults who had sexually offended exclusively against children (child sex offense victims [CSOVs]) or adults (adult sex offense victims [ASOVs])...
March 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
Ripudaman S Minhas, Hamish Graham, Thivia Jegathesan, Joelene Huber, Elizabeth Young, Tony Barozzino
The Canadian Government has announced that over 50,000 refugees from the Middle East will be resettled in Canada by 2018. More than one-third of these refugees are expected to be children. The Canadian Paediatric Society has called for the Canadian government to prepare for the influx of these children. This should include addressing developmental, behavioural, and mental health needs. The focus of this paper is the role of paediatricians and family physicians in caring for the developmental health of refugee children, as a means of supporting their developmental and learning potential...
May 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Debora Lee Oh, Petra Jerman, Sara Silvério Marques, Kadiatou Koita, Sukhdip Kaur Purewal Boparai, Nadine Burke Harris, Monica Bucci
BACKGROUND: Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. METHODS: PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci, Kristine M Nacion, Karen Leonhart, Jennifer N Cooper, Sarah Hudson Scholle, Kelly J Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. METHODS: The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures...
February 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Yu-Xin Song, Zeng-Ping Wang, Lin Liu, Wen Xue, Zhong-Yu Hao, Qun-Li Zhang, Wei She, Li-Yang Cai, Hai-Tao Gou, Yao-Wen Qian
Madelung deformity is a rare deformity of forearm and wrist caused by growth disorders of distal radius ulnar and palmar epiphyseal. Current studies showed that its incidence mainly associated with trauma, epiphyseal developmental abnormalities, nutritional disorders and genetic deletion or mutation. The early clinical presentation is not typical, in middle and late time, wrist deformity and weak can appear. Plain film considered as the main means of diagnosis is often lack of early diagnosis significance. Although wrist joint magnetic resonance imaging showing early soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities were used for the early diagnosis of the disease, current domestic study in magnetic resonance imaging of this deformity is less...
October 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Daniel E Altman, Laurence P Simmons, Chau T Vuong, Rachel M Taylor, Jason C Sousa, Sean R Marcsisin, Victor E Zottig, Nicole L T Moore
Adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterized by behavioral and physiological maturation. Rapid ongoing changes during neurodevelopment in particular present potential opportunities for stress to have lasting effects on longitudinal outcomes of behavioral and neuroendocrine function. While adult stress effects on outcomes during adulthood have been characterized, little is known about the lasting effects of adolescent repeated stressor exposure on outcomes during adolescence. We have previously reported different stress responses in adolescent rats relative to adult rats, including a blunted fear response outcome in adulthood in rats stressed during adolescence...
February 16, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Zhang, Li Qian, Maya Deyssenroth, Luca Lambertini, Jackie Finik, Jacob Ham, Yongling Huang, Kenji J Tsuchiya, Patricia Pehme, Jessica Buthmann, Sachiko Yoshida, Jia Chen, Yoko Nomura
Prenatal maternal stress increases the risk for negative developmental outcomes in offspring, however the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In this study, alterations in placental gene expression associated with maternal stress were examined to elucidate potential underlying epi/genetic mechanisms. Expression levels of 40 selected genes involved in regulating fetal HPA-axis and neurodevelopment were profiled in placental tissues collected from a birth cohort established around the time of Superstorm Sandy...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Pradeep Goyal, Steven Lee, Nishant Gupta, Yogesh Kumar, Manisha Mangla, Kusum Hooda, Shuo Li, Rajiv Mangla
Orbital apex disorders include orbital apex syndrome, superior orbital fissure syndrome and cavernous sinus syndrome. These disorders result from various etiologies, including trauma, neoplastic, developmental, infectious, inflammatory as well as vascular causes. In the past, these have been described separately based on anatomical locations of disease process; however, these three disorders share similar causes, diagnostic evaluation and management strategies. The etiology is diverse and management is directed to the causative process...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Yong Won Lee, Yong Min Kim
INTRODUCTION: Antrochoanal polyps (ACPs) have several unique features that distinguish them from other nasal polyps. Despite many investigations, the pathogenesis of ACP has not yet been elucidated. Sinonasal osteoma is the most common type of tumor of the sinonasal tract and can be caused by trauma, infection and developmental anomaly. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the case of a 35-year-old man with left nasal obstruction for more than 20 years. Examination revealed ACP concomitant with an osteoma that arose from the middle turbinate and ethmoid sinus...
January 28, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Marguerite T Parisi, Ramesh S Iyer, A Luana Stanescu
The introduction of diphosphonates in the 1970s revolutionized not only nuclear medicine but musculoskeletal imaging as well, providing functional assessment of entities such as osteomyelitis, trauma, and osseous metastatic disease. Although rarely the first-line imaging modality used today, nuclear medicine procedures continue to play a pivotal role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases in children, providing whole-body assessment of disease involvement. More recently, the introduction of technologies such as single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), as well as newer positron-emitting tracers such as 18 fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose and sodium 18 F-fluorine, particularly when combined with CT (positron emission tomography/CT), have injected new life into the older established techniques and expanded the application of nuclear medicine imaging into new arenas...
February 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
Samantha L Redman, Cheryl M Corcoran, David Kimhy, Dolores Malaspina
Early trauma (ET), though broadly and inconsistently defined, has been repeatedly linked to numerous psychological disturbances, including various developmental stages of psychotic disorders. The prodromal phase of psychosis highlights a unique and relevant population that provides insight into the critical periods of psychosis development. As such, a relatively recent research focus on individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis reveals robust associations of early life trauma exposures with prodromal symptoms and function in these cohorts...
December 15, 2017: Arch Psychol (Chic)
Guang Yong Chen, Long Ma, Mei Ling Xu, Jin Nan Zhang, Zhi Dong He, Cheng Yan He, Cong Hai Zhao, Chao Fu, Miao Li, Yu Fei Gao
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage is usually caused by developmental abnormalities and is rare, accounting for approximately 5% of the cases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. To the best of our knowledge, clival dysplasia-caused CSF rhinorrhea has never been reported in the neurosurgical field. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is often treated by surgery, and a transsphenoidal approach repair is the main surgical method used, offering the advantages of less trauma, fewer complications, rapid postoperative recovery, and low recurrence rate...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ibrahim Aref Kira, Hanaa Shuwiekh, Justyna Kucharska, Mounir Fawzi, Jeffrey S Ashby, Andrea Z Omidy, Sharifa Abou-Mediene, Linda Lewandowski
The current research and clinical focus on single traumas fails to assess numerous important trauma dynamics including trauma proliferation. In this study, 2 trauma proliferation pathways were identified that utilize a developmentally based trauma framework (DBTF). Data previously collected from 6 different cultural groups (N = 2279; 2 mental health clinics in Egypt and the United States, Native Americans, Palestinian adults in Gaza, and college students in Poland and Egypt) were reanalyzed. The 6 studies utilized DBTF-based measures of cumulative trauma and trauma types...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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