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Developmental trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109495/swallowing-function-in-pediatric-patients-with-bilateral-vocal-fold-immobility
#1
Jeffrey Hsu, Kathleen M Tibbetts, Derek Wu, Michel Nassar, Melin Tan
INTRODUCTION: Infants with bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) often have poor swallow function in addition to potential airway compromise. While there are several reports on BVFI and its effect on patients' airway status, little is known about long term swallow function. OBJECTIVES: We aim to characterize the swallowing function over time in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of infants diagnosed with BVFI at a tertiary care children's hospital between 2005 and 2014 was conducted...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077843/orpha-orphic-functions-and-the-orphic-analyst-winnicott-s-regression-to-dependence-in-the-language-of-ferenczi
#2
Hayuta Gurevich
Early developmental trauma is imprinted in the psyche by survival fragmentation and dissociation. Traumatized patients need the analyst to be actively involved and allow for regression to dependence in order to strengthen, create and construct their psychic functioning and structure so that environmental failures will be contained and not rupture continuity of being. I suggest that Ferenczi's and Winnicott's ideas about regression to dependence in analysis are fundamental contributions to these quests, and that Ferenczi set the foundation, which Winnicott further explored and developed...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#3
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018284/developmental-changes-in-pain-and-spinal-immune-gene-expression-after-radicular-trauma-in-the-rat
#4
Gordon A Barr, Shaoning Wang, Christine L Weisshaar, Beth A Winkelstein
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain that develops after nerve injury and is less frequent in infants and children than in adults. Likewise, in animal models of neuropathic pain, allodynia and hyperalgesia are non-existent or attenuated in the infant, with a "switch" during development by which acute nerve injury transitions to chronic pain. Concomitant with the delay in neuropathic pain, there is a parallel delay in the ability of nerve injury to activate the immune system. Models of neuropathic pain in the infant have used various ligation methods and find that neuropathic pain does not occur under after postnatal days 21-28 (PN21-PN28), linked to activation of immune processes and developmental regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002080/on-the-etiology-of-listening-difficulties-in-noise-despite-clinically-normal-audiograms
#5
Martin Pienkowski
Many people with difficulties following conversations in noisy settings have "clinically normal" audiograms, that is, tone thresholds better than 20 dB HL from 0.1 to 8 kHz. This review summarizes the possible causes of such difficulties, and examines established as well as promising new psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic approaches to differentiate between them. Deficits at the level of the auditory periphery are possible even if thresholds remain around 0 dB HL, and become probable when they reach 10 to 20 dB HL...
December 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977498/evaluation-of-pediatric-questions-on-the-orthopaedic-in-training-examination-an-update
#6
Robert F Murphy, Leah Nunez, William R Barfield, James F Mooney
BACKGROUND: Pediatric orthopaedics is tested frequently on the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination (OITE). The most recent data on the pediatrics section of the OITE were generated from content 10 years old. The purpose of this study is to assess the pediatric orthopaedic questions on the 2011 to 2014 OITE, and to compare question categories and cognitive taxonomy with previous data. METHODS: Four years (2011 to 2014) of OITE questions, answers, and references were reviewed...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940730/helping-children-and-families-deal-with-divorce-and-separation
#7
George J Cohen, Carol C Weitzman
For the past several years in the United States, there have been more than 800 000 divorces and parent separations annually, with over 1 million children affected. Children and their parents can experience emotional trauma before, during, and after a separation or divorce. Pediatricians can be aware of their patients' behavior and parental attitudes and behaviors that may indicate family dysfunction and that can indicate need for intervention. Age-appropriate explanation and counseling for the child and advice and guidance for the parents, as well as recommendation of reading material, may help reduce the potential negative effects of divorce...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939751/estimating-axonal-strain-and-failure-following-white-matter-stretch-using-contactin-associated-protein-as-a-fiduciary-marker
#8
Sagar Singh, Assimina A Pelegri, David I Shreiber
Axonal injury occurs during trauma when tissue-scale loads are transferred to individual axons. Computational models are used to understand this transfer and predict the circumstances that cause injury. However, these findings are limited by a lack of validating experimental work examining the mechanics of axons in their in situ state. As a first step towards validation for dynamic stretch, we use contactin-associated protein (Caspr), expressed at the nodes of Ranvier, as a fiduciary marker of quasistatic axonal stretch...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930965/attachment-in-psychosis-a-latent-profile-analysis-of-attachment-styles-and-association-with-symptoms-in-a-large-psychosis-cohort
#9
Sandra Bucci, Richard Emsley, Katherine Berry
Attachment has been identified as one of various possible mechanisms involved in understanding models of psychosis, but measures that reliably and validly assess attachment styles in psychosis are limited. The aim of this study was to identify attachment patterns in psychosis and examine demographic and clinical correlates across attachment groups. Latent profile analysis on attachment data from 588 participants who met criteria for non-affective psychosis was used to classify people into attachment classes...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907846/modelling-life-satisfaction-and-adjustment-to-trauma-in-children-exposed-to-ongoing-military-violence-an-exploratory-study-in-palestine
#10
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Al Muranak, Husam Hamdouna
Exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health risks among children, especially in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive or somatic symptoms. However, an exclusive focus on negative functioning can lead to underestimating the coping abilities and natural potential for adjusting to trauma of war-affected children at different developmental phases. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the extent to which data gathered in a predominantly nonclinical sample of Palestinian children (N=1276) living in refugee camps supported a conceptual model in which the relationship between subjective wellbeing and the effects of trauma is mainly top-down in direction...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898709/individual-differences-in-emotion-regulation-childhood-trauma-and-proneness-to-shame-and-guilt-in-adolescence
#11
Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar, Andrei C Miu
Dispositional shame and guilt have been associated with psychopathology and an increasing number of studies have traced this relation back to adolescence. This developmental period is thought to be characterized by maturational changes in emotion regulation, which also play an important role in vulnerability to psychopathology, but little is known about the links between emotion regulation and dispositional shame and guilt. The current study investigated the relations between individual differences in the habitual use of a wide range of emotion regulation strategies and proneness to shame and guilt in a large sample of adolescents (N = 706), aged 13 to 17 years...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895485/adhd-and-present-hedonism-time-perspective-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool
#12
REVIEW
S Weissenberger, M Klicperova-Baker, P Zimbardo, K Schonova, D Akotia, J Kostal, M Goetz, J Raboch, R Ptacek
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894286/the-family-experiences-of-in-hospital-care-questionnaire-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-fecq-tbi-a-validation-study
#13
Audny Anke, Unn Sollid Manskow, Oddgeir Friborg, Cecilie Røe, Cathrine Arntzen
BACKGROUND: Family members are important for support and care of their close relative after severe traumas, and their experiences are vital health care quality indicators. The objective was to describe the development of the Family Experiences of in-hospital Care Questionnaire for family members of patients with severe Traumatic Brain Injury (FECQ-TBI), and to evaluate its psychometric properties and validity. METHODS: The design of the study is a Norwegian multicentre study inviting 171 family members...
November 28, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893241/ill-or-injured-shifting-the-emphasis-to-trauma-in-mental-health-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
Matthew S Costanzo
TOPIC: This contribution examines the disparity that exists between research that identifies the prevalence of trauma among mental health service users and the low frequency of adequately diagnosing and treating trauma in practice. For this author, the important question to pose is "Could behavioral health services be persistently erring in both diagnoses and treatment approaches to adequately assist and support service users?" PURPOSE: The author proposes an alternative service model which is aligned with the prevalence of complex trauma...
December 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893181/synaesthesia-lost-and-found-two-cases-of-person-and-music-colour-synaesthesia
#15
Francesca R Farina, Kevin J Mitchell, Richard A P Roche
Synaesthesia is a developmental condition involving cross-communication between sensory modalities or substreams whereby an inducer (e.g. a sound) automatically evokes a concurrent percept in another modality (e.g. a colour). Whether this condition arises due to atypical structural connectivity (e.g., between normally unconnected cortical areas) or altered neurochemistry remains a central question. We report the exceptional cases of two synaesthetes - subjects AB and CD - both of whom experience coloured auras around individuals, as well as coloured perceptions in response to music...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863803/research-domain-criteria-and-the-study-of-trauma-in-children-implications-for-assessment-and-treatment-research
#16
REVIEW
Carla Smith Stover, Brooks Keeshin
By definition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires exposure to a traumatic event. Yet, the DSM diagnostic requirements for children and adolescents for PTSD may fail to capture traumatized youth with significant distress and functional impairment. Many important studies have utilized PTSD diagnosis as a mechanism for grouping individuals for comparative studies examining brain functioning, neuroendocrinology, genetics, attachment, and cognition; however, focusing only on those with the diagnosis of PTSD can miss the spectrum of symptoms and difficulties that impact children who experience trauma and subsequent impairment...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844058/western-high-fat-diet-consumption-during-adolescence-increases-susceptibility-to-traumatic-stress-while-selectively-disrupting-hippocampal-and-ventricular-volumes
#17
Priya Kalyan-Masih, Julio David Vega-Torres, Christina Miles, Elizabeth Haddad, Sabrina Rainsbury, Mohsen Baghchechi, Andre Obenaus, Johnny D Figueroa
Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830573/developmental-contributors-to-trauma-response-the-importance-of-sensitive-periods-early-environment-and-sex-differences
#18
Jennifer S Stevens, Sanne J H van Rooij, Tanja Jovanovic
This review considers early factors that interact with development to contribute to later trauma responses, including developmental sensitive periods, the effects of early environment, and the emergence of sex differences. We also describe development of neural substrates that have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and specifically focus on fear behavior and circuitry. Emerging evidence suggests that there may be developmental shifts around age 10 in these underlying circuits that may contribute to vulnerability...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824358/you-say-prefrontal-cortex-and-i-say-anterior-cingulate-meta-analysis-of-spatial-overlap-in-amygdala-to-prefrontal-connectivity-and-internalizing-symptomology
#19
H A Marusak, M E Thomason, C Peters, C Zundel, F Elrahal, C A Rabinak
Connections between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are considered critical for the expression and regulation of emotional behavior. Abnormalities in frontoamygdala circuitry are reported across several internalizing conditions and associated risk factors (for example, childhood trauma), which may underlie the strong phenotypic overlap and co-occurrence of internalizing conditions. However, it is unclear if these findings converge on the same localized areas of mPFC or adjacent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818218/role-of-microglia-in-a-mouse-model-of-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Vibol Chhor, Raffaella Moretti, Tifenn Le Charpentier, Stephanie Sigaut, Sophie Lebon, Leslie Schwendimann, Marie-Virginie Oré, Chiara Zuiani, Valentina Milan, Julien Josserand, Regina Vontell, Julien Pansiot, Vincent Degos, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Luigi Titomanlio, Henrik Hagberg, Pierre Gressens, Bobbi Fleiss
The cognitive and behavioural deficits caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) to the immature brain are more severe and persistent than TBI in the mature brain. Understanding this developmental sensitivity is critical as children under four years of age sustain TBI more frequently than any other age group. Microglia (MG), resident immune cells of the brain that mediate neuroinflammation, are activated following TBI in the immature brain. However, the type and temporal profile of this activation and the consequences of altering it are still largely unknown...
November 4, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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