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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723281/imaging-correlates-of-adult-glioma-genotypes
#1
Marion Smits, Martin J van den Bent
Primary brain tumors, most commonly gliomas, are histopathologically typed and graded as World Health Organization (WHO) grades I-IV according to increasing degrees of malignancy. These grades provide prognostic information and guidance on treatment such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy after surgery. Despite the confirmed value of the WHO grading system, results of a multitude of studies and prospective interventional trials now indicate that tumors with identical morphologic criteria can have highly different outcomes...
August 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721889/clinical-outcomes-of-large-brain-metastases-treated-with-neurosurgical-resection-and-intraoperative-cesium-131-brachytherapy-results-of-a-prospective-trial
#2
A Gabriella Wernicke, Cole B Hirschfeld, Andrew W Smith, Shoshana Taube, Menachem Z Yondorf, Bhupesh Parashar, Lucy Nedialkova, Fridon Kulidzhanov, Samuel Trichter, Albert Sabbas, Rohan Ramakrishna, Susan Pannullo, Theodore H Schwartz
PURPOSE: Studies on adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery to the cavity of resected brain metastases have suggested that larger tumors (>2.0 cm) have greater rates of recurrence and radionecrosis (RN). The present study assessed the effect of permanent low-dose (131)Cs brachytherapy on local control and RN in patients treated for large brain metastases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: After institutional review board approval, 42 patients with 46 metastases ≥2.0 cm in preoperative diameter were accrued to a prospective trial from 2010 to 2015...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720668/efficient-mitochondrial-glutamine-targeting-prevails-over-glioblastoma-metabolic-plasticity
#3
Kristell Oizel, Cynthia Chauvin, Lisa Oliver, Catherine Gratas, Fanny Geraldo, Ulrich Jarry, Emmanuel Scotet, Marion Rabe, Marie-Clotilde Alves-Guerra, Raluca Teusan, Fabien Gautier, Delphine Loussouarn, Vincent Compan, Jean-Claude Martinou, François M Vallette, Claire Pecqueur
Purpose Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant form of primary human brain tumor in adults, with an average survival at diagnosis of 18 months. Metabolism is a new attractive therapeutic target in cancer, however, little is known about metabolic heterogeneity and plasticity within GBM tumors. We therefore aimed to investigate metabolic phenotyping of primary cultures in the context of molecular tumor heterogeneity to provide a proof-of concept for personalized metabolic targeting of GBM. <p> Experimental Design We have analyzed extensively several primary GBM cultures using transcriptomics, metabolic phenotyping assays and mitochondrial respirometry...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718326/cns-anticancer-drug-discovery-and-development-2016-conference-insights
#4
Victor A Levin, Lauren E Abrey, Timothy P Heffron, Peter J Tonge, Arvin C Dar, William A Weiss, James M Gallo
CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development November 2016, AZ, USA The 2016 second CNS Anticancer Drug Discovery and Development Conference addressed diverse viewpoints about why new drug discovery/development focused on CNS cancers has been sorely lacking. Despite more than 70,000 individuals in the USA being diagnosed with a primary brain malignancy and 151,669-286,486 suffering from metastatic CNS cancer, in 1999, temozolomide was the last drug approved by the US FDA as an anticancer agent for high-grade gliomas...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716053/ibrutinib-a-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-exhibits-antitumoral-activity-and-induces-autophagy-in-glioblastoma
#5
Jin Wang, Xiaoyang Liu, Yongzhi Hong, Songtao Wang, Pin Chen, Aihua Gu, Xiaoyuan Guo, Peng Zhao
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, is a novel anticancer drug used for treating several types of cancers. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of ibrutinib on GBM. METHODS: Cell proliferation was determined by using cell viability, colony formation, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713152/metastatic-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-1-alk-1-rearranged-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-sarcoma-to-the-brain-with-leptomeningeal-involvement-favorable-response-to-serial-alk-inhibitors-a-case-report
#6
Cai Yuan, Muchou J Ma, John V Parker, Tarek M Mekhail
BACKGROUND ALK gene rearrangements as oncogenic drivers have been described in many cancers, including inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (IMS). The first-generation ALK inhibitor was limited in its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier to treat brain metastasis. Drug-resistance invariably develops over time in ALK-rearranged tumors, which leads to disease progression. The newer generations of ALK inhibitors are designed to have higher potency in ALK inhibition and improved CNS penetration. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of pulmonary IMS with ALK-1 gene rearrangement and multiple brain metastases as initial presentation...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710771/detailed-longitudinal-sampling-of-glioma-stem-cells-in-situ-reveals-chr7-gain-and-chr10-loss-as-repeated-events-in-primary-tumor-formation-and-recurrence
#7
Mehmet Baysan, Kevin Woolard, Margaret C Cam, Wei Zhang, Hua Song, Svetlana Kotliarova, Demosthenes Balamatsias, Amanda Linkous, Susie Ahn, Jennifer Walling, Galina I Belova, Howard A Fine
Intratumoral heterogeneity at the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptomic and morphologic levels is a commonly observed phenomenon in many aggressive cancer types. Clonal evolution during tumor formation as well as in response to therapeutic intervention, can be predicted utilizing reverse engineering approaches on detailed genomic snapshots of heterogeneous patient tumor samples. In this study, we developed an extensive dataset for a GBM case via the generation of polyclonal and monoclonal glioma stem cell lines from initial diagnosis, as well as from multiple sections of distant tumor locations of the deceased patient's brain following tumor recurrence...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709870/astragaloside-iv-inhibits-progression-of-glioma-via-blocking-mapk-erk-signaling-pathway
#8
Bin Li, Fei Wang, Ningtao Liu, Wen Shen, Tao Huang
Glioma is one of the most common primary brain tumors in adults with a high mortality rate and relapse rate. Thus, finding better effective approaches to treat glioma has become very urgent. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), the major active triterpenoid in Radix Astragali, has shown anti-tumorigenic properties in certain cancers. However, its role in glioma remains unclear. Here, we studied the effects of AS-IV on glioma in vitro and in vivo, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Our results revealed that AS-IV dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells in vitro and attenuated tumor growth in vivo...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708595/angptl4-promotes-the-progression-of-cutaneous-melanoma-to-brain-metastasis
#9
Sivan Izraely, Shlomit Ben-Menachem, Orit Sagi-Assif, Tsipi Meshel, Diego M Marzese, Shuichi Ohe, Inna Zubrilov, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Dave S B Hoon, Isaac P Witz
In an ongoing effort to identify molecular determinants regulating melanoma brain metastasis, we previously identified Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) as a component of the molecular signature of such metastases.The aim of this study was to determine the functional significance of ANGPTL4 in the shaping of melanoma malignancy phenotype, especially in the establishment of brain metastasis.We confirmed that ANGPTL4 expression is significantly higher in cells metastasizing to the brain than in cells from the cutaneous (local) tumor from the same melanoma in a nude mouse xenograft model, and also in paired clinical specimens of melanoma metastases than in primary melanomas from the same patients...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705700/incidental-primary-intradural-carcinoid-tumor-in-a-patient-with-lumbar-radiculopathy
#10
Stavros Koustais, Philip O'Halloran, Alfrazdaq Hassan, Francesca Brett, Steven Young
BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from enterochromaffin cells. Central nervous system involvement is rare. The reported cases include metastases to brain or spinal cord, as well as primary skeletal or extradural disease resulting in compressive myelo-radiculopathy. There are two previously reported cases of primary intradural extramedullary carcinoid tumor, presenting with compressive symptoms. We report the first case of primary incidental intradural extramedullary carcinoid tumor...
July 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704099/long-term-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-in-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-and-distant-metastases
#11
Dania Hirsch, Sigal Levy, Gloria Tsvetov, Alexander Gorstein, Ilana Slutzky-Shraga, Amit Akirov, Eyal Robenshtok, Ilan Shimon, Carlos A Benbassat
OBJECTIVE: Distant metastatic spread is the most frequent cause of thyroid cancer-related death. The objective of this study was to evaluate overall and disease-related survival of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and distant metastases (DM) attending a single medical center and to investigate variables predictive of better long-term outcomes. METHODS: The Rabin Medical Center Thyroid Cancer Registry was searched for patients with DM from DTC. RESULTS: The cohort included 138 patients (58...
July 13, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700357/are-three-weeks-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-hfrt-comparable-to-six-weeks-for-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-patients-results-of-a-phase-ii-study
#12
Pierina Navarria, Federico Pessina, Stefano Tomatis, Riccardo Soffietti, Marco Grimaldi, Egesta Lopci, Arturo Chiti, Antonella Leonetti, Alessandra Casarotti, Marco Rossi, Luca Cozzi, Anna Maria Ascolese, Matteo Simonelli, Simona Marcheselli, Armando Santoro, Elena Clerici, Lorenzo Bello, Marta Scorsetti
BACKGROUND: The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) is surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (TMZ-CHT).. The patients outcome is still poor. In this study we evaluated hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFRT), instead of standard fractionated radiation therapy, with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy, in terms of safety and effectiveness. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) ≥70, and tumor up to 10 cm underwent maximal feasible surgical resection were treated...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699529/targeting-protein-kinases-for-the-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-linking-basic-studies-to-clinical-applications
#13
Aidong Zhou
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults with intensive heterogeneity and one of the most lethal human cancers. Protein kinases control diverse cellular processes by coordinating different signaling pathways. Protein kinases are frequently dysregulated in human cancers, which contributes to tumor initiation and development. Thus, protein kinases are a growing drug target class for cancers including glioblastoma. This review focuses on the most important protein kinases and kinase-mediated signaling cascades in glioblastoma, and discusses the functional mechanism of these kinases in glioblastoma tumorigenesis...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698809/p-rex1-expression-in-invasive-breast-cancer-in-relation-to-receptor-status-and-distant-metastatic-site
#14
Jonathan D Marotti, Kristen E Muller, Laura J Tafe, Eugene Demidenko, Todd W Miller
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-Rex1) has been implicated in cancer growth, metastasis, and response to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether P-Rex1 expression differs between primary and metastatic human breast tumors and between breast cancer subtypes. DESIGN: P-Rex1 expression was measured in 133 specimens by immunohistochemistry: 40 and 42 primary breast tumors from patients who did versus did not develop metastasis, respectively, and 51 breast-derived tumors from metastatic sites (36 of which had matching primary tumors available for analysis)...
2017: International Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696044/practice-patterns-of-palliative-radiation-therapy-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-in-an-international-pediatric-research-consortium
#15
Avani Dholakia Rao, Qinyu Chen, Ralph P Ermoian, Sara R Alcorn, Maria Luisa S Figueiredo, Michael J Chen, Karin Dieckmann, Shannon M MacDonald, Matthew M Ladra, Daria Kobyzeva, Alexey V Nechesnyuk, Kristina Nilsson, Eric C Ford, Brian A Winey, Rosangela C Villar, Stephanie A Terezakis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The practice of palliative radiation therapy (RT) is based on extrapolation from adult literature. We evaluated patterns of pediatric palliative RT to describe regimens used to identify opportunity for future pediatric-specific clinical trials. DESIGN/METHODS: Six international institutions with pediatric expertise completed a 122-item survey evaluating patterns of palliative RT for patients ≤21 years old from 2010 to 2015. Two institutions use proton RT...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696016/central-nervous-system-relapse-of-rhabdomyosarcoma
#16
Brian De, Michael D Kinnaman, Leonard H Wexler, Kim Kramer, Suzanne L Wolden
PURPOSE: The optimal management of central nervous system (CNS) relapse of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is unclear. We examined diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with RMS developing CNS relapse. METHODS: Records of 23 patients diagnosed with CNS relapse between 1999 and 2016 were reviewed. Median age at presentation of CNS relapse was 15 years (range, 1-34 years). High-risk features at initial presentation were as follows: 16 alveolar patients, 13 Stage IV, and 13 with primary tumor in parameningeal locations...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694032/biodegradable-brain-penetrating-dna-nanocomplexes-and-their-use-to-treat-malignant-brain-tumors
#17
Panagiotis Mastorakos, Clark Zhang, Eric Song, Young Eun Kim, Hee Won Park, Sneha Berry, Won Kyu Choi, Justin Hanes, Jung Soo Suk
The discovery of powerful genetic targets has spurred clinical development of gene therapy approaches to treat patients with malignant brain tumors. However, lack of success in the clinic has been attributed to the inability of conventional gene vectors to achieve gene transfer throughout highly disseminated primary brain tumors. Here, we demonstrate ex vivo that small nanocomplexes composed of DNA condensed by a blend of biodegradable polymer, poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE), with PBAE conjugated with 5kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (PBAE-PEG) rapidly penetrate healthy brain parenchyma and orthotopic brain tumor tissues in rats...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693276/examination-of-the-predictive-factors-of-the-response-to-whole-brain-radiotherapy-for-brain-metastases-from-lung-cancer-using-mri
#18
Shuri Aoki, Tomonori Kanda, Noriyuki Matsutani, Nobuhiko Seki, Masafumi Kawamura, Shigeru Furui, Hideomi Yamashita
Previous studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with brain metastases (BMs) following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). However, there have been a small number of studies regarding the prognostic factors for the response of tumor to WBRT. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictive factors for the response to WBRT from the point of view of reduction of tumor using magnetic resonance imaging. A retrospective analysis of 62 patients with BMs from primary lung cancer treated with WBRT was undertaken...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693163/monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-expression-and-proliferation-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#19
Yoshinobu Takahashi, Takahiro Sawada, Toshiaki Akahane, Yumiko Kawase, Hidetoshi Ikeda, Keishi Makino, Hideo Nakamura, Takuichiro Hide, Shigetoshi Yano, Naoya Hashimoto, Hajime Kamada
Whether the poor prognosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) compared with systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is attributable to the immune privilege of the intracerebral location or to intrinsic differences in the biological characteristics of two types of lymphoma remains unclear. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is essential to support tumor cell survival and growth, and the present study aimed to compare MCP-1 expression in PCNSL and peripheral DLBCL. The present study included 19 patients with PCNSL and 16 patients with DLBCL, all of whom had tissue diagnosis and lymphoma tissue samples available for analysis...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690586/modulations-in-the-peripheral-immune-system-of-glioblastoma-patient-is-connected-to-therapy-and-tumor-progression-a-case-report-from-the-immo-glio-01-trial
#20
Paul F Rühle, Nicole Goerig, Roland Wunderlich, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl, Annedore Strnad, Benjamin Frey
Immune responses are important for efficient tumor elimination, also in immune privileged organs such as the brain. Fostering antitumor immunity has therefore become an important challenge in cancer therapy. This cannot only be achieved by immunotherapies as already standard treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy modify the immune system. Consequently, the understanding of how the tumor, the tumor microenvironment, and immune system are modulated by cancer therapy is required for prognosis, prediction, and therapy adaption...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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