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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222813/reln-signaling-modulates-glioblastoma-growth-and-substrate-dependent-migration
#1
Markus Schulze, Christ Violonchi, Stefan Swoboda, Tobias Welz, Eugen Kerkhoff, Sabine Hoja, Susanne Brüggemann, Johann Simbürger, Jörg Reinders, Markus J Riemenschneider
Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and most malignant type of primary brain tumor and significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. Invasion into the healthy brain parenchyma is a major feature of glioblastoma aggressiveness. Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain and sustains functionality in the adult brain. We here show that both RELN and its main downstream effector DAB1 are silenced in glioblastoma as compared to non-neoplastic tissue and mRNA expression is inversely correlated with malignancy grade...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222400/nkg2d-based-car-t-cells-and-radiotherapy-exert-synergistic-efficacy-in-glioblastoma
#2
Tobias Weiss, Michael Weller, Matthias Guckenberger, Charles L Sentman, Patrick Roth
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is an emerging immunotherapy against several malignancies including glioblastoma, the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in adults. The challenges in solid tumor immunotherapy comprise heterogenously expressed tumor target antigens and restricted trafficking of CAR T cells to and impaired long-term persistence at the tumor site, as well as the unaddressed integration of CAR T cell therapy into conventional anti-cancer treatments. We addressed these questions using a NKG2D-based chimeric antigen receptor construct (chNKG2D) in fully immunocompetent orthotopic glioblastoma mouse models...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222306/therapy-of-primary-cns-lymphoma-role-of-intensity-radiation-and-novel-agents
#3
REVIEW
Andrés José María Ferreri
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, an aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumor burden and histological type. Despite the high sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remissions are frequently short lasting. Treatment efficacy is limited by several factors, including the biology and microenvironment of this malignancy and the "protective" effect of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the access of most drugs to the CNS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222305/biology-of-cns-lymphoma-and-the-potential-of-novel-agents
#4
REVIEW
James L Rubenstein
Primary and secondary CNS lymphomas are aggressive brain tumors that pose an immense challenge to define in terms of molecular pathogenesis, as well as to effectively treat. During the past 10 years improvements in survival have been achieved with the implementation of anti-CD20 immunotherapy and optimization of dose-intensive consolidation strategies. The applications of whole-exome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and examination of the tumor microenvironment, particularly in the context of clinical investigation, provide insights that create a roadmap for the development and implementation of novel targeted agents for this disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221349/ab-thymoma-with-atypical-type-a-component-with-delayed-multiple-lung-and-brain-metastases
#5
Wieslawa Grajkowska, Ewa Matyja, Jacek Kunicki, Sylwia Szymanska, Alexander Marx, Cleo-Aron Weis, Renata Langfort, Malgorzata Szolkowska
An atypical type A thymoma is a newly added entity to the last World Health Organization (WHO) histological classification [2015] of uncertain prognosis. The conventional type A and AB thymomas are usually locally aggressive neoplasms that rarely metastasize with distant metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occurring extremely exceptionally. We present a history of a woman with a mediastinal tumor originally considered to be a Masaoka-Koga stage II "mixed thymoma with well-differentiated thymic carcinoma component" according to the historic Müller-Hermelink nomenclature...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221142/d-4f-increases-microrna-124a-and-reduces-neuroinflammation-in-diabetic-stroke-rats
#6
Ruizhuo Ning, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Tao Yan, Xu Cui, Don Seyfried, Jieli Chen
D-4F is an apolipoprotein-A1 mimetic peptide that promotes anti-inflammatory effects. MicroRNA-124 is the most abundant brain-specific microRNA and has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of D-4F treatment of stroke in type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Male Wistar rats were induced with T1DM, subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with PBS or D-4F (1 mg/kg i.p.) at 2, 24 and 48 hours after stroke (n=8/group). A battery of function tests, brain blood barrier (BBB) integrity, white matter changes and microRNA expression were evaluated in vivo and in vitro...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219779/metastases-of-spinal-myxopapillary-ependymoma-unique-characteristics-and-clinical-management
#7
Theresa Kraetzig, Lily McLaughlin, Mark H Bilsky, Ilya Laufer
OBJECTIVE Myxopapillary ependymoma is a benign WHO Grade I tumor most commonly located in the conus-cauda equina region of the spine. Although this tumor is defined by an overall excellent survival, dissemination throughout the whole neuraxis occurs frequently. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics and significance of myxopapillary ependymoma metastases. METHODS Patients who underwent surgery from 2005 to 2015 for treatment of spinal myxopapillary ependymoma were included in the study. Charts were reviewed for primary tumor symptoms and initial treatment, local recurrence, response to salvage therapy, and presence and behavior of distant metastases...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219753/resection-of-primary-motor-cortex-tumors-feasibility-and-surgical-outcomes
#8
Stephen T Magill, Seunggu J Han, Jing Li, Mitchel S Berger
OBJECTIVE Brain tumors involving the primary motor cortex are often deemed unresectable due to the potential neurological consequences that result from injury to this region. Nevertheless, we have challenged this dogma for many years and used asleep, as well as awake, intraoperative stimulation mapping to maximize extent of resection. It remains unclear whether these tumors can be resected with acceptable morbidity, whether performing the surgery with the patient awake or asleep impacts extent of resection, and how stimulation mapping influences outcomes...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218894/mri-to-mgmt-predicting-methylation-status-in-glioblastoma-patients-using-convolutional-recurrent-neural-networks
#9
Lichy Han, Maulik R Kamdar
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), a malignant brain tumor, is among the most lethal of all cancers. Temozolomide is the primary chemotherapy treatment for patients diagnosed with GBM. The methylation status of the promoter or the enhancer regions of the O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene may impact the efficacy and sensitivity of temozolomide, and hence may affect overall patient survival. Microscopic genetic changes may manifest as macroscopic morphological changes in the brain tumors that can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can serve as noninvasive biomarkers for determining methylation of MGMT regulatory regions...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218405/multimodal-treatments-combined-with-gamma-knife-surgery-for-primary-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-the-central-nervous-system-a-single-institute-experience-of-18-patients
#10
Yan-Ming Ren, Xia Wu, Chao You, Yue-Kang Zhang, Qiang Li, Yan Ju
OBJECTIVES: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare, highly malignant tumor of the central nervous system with poor prognosis. Nowadays, multimodal management, including surgery, chemotherapy (CMT), and radiation therapy (RT), is advocated. However, AT/RT treatment with gamma knife surgery (GKS) was rarely reported. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of GKS for the treatment of AT/RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of AT/RT patients who underwent surgery from 2007 to 2014 at the West China Hospital were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed...
December 7, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218301/long-term-outcomes-after-salvage-stereotactic-radiosurgery-srs-following-in-field-failure-of-initial-srs-for-brain-metastases
#11
Nitesh Rana, Praveen Pendyala, Ryan K Cleary, Guozhen Luo, Zhiguo Zhao, Lola B Chambless, Anthony J Cmelak, Albert Attia, Mark J Stavas
Purpose: The optimal treatment strategy following local recurrence after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remains unclear. While upfront SRS has been extensively studied, few reports focus on outcomes after retreatment. Here, we report the results following a second course of SRS for local recurrence of brain metastases previously treated with SRS. Methods: Using institutional database, patients who received salvage SRS (SRS2) following in-field failure of initial SRS (SRS1) for brain metastases were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218086/microrna-520d-5p-inhibits-human-glioma-cell-proliferation-and-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-by-directly-targeting-pttg1
#12
Tongle Zhi, Kuan Jiang, Xiupeng Xu, Tianfu Yu, Weining Wu, Er Nie, Xu Zhou, Xin Jin, Junxia Zhang, Yingyi Wang, Ning Liu
Glioma accounts for the majority of primary malignant brain tumors in adults and is highly aggressive. Although various therapeutic approaches have been applied, outcomes of glioma treatment remain poor. Acquiring a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms is essential to the design of effective therapeutic strategies. Previous studies have found that miR-520d-5p was negatively correlated with glioma grade, but its role and mechanism in glioma progression remain largely unknown. In the present study, we reported that miR-520d-5p directly targeted the Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (PTTG1) and functioned as a tumor-suppressor in glioma...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216507/chimeric-hcmv-hsv-1-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-134-5-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-elicit-immune-mediated-antigliomal-effect-and-antitumor-memory
#13
Mohammed G Ghonime, Josh Jackson, Amish Shah, Justin Roth, Mao Li, Ute Saunders, Jennifer Coleman, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert, Kevin A Cassady
Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor and are characterized by rapid and highly invasive growth. Because of their poor prognosis, new therapeutic strategies are needed. Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is a promising strategy for treating cancer that incorporates both direct viral replication mediated and immune mediated mechanisms to kill tumor cells. C134 is a next generation Δγ134.5 oHSV-1 with improved intratumoral viral replication. It remains safe in the CNS environment by inducing early IFN signaling which restricts its replication in non-malignant cells...
December 4, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214088/advanced-alveolar-soft-part-sarcoma-treated-with-pazopanib-over-three-years
#14
Yoji Shido, Yukihiro Matsuyama
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare malignant tumor that generally occurs in adolescents and young adults. It progresses slowly, but lung and brain metastases often occur in the early phase of the clinical course, and chemotherapy has been reported as not being effective for ASPS. Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been clinically available from November 2012 in Japan. This is a case report of a patient presented with multiple lung metastases and unresectable primary abdominal ASPS...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212855/t-cell-densities-in-brain-metastases-are-associated-with-patient-survival-times-and-diffusion-tensor-mri-changes
#15
Rasheed Zakaria, Angela Platt-Higgins, Nitika Rathi, Mark Radon, Sumit Das, Kumar Das, Maneesh Bhojak, Andrew Brodbelt, Emmanuel Chavredakis, Michael D Jenkinson, Philip S Rudland
Brain metastases are common and are usually detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a derivative MRI technique which can detect disruption of white matter tracts in the brain. We have matched preoperative DTI with image-guided sampling of the brain-tumor interface in 26 patients during resection of a brain metastasis and assessed mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). The tissue samples were analysed for vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltration, growth pattern, and tumor expression of proteins associated with growth or local invasion such as Ki67, S100A4, and MMP2, 9, and 13...
December 6, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212524/successful-management-of-retinal-metastasis-from-renal-cancer-with-everolimus-in-a-monophthalmic-patient-a-case-report
#16
Ismail Essadi, Issam Lalya, Mohamed Kriet, Abdelhamid El Omrani, Rhizlane Belbaraka, Mouna Khouchani
BACKGROUND: The retina is an uncommon site for metastases, in particular from solid tumors. Some authors have reported a recent increase in the incidence of metastases in infrequent sites, such as brain or bone, probably due to the expanded treatment options and the resulting improved survival. Choroidal metastasis is the most common type of intraocular malignancy. The most common primary sites associated with choroidal metastasis are breast cancer in women and lung cancer in men. Treatment options are limited, but they must be discussed and adapted to the patient profile...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210102/the-use-of-droplet-digital-pcr-in-liquid-biopsies-a-highly-sensitive-technique-for-myd88-p-l265p-detection-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#17
Laura S Hiemcke-Jiwa, Monique C Minnema, Joyce H Radersma-van Loon, N Mehdi Jiwa, Mirthe de Boer, Roos J Leguit, Roel A de Weger, Manon M H Huibers
The gold standard for diagnosis of central nervous system lymphomas still regards a stereotactic brain biopsy, with the risk of major complications for the patient. As tumor cells can be detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), CSF analysis can be used as an alternative. In this respect, mutation analysis in CSF can be of added value to other diagnostic parameters such a cytomorphology and clonality analysis. A well-known example of targeted mutation analysis entails MYD88 p.(L265P) detection, which is present in the majority of Bing Neel syndrome and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients...
December 6, 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209782/advances-in-immunotherapeutic-research-for-glioma-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Jeremy Tetsuo Miyauchi, Stella E Tsirka
Gliomas are primary malignancies of the brain. Tumors are staged based on malignancy, nuclear atypia, and infiltration of the surrounding brain parenchyma. Tumors are often diagnosed once patients become symptomatic, at which time the lesion is sizable. Glioblastoma (grade IV glioma) is highly aggressive and difficult to treat. Most tumors are diagnosed de novo. The gold standard of therapy, implemented over a decade ago, consists of fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide, but unfortunately, chemotherapeutic resistance arises...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207684/recurrent-glioma-clinical-trial-checkmate-143-the-game-is-not-over-yet
#19
REVIEW
Anna C Filley, Mario Henriquez, Mahua Dey
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common, and aggressive, primary brain tumor in adults. With a median patient survival of less than two years, GBM represents one of the biggest therapeutic challenges of the modern era. Even with the best available treatment, recurrence rates are nearly 100% and therapeutic options at the time of relapse are extremely limited. Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, has provided significant clinical benefits in the treatment of various advanced cancers and represented a promising therapy for primary and recurrent GBM...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207176/p4hb-and-pdia3-are-associated-with-tumor-progression-and-therapeutic-outcome-of-diffuse-gliomas
#20
Hecun Zou, Chunjie Wen, Zhigang Peng, Ying-Υing Shao, Lei Hu, Shuang Li, Cuilin Li, Hong-Hao Zhou
Diffuse gliomas are the most common type of primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) such as P4HB and PDIA3 act as molecular chaperones for reconstructing misfolded proteins, and are involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. The present study focused on the role of P4HB and PDIA3 in diffuse gliomas. Analysis of GEO and HPA data revealed that the expression levels of P4HB and PDIA3 were upregulated in glioma datasets. their increased expression was then validated in 99 glioma specimens compared with 11 non-tumor tissues...
December 4, 2017: Oncology Reports
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