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Fernando J Sialana, Peter Gulyassy, Peter Májek, Evelina Sjöstedt, Viktor Kis, André C Müller, Elena L Rudashevskaya, Jan Mulder, Keiryn L Bennett, Gert Lubec
The molecular composition of synaptic signal transduction machineries shapes synaptic neurotransmission. The repertoire of receptors, transporters and channels (RTCs) comprises major signaling events in the brain. RTCs are conventionally studied by candidate immunohistochemistry and biochemistry, which are low throughput with resolution greatly affected by available immunoreagents and membrane interference. Therefore, a comprehensive resource of synaptic brain RTCs is still lacking. In particular, studies on the detergent-soluble synaptosomal fraction, known to contain transporters and channels, are limited...
October 19, 2016: Proteomics
Osama Mosa, Milan Skitek, Ales Jerin
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still a headache for clinicians and scientists as a possible reason for increased death among intensive care unit (ICU) patients after invasive cardiac surgery. Furthermore, the diagnostic process for AKI using conventional biomarkers is not sufficient to ensure early warning of this condition because of the morbid influence of non-renal factors that definitively delay the time for the prognosis. These imposed limitations have led to significant amounts of research targeted towards identifying novel biomarkers for AKI with a sustained degree of sensitivity and specificity...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
A H Dezfoulian, H Aliarabi
There have been extensive studies in sheep and cattle considering cobalt (Co) supplementation and its effects on vitamin B12 concentrations in the body. However, there are limited studies on goats. The aim of this study was to compare two different sources of Co (sulfate v. glucoheptonate) at two different concentrations (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg dry matter) in goat kid nutrition, and to evaluate the effects of these supplements on performance, serum vitamin B12, blood biochemistry and rumen volatile fatty acids...
October 18, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Robert G Salomon
Our research on the roles of lipid oxidation in human disease is guided by chemical intuition. For example, we postulated that 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of primary amines would be produced through covalent adduction of a γ-hydroxyalkenal generated, in turn, through oxidative fragmentation of docosahexaenoates. Our studies confirmed the natural occurrence of this chemistry, and the biological activities of these natural products and their extensive involvements in human physiology (wound healing) and pathology (age-related macular degeneration, autism, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease and tumor growth) continue to emerge...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Elena Geiser, Sandra K Przybilla, Meike Engel, Wiebke Kleineberg, Linda Büttner, Eda Sarikaya, Tim den Hartog, Jürgen Klankermayer, Walter Leitner, Michael Bölker, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx
The Ustilaginaceae family of smut fungi, especially Ustilago maydis, gained biotechnological interest over the last years, amongst others due to its ability to naturally produce the versatile bio-based building block itaconate. Along with itaconate, U. maydis also produces 2-hydroxyparaconate. The latter was proposed to be derived from itaconate, but the underlying biochemistry and associated genes were thus far unknown. Here, we confirm that 2-hydroxyparaconate is a secondary metabolite of U. maydis and propose an extension of U...
October 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Enrique Jurado-Ruiz, Lourdes M Varela, Amparo Luque, Genoveva Berná, Gladys Cahuana, Enrique Martinez-Force, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Bernat Soria, Baukje de Roos, Manuel Romero Gómez, Franz Martín
SCOPE: We evaluated the protective effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in high-fat diets (HFDs) on the inflammatory response and liver damage in a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice fed a standard diet or a lard-based HFD (HFD-L) for 12 weeks to develop NAFLD. HFD fed mice were then divided into four groups and fed for 24 weeks with: HFD-L; HFD-EVOO; HFD-OL (phenolics-rich EVOO) and R (reversion; standard diet)...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Bo Gao, Qin Shao, Hani Choudhry, Victoria Marcus, Kung Dong, Jiannis Ragoussis, Zu-Hua Gao
After the publication of the article, the authors noted that the affiliation for Dr Hani Choudhry is wrong. The correct affiliation should be as follows: Bo Gao1, Qin Shao2, Hani Choudhry3, Victoria Marcus2, Kung Dong5, Jiannis Ragoussis4 and Zu-Hua Gao2, 1Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, P.R. China; 2Department of Pathology, The Research Institute of McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Québec H4A 3J1, Canada; 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Cancer and Mutagenesis Unit, King Fahd Center for Medical Research, Center of Innovation in Personalized Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Québec H3B 1S6, Canada; 5Department of Pathology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, P...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Blazej Michalski, Przemyslaw Trzcinski, Karolina Kupczynska, Dawid Miskowiec, Lukasz Peczek, Barbara Nawrot, Piotr Lipiec, Jaroslaw D Kasprzak
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of the selected biomarkers and collagen turn-over indices with advanced echocardiographic parameters among patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: We included 62 patients with the symptomatic heart failure. The patients were divided in to two groups according to the evaluated ejection fraction (EF - Simpson method): heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) group - 30 patients with low EF - 35-50% (16 male, mean age 54...
October 17, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Rei Unno, Kazumi Taguchi, Atsushi Okada, Ryosuke Ando, Shuzo Hamamoto, Yasue Kubota, Li Zuo, Keiichi Tozawa, Kenjiro Kohri, Takahiro Yasui
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of potassium-sodium citrate on the development of computed tomography-detected renal microcalculi into symptomatic stones in calcium stone-forming patients. METHODS: Patients (aged 20-80 years) with history of calcium component stones who visited Nagoya City Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan, between April 2009 and June 2014 were included. They were retrospectively divided into those who did not receive potassium-sodium citrate (non-citrate group, n = 157) and those who did (citrate group, n = 60)...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
E Mazzotta, C Guglielmini, G Menciotti, B Contiero, M BaronToaldo, M Berlanda, H Poser
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a quantitative measurement of anisocytosis. RDW has prognostic value in humans with different cardiovascular and systemic disorders, but few studies have investigated this biomarker in dogs. OBJECTIVES: To compare the RDW in dogs with precapillary and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) and a control population of dogs and to correlate RDW with demographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory variables. ANIMALS: One hundred and twenty-seven client-owned dogs including 19 healthy dogs, 82 dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (50 dogs without PH and 32 dogs with postcapillary PH), and 26 dogs with precapillary PH...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
A Willems, D Paepe, S Marynissen, P Smets, I Van de Maele, P Picavet, L Duchateau, S Daminet
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in health care of elderly dogs; however, scientific information about physical and laboratory examination findings in this age group is limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe systolic blood pressure (SBP), and results of physical examination and laboratory tests in senior and geriatric dogs that were judged by the owner to be healthy. ANIMALS: Hundred client-owned dogs. METHODS: Dogs were prospectively recruited...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Hui Zhao, Changfeng Fang, Jun Gao, Chengbu Liu
Spin-state energies of heme-related models are of vital importance in biochemistry. To compute the energies of different spin states, the traditional ΔSCF method based on the density functional theory (DFT) is usually employed. In this work, the spin-flip TDDFT (SF-TDDFT) approach is investigated to compute the spin-state energies, with six different exchange-correlation (XC) functionals. With the present protocol, the spin contamination is fully avoided by choosing appropriate reference states. Additionally, multiple excited states can be obtained with SF-TDDFT...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Alexandra E Paharik, Wilmara Salgado-Pabon, David K Meyerholz, Mark J White, Patrick M Schlievert, Alexander R Horswill
The Spl proteases are a group of six serine proteases that are encoded on the νSaβ pathogenicity island and are unique to Staphylococcus aureus. Despite their interesting biochemistry, their biological substrates and functions in virulence have been difficult to elucidate. We found that an spl operon mutant of the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 strain LAC induced localized lung damage in a rabbit model of pneumonia, characterized by bronchopneumonia observed histologically. Disease in the mutant-infected rabbits was restricted in distribution compared to that in wild-type USA300-infected rabbits...
September 2016: MSphere
Sha Xia, Gan Chen, Bo Wang, Yujing Yin, Zhenwei Sun, Jingxiang Zhao, Penglong Li, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
RBCs undergo numerous changes during storage and stored RBCs may induce adverse effects, ultimately resulting in organ injury in transfusion recipients. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of SP to stored RBCs would improve the quality of the stored RBCs and mitigate liver injury after transfusion in a murine model. RBCs were harvested from C57BL/6J mice and stored for 14 days in CPDA-1 containing either a solution of SP in saline or saline alone. Haemolysis, the 24-hour posttransfusion recovery, the oxygen-carrying capacity, and the SOD activity of stored RBCs were evaluated...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Jennifer M T Magel, Naomi Pleizier, Alexander D M Wilson, Aaron D Shultz, Marilyn N Vera-Chang, Thomas W Moon, Steven J Cooke
As human populations continue to expand, increases in coastal development have led to the alteration of much of the world's mangrove habitat, creating problems for the multitude of species that inhabit these unique ecosystems. Habitat alteration often leads to changes in habitat complexity and predation risk, which may serve as additional stressors for those species that rely on mangroves for protection from predators. However, few studies have been conducted to date to assess the effects of these specific stressors on glucocorticoid (GC) stress hormone levels in wild fish populations...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Felix Bäuerle, Agnes Zotter, Gideon Schreiber
With computer-based data-fitting methods becoming a standard tool in biochemistry, progress curve analysis of enzyme kinetics is a feasible, yet seldom used tool. Here we present a versatile Matlab-based tool (PCAT) to analyze catalysis progress curves with three complementary model approaches. The first two models are based on the known closed-form solution for this problem: the first describes the required Lambert W function with an analytical approximation and the second provides a numerical solution of the Lambert W function...
October 15, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Nicholas J Bradshaw, Mirian A F Hayashi
NDE1 (Nuclear Distribution Element 1, also known as NudE) and NDEL1 (NDE-Like 1, also known as NudEL) are the mammalian homologues of the fungus nudE gene, with important and at least partially overlapping roles for brain development. While a large number of studies describe the various properties and functions of these proteins, many do not directly compare the similarities and differences between NDE1 and NDEL1. Although sharing a high degree structural similarity and multiple common cellular roles, each protein presents several distinct features that justify their parallel but also unique functions...
October 14, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
Xiao-Li Yao, Zhao-Hui Yao, Li Li, Li Nie, Shao-Feng Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) induces cognitive deficits. Although CCH can be improved, cognitive impairment is not improved accordingly. To date, many studies have focused on investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of CCH; however, the treatment of the induced cognitive impairment remains ineffective. Thus, the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CCH and potential agents for treating this impairment need to be explored further. Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that improves clinical outcomes for some central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
October 4, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Zhongneng Xu, Yayun Yang, Beibei Huang
The Needleman-Wunsch algorithm has become one of the core algorithms in bioinformatics; however, this programming requires more suitable explanations for students with different major backgrounds. In supposing sample sequences and using a simple store system, the connection between the exhaustive search method and the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm was analyzed to more thoroughly explain this algorithm. The present study could benefit the teaching and learning of the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016...
October 14, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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