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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454727/proteomic-approach-to-characterize-biochemistry-of-meat-quality-defects
#1
REVIEW
M W Schilling, S P Suman, X Zhang, M N Nair, M A Desai, K Cai, M A Ciaramella, P J Allen
Proteomics can be used to characterize quality defects including pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat (pork and poultry), woody broiler breast meat, reddish catfish fillets, meat toughness, and beef myoglobin oxidation. PSE broiler meat was characterized by 15 proteins that differed in abundance in comparison to normal broiler breast meat, and eight proteins were differentially expressed in woody breast meat in comparison to normal breast meat. Hemoglobin was the only protein that was differentially expressed between red and normal catfish fillets...
April 21, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454376/expression-and-function-of-mutt-homolog-1-in-distinct-subtypes-of-breast-cancer
#2
Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Song, Yidong Zhou, Feng Mao, Yan Lin, Jinghong Guan, Qiang Sun
Human MutT homolog 1 (MTH1) detoxifies the oxidized DNA precursor 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate and serves a tumor suppressive role in distinct types of cancer. In the present study, the expression of MTH1 was examined in various subtypes of breast cancer, and the effect of its suppression on breast cancer growth was characterized in vitro and in vivo. MTH1 mRNA and protein levels were assessed using the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The effect of MTH1 expression on the proliferation of breast cancer cells was investigated in vitro using Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays, and in vivo using breast cancer cell line xenografts in mice...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453772/hepatic-hazard-assessment-of-silver-nanoparticle-exposure-in-healthy-and-chronically-alcohol-fed-mice
#3
Ali Kermanizadeh, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Martin Roursgaard, Steffen Loft, Peter Møller
Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) are currently among one of the most widely used nanomaterials. This in turn, implies an increased risk of human and environmental exposure. Alcohol abuse is a global issue with millions of people in the general population affected by the associated adverse effects. The excessive consumption of alcohol is a prominent cause of chronic liver disease which manifest in multiple disorders. In this study the adverse health effects of Ag NP exposure were investigated in models of alcoholic hepatic disease in vitro and in vivo...
April 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452496/thermodynamic-paradigm-for-solution-demixing-inspired-by-nuclear-transport-in-living-cells
#4
Ching-Hao Wang, Pankaj Mehta, Michael Elbaum
Living cells display a remarkable capacity to compartmentalize their functional biochemistry. A particularly fascinating example is the cell nucleus. Exchange of macromolecules between the nucleus and the surrounding cytoplasm does not involve traversing a lipid bilayer membrane. Instead, large protein channels known as nuclear pores cross the nuclear envelope and regulate the passage of other proteins and RNA molecules. Beyond simply gating diffusion, the system of nuclear pores and associated transport receptors is able to generate substantial concentration gradients, at the energetic expense of guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452105/biosynthesis-of-the-%C3%AE-lactone-proteasome-inhibitors-belactosin-and-cystargolide
#5
Felix Wolf, Judith S Bauer, Theresa M Bendel, Andreas Kulik, Jörn Kalinowski, Harald Gross, Leonard Kaysser
Belactosins and cystargolides are natural product proteasome inhibitors from Actinobacteria. Both feature dipeptidic backbones and a unique β-lactone building block. Herein, we present a detailed investigation of their biosynthesis. Identification and analysis of the corresponding gene clusters indicated that both compounds are assembled by rare single-enzyme amino acid ligases. Feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors and in vitro biochemistry showed that the formation of the β-lactone warhead is unprecedented and reminiscent of leucine biosynthesis, and that it involves the action of isopropylmalate synthase homologues...
April 28, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449252/serum-phosphorus-levels-and-fracture-following-renal-transplantation
#6
Jasna Aleksova, Phillip Wong, William R Mulley, Kay Weng Choy, Robert McLachlan, Peter R Ebeling, Peter G Kerr, Frances Milat
PURPOSE: Increased fracture rates are observed in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) compared with the general population. Risk factors include age, diabetes, dialysis vintage, immunosuppression, and mineral and bone disorders(1). Low serum phosphorus levels occur post-transplantation; however its relationship with fracture risk has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for fracture in RTRs at a single tertiary referral centre. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 146 patients (75M, 71F) who had been referred for dual energy x-ray densitometry (DXA) post-renal transplantation was performed...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449129/phenotypic-differences-determine-drought-stress-responses-in-ecotypes-of-arundo-donax-adapted-to-different-environments
#7
Mastaneh Ahrar, Dilyana Doneva, Massimiliano Tattini, Cecilia Brunetti, Antonella Gori, Mirco Rodeghiero, Georg Wohlfahrt, Franco Biasioli, Claudio Varotto, Francesco Loreto, Violeta Velikova
Arundo donax has been identified as an important biomass and biofuel crop. Yet, there has been little research on photosynthetic and metabolic traits, which sustain the high productivity of A. donax under drought conditions. This study determined phenotypic differences between two A. donax ecotypes coming from stands with contrasting adaptation to dry climate. We hypothesized that the Bulgarian (BG) ecotype, adapted to drier conditions, exhibits greater drought tolerance than the Italian (IT) ecotype, adapted to a more mesic environment...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447191/the-human-cytomegalovirus-chemokine-receptor-homolog-encoded-by-us27
#8
REVIEW
James R Stegman, Barry J Margulies
The genome of human cytomegalovirus contains four genes that encode chemokine receptor homologs. Of these, the protein encoded by US27 is of particular interest today because it is currently one of the viral G-protein coupled receptors that remain classified as an orphan receptor. This review explains what is presently understood about this glycoprotein: its biochemistry, its location in infected cells, and its apparent function. While there are still many questions that remain about these topics and more, we also discuss the utility of the US27-encoded glycoprotein as a new target for antiviral intervention...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444392/the-embo-biocatalysis-conference-the-biochemistry-and-chemistry-of-biocatalysis-from-understanding-to-design
#9
Rik K Wierenga, Dagmar Ringe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443981/mapping-the-dengue-scientific-landscape-worldwide-a-bibliometric-and-network-analysis
#10
Fabio Batista Mota, Bruna de Paula Fonseca E Fonseca, Andréia Cristina Galina, Roseli Monteiro da Silva
BACKGROUND: Despite the current global trend of reduction in the morbidity and mortality of neglected diseases, dengue's incidence has increased and occurrence areas have expanded. Dengue also persists as a scientific and technological challenge since there is no effective treatment, vaccine, vector control or public health intervention. Combining bibliometrics and social network analysis methods can support the mapping of dengue research and development (R&D) activities worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to map the scientific scenario related to dengue research worldwide...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443334/the-n-terminal-flanking-region-modulates-the-actin-binding-affinity-of-utrophin-tandem-calponin-homology-domain
#11
Surinder M Singh, Swati Bandi, Krishna M G Mallela
Despite sharing high sequence similarity, tandem calponin-homology (CH) domain of utrophin binds to actin 30 times stronger than that of dystrophin. We have previously shown that this difference in actin binding affinity could not be accounted by the differences in inter-CH-domain linkers (Bandi et al., Biochemistry, 54 (2015) 5480-5488). Here, we examined the role of the N-terminal flanking region. Utrophin tandem CH domain contains a 27-residue flanking region before its CH1 domain. We examined its effect by comparing the structure and function of full-length utrophin tandem CH domain Utr(1-261) and its truncated construct Utr(28-261)...
April 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442739/mixing-of-quantum-states-a-new-route-to-creating-optical-activity
#12
Anvar S Baimuratov, Nikita V Tepliakov, Yurii K Gun'ko, Alexander V Baranov, Anatoly V Fedorov, Ivan D Rukhlenko
The ability to induce optical activity in nanoparticles and dynamically control its strength is of great practical importance due to potential applications in various areas, including biochemistry, toxicology, and pharmaceutical science. Here we propose a new method of creating optical activity in originally achiral quantum nanostructures based on the mixing of their energy states of different parities. The mixing can be achieved by selective excitation of specific states or via perturbing all the states in a controllable fashion...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441772/structural-and-biochemical-properties-of-novel-self-cleaving-ribozymes
#13
REVIEW
Ki-Young Lee, Bong-Jin Lee
Fourteen well-defined ribozyme classes have been identified to date, among which nine are site-specific self-cleaving ribozymes. Very recently, small self-cleaving ribozymes have attracted renewed interest in their structure, biochemistry, and biological function since the discovery, during the last three years, of four novel ribozymes, termed twister, twister sister, pistol, and hatchet. In this review, we mainly address the structure, biochemistry, and catalytic mechanism of the novel ribozymes. They are characterized by distinct active site architectures and divergent, but similar, biochemical properties...
April 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441344/collagenous-extracellular-matrix-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-lessons-from-the-common-sea-urchin-tissue
#14
REVIEW
Kheng Lim Goh, David F Holmes
Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441058/protein-misfolding-diseases
#15
F Ulrich Hartl
The majority of protein molecules must fold into defined three-dimensional structures to acquire functional activity. However, protein chains can adopt a multitude of conformational states, and their biologically active conformation is often only marginally stable. Metastable proteins tend to populate misfolded species that are prone to forming toxic aggregates, including soluble oligomers and fibrillar amyloid deposits, which are linked with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and many other pathologies...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441057/oxidative-stress
#16
Helmut Sies, Carsten Berndt, Dean P Jones
Oxidative stress is two sided: Whereas excessive oxidant challenge causes damage to biomolecules, maintenance of a physiological level of oxidant challenge, termed oxidative eustress, is essential for governing life processes through redox signaling. Recent interest has focused on the intricate ways by which redox signaling integrates these converse properties. Redox balance is maintained by prevention, interception, and repair, and concomitantly the regulatory potential of molecular thiol-driven master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB/IκB is used for system-wide oxidative stress response...
April 24, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440901/examining-student-heuristic-usage-in-a-hydrogen-bonding-assessment
#17
Kathryn Miller, Thomas Kim
This study investigates the role of representational competence in student responses to an assessment of hydrogen bonding. The assessment couples the use of a multiple-select item ("Choose all that apply") with an open-ended item to allow for an examination of students' cognitive processes as they relate to the assignment of hydrogen bonding within a structural representation. Response patterns from the multiple-select item implicate heuristic usage as a contributing factor to students' incorrect responses...
April 25, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440278/an-insider-s-perspective-bacteroides-as-a-window-into-the-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Aaron G Wexler, Andrew L Goodman
Over the last decade, our appreciation for the contribution of resident gut microorganisms-the gut microbiota-to human health has surged. However, progress is limited by the sheer diversity and complexity of these microbial communities. Compounding the challenge, the majority of our commensal microorganisms are not close relatives of Escherichia coli or other model organisms and have eluded culturing and manipulation in the laboratory. In this Review, we discuss how over a century of study of the readily cultured, genetically tractable human gut Bacteroides has revealed important insights into the biochemistry, genomics and ecology that make a gut bacterium a gut bacterium...
April 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439455/the-evolution-of-logic-circuits-for-the-purpose-of-protein-contact-map-prediction
#19
Samuel D Chapman, Christoph Adami, Claus O Wilke, Dukka B Kc
Predicting protein structure from sequence remains a major open problem in protein biochemistry. One component of predicting complete structures is the prediction of inter-residue contact patterns (contact maps). Here, we discuss protein contact map prediction by machine learning. We describe a novel method for contact map prediction that uses the evolution of logic circuits. These logic circuits operate on feature data and output whether or not two amino acids in a protein are in contact or not. We show that such a method is feasible, and in addition that evolution allows the logic circuits to be trained on the dataset in an unbiased manner so that it can be used in both contact map prediction and the selection of relevant features in a dataset...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439041/cues-from-the-membrane-bacterial-glycerophospholipids
#20
Zachary D Dalebroux
In this issue of Journal of Bacteriology, Rowlett et al. unveil new Escherichia coli circuitry linking membrane glycerophospholipid (GPL) homeostasis to bacterial stress response and adaptation mechanisms. Glycerophospholipids comprise critical components of the dual-membrane envelope of Gram-negative bacteria and participate in many processes. The new evidence suggests that in some instances distinct E. coli GPL molecules function for distinct biochemistry, and bacteria sense perturbations in membrane GPL concentrations to coordinate survival strategies...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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