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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092918/complete-sequence-and-organization-of-pfr260-the-bacillus-thuringiensis-inta-fr7-4-plasmid-harboring-insecticidal-genes
#1
Laura E Navas, Ariel F Amadio, Elio M Ortiz, Diego H Sauka, Graciela B Benintende, Marcelo F Berretta, Rubén O Zandomeni
We report the complete sequence and analysis of pFR260, a novel megaplasmid of 260,595 bp from the Bacillus thuringiensis strain INTA Fr7-4 isolated in Argentina. It carries 7 insecticidal genes: 3 cry8 copies previously reported, 2 vip1, and 2 vip2. Also, it carries a gene encoding a putative atypical Cry protein. These genes are arranged in a region of approximately 105 kbp in size with characteristics of a pathogenicity island with a potential coleopteran-specific insecticide profile. DNA strand composition asymmetry, as determined by GC skew analysis, and the presence of a Rep protein involved in the initiation of replication suggest a bidirectional theta mechanism of replication...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092850/tomato-slggp-like-gene-participates-in-plant-responses-to-chilling-stress-and-pathogenic-infection
#2
Dong-Yue Yang, Meng Li, Na-Na Ma, Xing-Hong Yang, Qing-Wei Meng
Plants are always exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses which can adversely affect their growth and development. As an important antioxidant, AsA plays a vital role in plant defence against damage caused by stresses. In this study, we cloned a tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase-like (SlGGP-LIKE) gene and investigated its role in resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses by using antisense transgenic (AS) tomato lines. The AsA content in AS plants was lower than that in WT plants. Under chilling stress, the growth of AS plants was inhibited significantly, and they yielded higher levels of ROS, REC and MDA but demonstrated weaker APX activity than that shown by WT plants...
January 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092821/efficacy-of-vacuum-steam-pasteurization-for-inactivation-of-salmonella-pt-30-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-enterococcus-faecium-on-low-moisture-foods
#3
Manoj K Shah, Gladys Asa, Julie Sherwood, Kari Graber, Teresa M Bergholz
Low moisture foods such as nuts, spices, and seeds have been implicated in several outbreaks due to Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Such foods may be consumed raw, and can be used as ingredients in other food products. While numerous thermal inactivation studies have been conducted for Salmonella on nuts, studies on other seeds and grains are minimal. Product water activity can influence the thermal resistance of pathogens, where thermal resistance increases as water activity decreases, leading to a requirement for higher temperatures and longer exposure times to achieve significant reduction of pathogen numbers...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092721/use-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-in-the-battle-against-bacterial-infectious-diseases-recent-achievements-and-future-perspectives
#4
Vassilios Sandalakis, Ioannis Goniotakis, Iosif Vranakis, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Anna Psaroulaki
Advancements in microbial identification occur increasingly faster as more laboratories explore, refine and extend the use of mass spectrometry in the field of microbiology. Areas covered: This review covers the latest knowledge found in the literature for quick identification of various classes of bacterial pathogens known to cause human infection by the use of MALDI-TOF MS technology. Except for identification of bacterial strains, more researchers try to "battle time" in favor of the patient. These novel approaches to identify bacteria directly from clinical samples and even determine antibiotic resistance are extensively revised and discussed...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092693/pathogenic-streptococcus-strains-employ-novel-escape-strategy-to-inhibit-bacteriostatic-effect-mediated-by-mammalian-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein
#5
Jing Wang, Youjun Feng, Changjun Wang, Swaminath Srinivas, Chen Chen, Hui Liao, Elaine He, Shibo Jiang, Jiaqi Tang
Pathogenic streptococcal species are responsible for some of the most lethal and prevalent animal and human infections. Previous reports have identified a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI) in two highly virulent clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2), a causative agent of high-mortality streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). This PAI contains a Type-IVC secretion system C subgroup (Type-IVC secretion system) that is involved in the secretion of unknown pathogenic effectors that are responsible for STSS caused by highly virulent strains of SS2...
January 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092616/generation-and-characterization-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-duck-tembusu-virus-envelope-protein
#6
K Han, D Zhao, Y Liu, Q Liu, X Huang, J Yang, K Bi, T Xu, Y Li
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. Envelope (E) protein of DTMUV is an important structural protein, which is able to induce protective immune response in target animals and can be used as specific serological diagnosis tool. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody, designated mAb 3E9, was generated against DTMUV E protein. It is positive in indirect ELISA against both His-E protein and the purified whole viral antigen...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092611/prevalence-of-bovine-herpesvirus-type-4-in-aborting-dairy-cows
#7
Đ Cvetojević, B Savić, V Milićević, B Kureljušić, N Jezdimirović, D Jakić-Dimić, M Pavlović, Lj Spalević
Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) is related to many different conditions: infertility, postpartal metritis, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, encephalitis, calf pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, cutaneous lesions, digital dermatitis and abortion. In this study a retrospective PCR examination of 100 extracted DNA samples from aborting cows was performed in order to determine: prevalence of BHV-4 in abortive cattle, whether coinfections BHV-4 with other abortifacient pathogens are present in the same sample and to determine the month of gestation when BHV-4 associated abortions were detected...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092608/white-and-red-blood-cell-picture-in-rabbits-experimentally-infected-with-strains-of-the-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-rhd-virus-without-or-with-variable-haemagglutination-capacity
#8
P Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, B Tokarz-Deptuła, W Deptuła
The aim of the study was to establish if haemagglutination of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) affects haematological picture of peripheral blood in rabbits and the pathogenicity of the virus. The study analyzed white and red blood cell picture in rabbits experimentally infected with two non-haemagglutinating (HA-) RHDV strains (Frankfurt and Asturias) and one strain with variable haemagglutination capacity (HA+/-) (Hagenow). Studies with HA- and HA +/- are rare and relate only to 4 HA- strains (2 RHDV: BLA and Rainham; 2 RHDVa: Pv97 and 9905) and 1 HA+/- RHDV strain: ŻD, where less changes in haematological indices and less pathogenicity were observed...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092483/photodynamic-inactivation-of-cariogenic-pathogens-using-curcumin-as-photosensitizer
#9
Natália Costa Araújo, Rebeca Ferraz de Menezes, Vanda Sanderana Macêdo Carneiro, Alexandrino Pereira Dos Santos-Neto, Carla Raquel Fontana, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Catherine Malinda Harvey, Marleny Elizabeth Martinez Gerbi
OBJECTIVE: This investigation assessed the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus to Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) when grown simultaneously in dentine carious lesions. BACKGROUND DATA: PDT is a technique that utilizes light to activate photosensitizers in the presence of oxygen to produce reactive radicals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A culture medium of 1% glucose, 2% sucrose, 1% young primary culture of L. acidophilus 10(8) CFU/mL, and S...
January 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092481/the-effect-of-main-urine-inhibitors-on-the-activity-of-different-dna-polymerases-in-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#10
Jekaterina Jevtuševskaja, Katrin Krõlov, Indrek Tulp, Ülo Langel
BACKGROUND: The use of rapid amplification methods to detect pathogens in biological samples is mainly limited by the amount of pathogens present in the sample and the presence of inhibiting substances. Inhibitors can affect the amplification efficiency by either binding to the polymerase, interacting with the DNA, or interacting with the polymerase during primer extension. Amplification is performed using DNA polymerase enzymes and even small changes in their activity can influence the sensitivity and robustness of molecular assays Methods: The main purpose of this research was to examine which compounds present in urine inhibit polymerases with strand displacement activity...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092467/early-investigational-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis
#11
Matthew E Falagas, Maria Georgiou
Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. Bacteria contribute significantly to such exacerbations. The aim of this review was to explore the potential role of investigational antibiotics in the treatment of these episodes. Areas covered: The available literature in PubMed database, in websites related to investigational drugs and in websites of the producing companies has been searched. The in vitro activity against pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and the pharmacokinetic profile of antibiotics currently under development were taken into consideration for inclusion in the review...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092436/single-upconversion-nanoparticle-bacterium-cotrapping-for-single-bacterium-labeling-and-analysis
#12
Hongbao Xin, Yuchao Li, Dekang Xu, Yueli Zhang, Chia-Hung Chen, Baojun Li
Detecting and analyzing pathogenic bacteria in an effective and reliable manner is crucial for the diagnosis of acute bacterial infection and initial antibiotic therapy. However, the precise labeling and analysis of bacteria at the single-bacterium level are a technical challenge but very important to reveal important details about the heterogeneity of cells and responds to environment. This study demonstrates an optical strategy for single-bacterium labeling and analysis by the cotrapping of single upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and bacteria together...
January 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092405/thrombin-contributes-to-protective-immunity-in-pneumonia-derived-sepsis-via-fibrin-polymerization-and-platelet-neutrophil-interactions
#13
Theodora A M Claushuis, Sacha F de Stoppelaar, Ingrid Stroo, Joris J T H Roelofs, Roelof Ottenhoff, Tom van der Poll, Cornelis van 't Veer
BACKGROUND: Innate immunity and coagulation are closely linked during sepsis. Their interaction can be detrimental for outcome due to microvascular failure but can also enhance host defense. The role of thrombin herein has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the contribution of thrombin to the host response during pneumonia derived sepsis. METHODS: Mice treated with the specific thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran or control chow were infected with the common human sepsis pathogen Klebsiella (K...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092376/infectious-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-brain-function
#14
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Charise Garber, Nicole Howard
Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092309/microbiota-targeted-therapies-on-the-intensive-care-unit
#15
Bastiaan W Haak, Marcel Levi, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition and diversity of the microbiota of the human gut, skin, and several other sites is severely deranged in critically ill patients on the ICU, and it is likely that these disruptions can negatively affect outcome. We here review new and ongoing studies that investigate the use of microbiota-targeted therapeutics in the ICU, and provide recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Practically every intervention in the ICU as well as the physiological effects of critical illness itself can have a profound impact on the gut microbiota...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092281/renal-tubular-acidosis
#16
Fernando Santos, Helena Gil-Peña, Silvia Alvarez-Alvarez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To facilitate the understanding and knowledge of renal tubular acidosis by providing a summarized information on the known clinical and biochemical characteristics of this group of diseases, by updating the genetic and molecular bases of the primary forms renal tubular acidosis and by examining some issues regarding the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in the daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: The manuscript presents recent findings on the potential of next-generation sequencing to disclose new pathogenic variants in patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary RTA and negative Sanger sequencing of known genes...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092222/varied-presentations-of-leptospirosis-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#17
Rama Chaudhry, Karnika Saigal, Tej Bahadur, Kamla Kant, Bishwanath Chourasia, Nitin Gupta
Leptospirosis has been recognised as an emerging global public health problem. The aim of our study was to explore the epidemiological and clinical pattern of disease occurrence in suspected cases and to search for any existing co-infections. Ours was a retrospective study in patients with acute febrile illness in north India over a period of three years (April 2011 to June 2014). Serological diagnosis of leptospirosis was made using the PanBio IgM ELISA kit. Using modified Faine's criteria, presumptive and possible diagnosis was made in 57% and 34% cases, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092156/inhibition-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-adhesion-to-caco-2-cells-by-commercial-dairy-powders-and-raw-buttermilk
#18
Daniel Ripollés, Saidou Harouna, José Antonio Parrón, Irene Arenales, Miguel Calvo, María Dolores Pérez, Lourdes Sánchez
Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with severe infections mainly in neonates. The binding of this bacterium to host cell surfaces represents the first step in the pathogenesis of disease. An ELISA-based assay has been developed using a polyclonal antiserum against C. sakazakii to determine its adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The antiserum used recognised many of the outer membrane proteins of C. sakazakii. A positive correlation was found between the absorbance values obtained by ELISA and the number of bacteria adhered to cells determined by plate counting...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#19
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091931/identifying-anti-host-effectors-in-photorhabdus
#20
Andrea J Dowling
The death of the insect host is an essential part of the life cycle of Photorhabdus, and as a result, this bacterium comes equipped with a dazzlingly large array of toxins and virulence factors that ensure rapid insect death. Elucidation of the key players in insect infection and mortality has therefore proved difficult using traditional microbiological techniques such as individual gene knockouts due to the high level of functional redundancy displayed by Photorhabdus virulence factors. Thus, knockout of any individual toxin gene may serve to delay time to death but not to render the bacteria avirulent due to the continued presence of an array of other toxins and virulence factors in the single-gene mutant...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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