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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150963/detection-and-quantification-of-two-parasitic-ciliates-boveria-labialis-and-boveria-subcylindrica-ciliophora-scuticociliatia-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#1
Zifeng Zhan, Ju Li, Kuidong Xu
The thigmotrich scuticociliates Boveria labialis and Boveria subcylindrica are obligate parasites that may cause high mortality in cultured sea cucumbers and bivalves. Morphological methods can identify these organisms in active state, but are unable to discern them in resting stages. In aquaculture practice, these parasitic ciliates are hard to eradicate when massive infection occurs in sea cucumbers. Thus, early detection and precaution are crucial for the control of these pathogens. Under such circumstances, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) will serve as a fast way to detect and monitor the occurrence of these parasites...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150962/genotype-and-diet-affect-resistance-survival-and-fecundity-but-not-fecundity-tolerance
#2
Megan A M Kutzer, Joachim Kurtz, Sophie A O Armitage
Insects are exposed to a variety of potential pathogens in their environment, many of which can severely impact fitness and health. Consequently, hosts have evolved resistance and tolerance strategies to suppress or cope with infections. Hosts utilising resistance improve fitness by clearing or reducing pathogen loads and hosts utilising tolerance reduce harmful fitness effects per pathogen load. To understand variation in, and selective pressures on resistance and tolerance we asked to what degree they are shaped by host genetic background, whether plasticity in these responses depends upon dietary environment, and whether there are interactions between these two factors...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150924/comprehensive-profiling-of-lysine-acetylome-in-baculovirus-infected-silkworm-bombyx-mori-cells
#3
Dongbing Hu, Shengjie Xue, Cui Zhao, Ming Wei, Huihui Yan, Yanping Quan, Wei Yu
Bombyx mori is one of the key lepidopteran model species, and is economically important for silk production and proteinaceous drug expression. Baculovirus and insect host are important natural biological models for studying host-pathogen interactions. The impact of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection on the proteome and acetylome of Bombyx mori ovarian (BmN) cells were explored to facilitate a better understanding of infection-driven interactions between BmNPV and host in vitro. The proteome and acetylome were profiled through 6-plex Tandem mass tag (TMT) labelling-based quantitative proteomics...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150910/educating-youth-swine-exhibitors-on-influenza-a-virus-transmission-at-agricultural-fairs
#4
J M Nolting, J Midla, M S Whittington, S D Scheer, A S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine...
November 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150834/il-22-neutralizing-autoantibodies-impair-fungal-clearance-in-murine-oropharyngeal-candidiasis-model
#5
Rudolf Bichele, Jaanika Kärner, Kai Truusalu, Imbi Smidt, Reet Mändar, Heather R Conti, Sarah L Gaffen, Pärt Peterson, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand
Protection against mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on the T helper (Th)17 pathway, as gene defects affecting its integrity result in inability to clear Candida albicans infection on body surfaces. Moreover, autoantibodies neutralizing Th17 cytokines have been related to chronic candidiasis in a rare inherited disorder called autoimmune polyendocriopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) caused by mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. However, the direct pathogenicity of these autoantibodies has not yet been addressed...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150826/rethinking-human-nonhuman-primate-contact-and-pathogenic-disease-spillover
#6
REVIEW
Victor Narat, Lys Alcayna-Stevens, Stephanie Rupp, Tamara Giles-Vernick
Zoonotic transmissions are a major global health risk, and human-animal contact is frequently raised as an important driver of transmission. A literature examining zooanthroponosis largely agrees that more human-animal contact leads to more risk. Yet the basis of this proposition, the term contact, has not been rigorously analyzed. To understand how contact is used to explain cross-species spillovers, we conducted a multi-disciplinary review of studies addressing human-nonhuman primate (NHP) engagements and pathogenic transmissions and employing the term contact...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150728/the-plant-pathogen-gluconobacter-cerinus-strain-cdf1-is-beneficial-to-the-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#7
Muyang He, Jianjun Jiang, Daifeng Cheng
Plant pathogens can build relationships with insect hosts to complete their life cycles, and they often modify the behavior and development of hosts to improve their own fitness. In order to unravel whether some bacteria that can make fruit rot could have developed symbiotic interactions with Bactrocera dorsalis, we studied the symbiont bacteria profiles of the fly. We identified the bacterium Gluconobacter cerinus strain CDF1 from the ovaries and eggs of the oriental fruit fly B. dorsalis and the amount of Gluconobacter cerinus strain CDF1 increased significantly as the ovaries developed and in fruits on which non-sterile eggs were laid...
November 17, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150724/presence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-mycoplasma-spp-but-not-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-treponema-pallidum-in-women-undergoing-an-infertility-evaluation-high-prevalence-of-tetracycline-resistance-gene-tet-m
#8
Min Li, Xiaomei Zhang, Ke Huang, Haixiang Qiu, Jilei Zhang, Yuan Kang, Chengming Wang
Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum are sexually transmitted pathogens that threaten reproductive health worldwide. In this study, vaginal swabs obtained from women (n = 133) that attended an infertility clinic in China were tested with qPCRs for C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., N. gonorrhoeae, T. pallidum and tetracycline resistance genes. While none of vaginal swabs were positive for N. gonorrhoeae and T. pallidum, 18.8% (25/133) of the swabs were positive for Chlamydia spp...
November 17, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150703/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-mechanism-of-fungicidal-of-thymol-against-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-niveum
#9
Meng Zhang, Jing Ge, Xiangyang Yu
Fusarium oxysporum: f. sp. niveum (Fusarium oxysporum) causes watermelon wilt, drastically reducing its yield. Thymol (5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl) phenol, PubChem CID: 6989) has been extensively reported to have antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the growth of F. oxysporum was significantly inhibited by thymol in vitro. The dry weight of F. oxysporum was decreased significantly. Thymol-induced cell membrane damage was observed at 24 hpi (hours post-incubation). Therefore, the changes in the gene expression level of F...
November 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#10
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150677/phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-ct699-lysophospholipid-acyltransferase-ct775-and-acyl-acp-synthase-ct776-provide-membrane-lipid-diversity-to-chlamydia-trachomatis
#11
Eric Soupene, Frans A Kuypers
De novo lipid synthesis and scavenging of fatty acids (FA) are processes essential for the formation of the membrane of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.). Host FA are assimilated via esterification by the bacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase AasC but inhibitors of the host acyl-CoA synthetase enymes ACSL also impaired growth of C.t. in human cells. In E. coli, activity of AasC was sensitive to triacsin C and rosiglitazone G. The absence of a triacsin C-insensitive pathway and the increased inhibition by rosiglitazone G confirmed the sensitivity of the bacterial acyl-ACP synthase to these drugs in infected human cells...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150672/fmnh2-dependent-monooxygenases-initiate-catabolism-of-sulfonamides-in-microbacterium-sp-strain-br1-subsisting-on-sulfonamide-antibiotics
#12
Benjamin Ricken, Boris A Kolvenbach, Christian Bergesch, Dirk Benndorf, Kevin Kroll, Hynek Strnad, Čestmír Vlček, Ricardo Adaixo, Frederik Hammes, Patrick Shahgaldian, Andreas Schäffer, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Philippe F-X Corvini
We report a cluster of genes encoding two monooxygenases (SadA and SadB) and one FMN reductase (SadC) that enable Microbacterium sp. strain BR1 and other Actinomycetes to inactivate sulfonamide antibiotics. Our results show that SadA and SadC are responsible for the initial attack of sulfonamide molecules resulting in the release of 4-aminophenol. The latter is further transformed into 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene by SadB and SadC prior to mineralization and concomitant production of biomass. As the degradation products lack antibiotic activity, the presence of SadA will result in an alleviated bacteriostatic effect of sulfonamides...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150638/the-kohlsch%C3%A3-tter-t%C3%A3-nz-syndrome-associated-gene-rogdi-encodes-a-novel-presynaptic-protein
#13
Donatus Riemann, Rebecca Wallrafen, Thomas Dresbach
Mutations in the human homolog of the Drosophila gene Rogdi cause Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome. This disorder is characterised by amelogenesis imperfecta, as well as severe neurological symptoms including epilepsy and psychomotor delay. However, little is known about the protein encoded by Rogdi, and hence the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome have remained elusive. Using immunofluorescence of rat cultured hippocampal neurons and brain sections we find that Rogdi is enriched at synaptic sites...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150636/a-genetic-system-for-targeted-mutations-to-disrupt-and-restore-genes-in-the-obligate-bacterium-ehrlichia-chaffeensis
#14
Ying Wang, Lanjing Wei, Huitao Liu, Chuanmin Cheng, Roman R Ganta
Obligate intracellular bacteria (obligates) belonging to Rickettsiales and Chlamydiales cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people worldwide and in many animal species. Lack of an efficient system for targeted mutagenesis in obligates remains a major impediment in understanding microbial pathogenesis. Challenges in creating targeted mutations may be attributed to essential nature of majority of the genes and intracellular replication dependence. Despite success in generating random mutations, a method that works well in creating mutations in specific genes of interest followed by complementation remains problematic for obligates and is a highly sought-after goal...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150604/transcriptional-signature-of-human-pro-inflammatory-th17-cells-identifies-reduced-il10-gene-expression-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Dan Hu, Samuele Notarbartolo, Tom Croonenborghs, Bonny Patel, Ron Cialic, Tun-Hsiang Yang, Dominik Aschenbrenner, Karin M Andersson, Marco Gattorno, Minh Pham, Pia Kivisakk, Isabelle V Pierre, Youjin Lee, Karun Kiani, Maria Bokarewa, Emily Tjon, Nathalie Pochet, Federica Sallusto, Vijay K Kuchroo, Howard L Weiner
We have previously reported the molecular signature of murine pathogenic TH17 cells that induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals. Here we show that human peripheral blood IFN-γ(+)IL-17(+) (TH1/17) and IFN-γ(-)IL-17(+) (TH17) CD4(+) T cells display distinct transcriptional profiles in high-throughput transcription analyses. Compared to TH17 cells, TH1/17 cells have gene signatures with marked similarity to mouse pathogenic TH17 cells. Assessing 15 representative signature genes in patients with multiple sclerosis, we find that TH1/17 cells have elevated expression of CXCR3 and reduced expression of IFNG, CCL3, CLL4, GZMB, and IL10 compared to healthy controls...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150600/mapping-tenascin-c-interaction-with-toll-like-receptor-4-reveals-a-new-subset-of-endogenous-inflammatory-triggers
#16
Lorena Zuliani-Alvarez, Anna M Marzeda, Claire Deligne, Anja Schwenzer, Fiona E McCann, Brian D Marsden, Anna M Piccinini, Kim S Midwood
Pattern recognition underpins innate immunity; the accurate identification of danger, including infection, injury, or tumor, is key to an appropriately targeted immune response. Pathogen detection is increasingly well defined mechanistically, but the discrimination of endogenous inflammatory triggers remains unclear. Tenascin-C, a matrix protein induced upon tissue damage and expressed by tumors, activates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sterile inflammation. Here we map three sites within tenascin-C that directly and cooperatively interact with TLR4...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150566/the-loss-of-tet2-promotes-cd8-t-cell-memory-differentiation
#17
Shannon A Carty, Mercy Gohil, Lauren B Banks, Renee M Cotton, Matthew E Johnson, Erietta Stelekati, Andrew D Wells, E John Wherry, Gary A Koretzky, Martha S Jordan
T cell differentiation requires appropriate regulation of DNA methylation. In this article, we demonstrate that the methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation (TET)2 regulates CD8(+) T cell differentiation. In a murine model of acute viral infection, TET2 loss promotes early acquisition of a memory CD8(+) T cell fate in a cell-intrinsic manner without disrupting Ag-driven cell expansion or effector function. Upon secondary recall, TET2-deficient memory CD8(+) T cells demonstrate superior pathogen control...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150562/the-role-of-mhc-e-in-t-cell-immunity-is-conserved-among-humans-rhesus-macaques-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#18
Helen L Wu, Roger W Wiseman, Colette M Hughes, Gabriela M Webb, Shaheed A Abdulhaqq, Benjamin N Bimber, Katherine B Hammond, Jason S Reed, Lina Gao, Benjamin J Burwitz, Justin M Greene, Fidel Ferrer, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Byung S Park, Simon Brackenridge, Nicholas J Maness, Andrew J McMichael, Louis J Picker, David H O'Connor, Scott G Hansen, Jonah B Sacha
MHC-E is a highly conserved nonclassical MHC class Ib molecule that predominantly binds and presents MHC class Ia leader sequence-derived peptides for NK cell regulation. However, MHC-E also binds pathogen-derived peptide Ags for presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Given this role in adaptive immunity and its highly monomorphic nature in the human population, HLA-E is an attractive target for novel vaccine and immunotherapeutic modalities. Development of HLA-E-targeted therapies will require a physiologically relevant animal model that recapitulates HLA-E-restricted T cell biology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150546/differential-regulation-of-two-tiered-plant-immunity-and-sexual-reproduction-by-anxur-receptor-like-kinases
#19
Hyunggon Mang, Baomin Feng, Zhangjian Hu, Aurelien Boisson-Dernier, Christina Franck, Xiangzong Meng, Yanyan Huang, Jinggeng Zhou, Guangyuan Xu, Taotao Wang, Libo Shan, Ping He
Plants have evolved two tiers of immune receptors to detect infections: cell surface-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense microbial signatures and intracellular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize pathogen effectors. How PRRs and NLRs interconnect and activate the specific and overlapping plant immune responses remains elusive. A genetic screen for components controlling plant immunity identified ANXUR1 (ANX1), a malectin-like domain-containing receptor-like kinase, together with its homolog ANX2, as important negative regulators of both PRR- and NLR-mediated immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150513/high-prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-large-phicd211-phicdif1296t-like-prophages-in-clostridioides-difficile
#20
Julian R Garneau, Ognjen Sekulovic, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina, Marc Monot, Louis-Charles Fortier
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a pathogenic bacterium displaying great genetic diversity. A significant proportion of this diversity is due to the presence of integrated prophages. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of phiCD211, also known as phiCDIF1296T, the largest phage identified in C. difficile so far, with a genome of 131-kbp. It shares morphological and genomic similarity with other large siphophages like phage 949 infecting Lactococcus lactis and phage c-st infecting Clostridium botulinum...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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