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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637338/complex-interactions-between-potentially-pathogenic-opportunistic-and-resident-bacteria-emerge-during-infection-on-a-reef-building-coral
#1
Sarah A Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Felicia M Aronson, Steven V Vollmer
Increased bacterial diversity on diseased corals can obscure disease etiology and complicate our understanding of pathogenesis. To untangle microbes that may cause white band disease signs from microbes responding to disease, we inoculated healthy Acropora cervicornis corals with an infectious dose from visibly diseased corals. We sampled these dosed corals and healthy controls over time for sequencing of the bacterial 16S region. Endozoicomonas were associated with healthy fragments from 4/10 colonies, dominating microbiomes before dosing and decreasing over time only in corals that displayed disease signs, suggesting a role in disease resistance...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637323/evolution-of-transcription-activator-like-effectors-in-xanthomonas-oryzae
#2
Annett Erkes, Maik Reschke, Jens Boch, Jan Grau
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are secreted by plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas bacteria into plant cells where they act as transcriptional activators and, hence, are major drivers in reprogramming the plant for the benefit of the pathogen. TALEs possess a highly repetitive DNA-binding domain of typically 34 amino acid tandem repeats, where amino acid 12 and 13, termed repeat variable di-residue (RVD), determine target specificity. Different Xanthomonas strains possess different repertoires of TALEs...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637307/sparing-carbapenem-usage
#3
A Peter R Wilson
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637225/characteristics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-commercial-farms-from-a-common-hatchery
#4
H Ozaki, Y Matsuoka, E Nakagawa, T Murase
To investigate the epidemiologic aspects of colibacillosis in broiler chickens, 83 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions in broiler chickens from 4 commercial farms, 5 isolates recovered from 5 samples of yolk sac contents that were pooled from 25 emaciated chicks, and 4 fecal isolates obtained from a hatchery that supplied chicks to the 4 commercial farms mentioned above were genetically and bacteriologically characterized. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a total of 92 isolates were classified into 33 pulsotypes...
June 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637209/purification-and-characterization-of-two-new-cell-bound-bioactive-compounds-produced-by-wildlactococcus-lactisstrain
#5
Margarete Alice Fontes Saraiva, Dag Anders Brede, Ingolf Figved Nes, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Marisa Vieira de Queiroz, Célia Alencar de Moraes
Novel compounds and innovative methods are required considering that antibiotic resistance has reached a crisis point. In the study, two cell-bound antimicrobial compounds produced by L. lactis ID1.5 were isolated and partially characterized. Following purification by cationic exchange and a solid phase C18 column, antimicrobial activity was recovered after three runs of RPC using 60% (v/v) and 100% (v/v) of 2-propanol for elution, suggesting that more than one antimicrobial compound were produced by L. lactis ID1...
June 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637205/evolution-and-comparative-genomics-of-paqu-like-conjugative-plasmids-in-vibrio-species
#6
Ruichao Li, Lianwei Ye, Marcus Ho Yin Wong, Zhiwei Zheng, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Objectives: To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process. Methods: pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids. Results: The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ∼160 to 206 kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637194/high-iron-supply-inhibits-the-synthesis-of-the-genotoxin-colibactin-by-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-non-canonical-fur-ryhb-mediated-pathway
#7
Sophie Tronnet, Christophe Garcie, Alexander O Brachmann, Jörn Piel, Eric Oswald, Patricia Martin
The genotoxin colibactin is a secondary metabolite produced by a variety of pathogenic Enterobacteria, and is associated with colon cancer development and acute systemic infections. The colibactin biosynthesis requires the enzymatic activity of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase ClbA. We recently evidenced that two master regulators of bacterial iron homeostasis, i.e. the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and the small regulatory non-coding RNA RyhB, were involved in the regulation of the clbA transcription and of the colibactin production...
June 20, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637123/inhibition-of-swarming-motility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-methanol-extracts-of-alpinia-officinarum-hance-and-cinnamomum-tamala-t-nees-and-eberm
#8
Divya Lakshmanan, Jishudas Nanda, K Jeevaratnam
Bacterial drug resistance is a challenge in clinical settings, especially in countries like India. Hence, discovery of novel alternative therapeutics has become a necessity in the fight against drug resistance. Compounds that inhibit bacterial virulence properties form new therapeutic alternatives. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic, nosocomial pathogen that infects immune-compromised patients. Swarming motility is an important virulence property of Pseudomonas which aids it in reaching host cells under nutrient limiting conditions...
June 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637081/molecular-characterization-of-gluten-hydrolyzing-bacillus-spp-and-their-efficacy-and-biotherapeutic-potential-as-probiotics-using-caco-2-cell-line
#9
B S Rashmi, Gayathri Devaraja
AIM: To isolate and characterize indigenous gluten hydrolyzing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples and further evaluation of their probiotic potentiality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Indigenous gluten hydrolyzing isolates GS 33, GS 143, GS 181 and GS 188 were identified as Bacillus spp. by molecular-typing methods and studied extensively for their functional and probiotic attributes. All the tested isolates could survive at pH 2 and toxicity of 0.3% bile and also exhibited cell-surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation phenotype...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637010/local-application-of-bacteria-improves-safety-of-salmonella-mediated-tumor-therapy-and-retains-advantages-of-systemic-infection
#10
Dino Kocijancic, Sebastian Felgner, Tim Schauer, Michael Frahm, Ulrike Heise, Kurt Zimmermann, Marc Erhardt, Siegfried Weiss
Cancer is a devastating disease and a large socio-economic burden. Novel therapeutic solutions are on the rise, although a cure remains elusive. Application of microorganisms represents an ancient therapeutic strategy, lately revoked and refined via simultaneous attenuation and amelioration of pathogenic properties. Salmonella Typhimurium has prevailed in preclinical development. Yet, using virulent strains for systemic treatment might cause severe side effects. In the present study, we highlight a modified strain based on Salmonella Typhimurium UK-1 expressing hexa-acylated Lipid A...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#11
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636958/protective-and-pathological-immunity-during-central-nervous-system-infections
#12
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Christopher A Hunter
The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. The focus of this review is to consider the host-pathogen interactions that influence neurotropic infections and to highlight advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive mechanisms of resistance as key determinants of the outcome of CNS infection...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636835/use-of-bacteriophages-to-control-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-domestic-ruminants-meat-products-and-fruits-and-vegetables
#13
Lili Wang, Kunli Qu, Xiaoyu Li, Zhenhui Cao, Xitao Wang, Zhen Li, Yaxiong Song, Yongping Xu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important foodborne pathogen that causes severe bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Ruminant manure is a primary source of E. coli O157:H7 contaminating the environment and food sources. Therefore, effective interventions targeted at reducing the prevalence of fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle and sheep and the elimination of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of meat products as well as fruits and vegetables are required. Bacteriophages offer the prospect of sustainable alternative approaches against bacterial pathogens with the flexibility of being applied therapeutically or for biological control purposes...
June 21, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636814/arsenic-compromises-both-p97-and-proteasome-functions
#14
Joseph Tillotson, Christopher J Zerio, Bryan Harder, Andrew Ambrose, Kevin S Jung, MinJin Kang, Donna D Zhang, Eli Chapman
Exposure to arsenic is a worldwide problem that affects more than 200 million people. The underlying mechanisms of arsenic toxicity have been difficult to ascertain due to arsenic's pleotropic effects. A number of recent investigations have shown arsenic can compromise protein quality control through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) or the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. In this report, a link between arsenic and protein quality control is reported. Biochemical and cellular data demonstrate a misregulation of the ATPase cycle of the ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) chaperone, p97...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636808/diversity-and-abundance-of-human-pathogenic-fungi-associated-with-pigeon-feces-in-urban-environments
#15
Won Dong Lee, Jonathan J Fong, John A Eimes, Young Woon Lim
Pathogenic fungi are a growing health concern worldwide, particularly in large, densely populated cities. The dramatic upsurge of pigeon populations in cities has been implicated in the increased incidence of invasive fungal infections. In the current study, we used a culture-independent, high-throughput sequencing approach to describe the diversity of clinically relevant fungi (CRF) associated with pigeon feces and map the relative abundance of CRF across Seoul, Korea. In addition, we tested whether certain geographical, sociological, and meteorological factors were significantly associated with the diversity and relative abundance of CRF...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636788/role-of-positively-charged-residues-on-the-polar-and-non-polar-faces-of-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helical-antimicrobial-peptides-amps-on-specificity-and-selectivity-for-gram-negative-pathogens
#16
Ziqing Jiang, Colin T Mant, Michael Vasil, Robert S Hodges
We have designed de novo and synthesized eight 26-residue all D-conformation amphipathic α-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), four with "specificity determinants" which provide specificity for prokaryotic cells over eukaryotic cells and four AMPs without specificity determinants. The eight AMPs contain six positively charged Lys residues on the polar face in four different arrangements to understand the role of these residues have on antimicrobial activity against 14 Acinetobacter baumannii strains, 7 of which were resistant to polymyxin B and colistin; 6 diverse Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and 17 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 9 of which were Methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and 8 of which were Methicillin-resistant (MRSA)...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636786/exacta-the-complement-system-in-kidney-diseases
#17
S Reuter, R Mrowka
The complement system, a plasma component, was described upon its discovery to augment the opsonisation of bacteria by antibodies, 'complementing' said antibodies' antibacterial activity. In its first and foremost role, the complement cascade helps convert pathogen recognition into an effective host defence. Two recent publications in Acta Physiologica have highlighted the role of complement factors in immune cell function, namely monoamine transmitter release from immune cells during immune response and inflammation(1, 2) This article is protected by copyright...
June 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636739/a-comparison-of-tonsillar-surface-swabbing-fine-needle-aspiration-core-sampling-and-dissected-tonsillar-core-biopsy-culture-in-children-with-recurrent-tonsillitis
#18
Saurav Sarkar, Abheek Sil, Soma Sarkar, Biswajit Sikder
In recurrent tonsillitis, the pathogenic bacteria are harbored in the tonsil core, and therefore cultures of superficial swab samples are not particularly accurate in identifying specific types of core bacteria. On the other hand, the results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cultures of core samples have been closely correlated with the findings of core cultures in excised tonsils, and both methods are far superior to surface swabbing. We conducted a prospective study to compare the accuracy of culture findings from tonsillar tissue obtained by surface swabbing, FNA sampling of the tonsil core in situ, and core sampling of the excised tonsil in children with recurrent tonsillitis...
June 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636672/metabolomic-profile-and-nucleoside-composition-of-cordyceps-nidus-sp-nov-cordycipitaceae-a-new-source-of-active-compounds
#19
Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636663/an-endophytic-basidiomycete-grammothele-lineata-isolated-from-corchorus-olitorius-produces-paclitaxel-that-shows-cytotoxicity
#20
Avizit Das, Mohammad Imtiazur Rahman, Ahlan Sabah Ferdous, Al- Amin, Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman, Nilufar Nahar, Md Aftab Uddin, Mohammad Riazul Islam, Haseena Khan
Grammothele lineata, an endophyte isolated in our laboratory from jute (Corchorus olitorius acc. 2015) was found to be a substantial paclitaxel producer. Taxol and its related compounds, produced by this endophyte were extracted by growing the fungus in simple nutrient media (potato dextrose broth, PDB). Taxol was identified and characterized by different analytical techniques (TLC, HPLC, FTIR, LC-ESI-MS/MS) following its extraction by ethyl acetate. In PDB media, this fungus was found to produce 382.2 μgL-1 of taxol which is about 7...
2017: PloS One
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