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Sean P Graham, Kevin T Fielman, Mary T Mendonça
Complement-an immune protein cascade involved in pathogen lysis-was discovered as a temperature-labile component of vertebrate plasma, yet since that time the thermal performance of complement has not received much attention from a comparative or ecological perspective. We investigated two thermal hypotheses involving the complement system of the cottonmouth snake (Agkistrodon piscivorus). We tested whether complement performance would conform to optimal thermal reaction norms commonly observed in ectotherm ecophysiological studies, predicting that complement efficiency would be maximal at or near the cottonmouth's field body temperatures...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Tosha R Kelly, Heather L MacGillivray, Keith A Hobson, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton
A central tenet of ecoimmunology is that an organism's environment shapes its optimal investment in immunity. For example, the benefits of acquired (relatively pathogen specific) versus innate (nonspecific) immune defenses are thought to vary with the risk of encountering familiar versus unfamiliar pathogens. Because pathogen communities vary geographically, individuals that travel farther during seasonal migration or natal dispersal are predicted to have higher exposure to novel pathogens, and lower exposure to familiar pathogens, potentially favoring investment in innate immunity...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Mitchell Andrew Czerwinski, Ben Michael Sadd
Pesticides are well known to have a number of ecological effects. However, it is only now becoming understood that sublethal exposures may have effects on nontarget insects of conservation concern through interactions with immunity, thus increasing detrimental impacts in the presence of pathogens. Pesticides and pathogens are suggested to have played a role in recent declines of several wild bee pollinators. Compromised immunity from exposure to widely used neonicotinoids has been demonstrated in honeybees, but further research on interactions between neonicotinoids and immunity in other important bees is lacking...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Katie Stromsland, Laura M Zimmerman
Reptilian immune systems are believed to rely more heavily on the innate response than the adaptive response. Past research on reptilian immune systems has indicated that natural antibodies (NAbs) play an important role in fighting antigens as the first responder and initiating the innate immune response. However, there is a gap in research on NAbs in reptiles as there is little data on how they may influence parasite prevalence in reptiles. Furthermore, no studies have examined NAbs at mucosal sites, which represent an important point of entry for parasites...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Katie B Needham, Aurelia C Kucera, Britt J Heidinger, Timothy J Greives
Mounting an immunological response is energetically demanding and necessarily redirects allocation of resources toward immune system activation and away from other energetically expensive processes, such as reproduction. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, mimics a bacterial infection without producing the cost of replicating the pathogen and is one of the most commonly used agents to induce an acute phase immune response...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Giuseppe Celenza, Mattia Vicario, Pierangelo Bellio, Linciano Pasquale, Mariagrazia Perilli, Antonio Oliver, Jesus Blazquez, Laura Cendron, Donatella Tondi
The emergence and dissemination of multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens resistant to near all available antibiotics poses a significant threat in clinical therapy. Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates overexpressing KPC-2 carbapenemase are the most worrisome, extending bacterial resistance to last resort carbapenems. In this study we investigate the molecular recognition requirements in KPC-2 active site by small phenyl boronic acid derivatives. Four new phenyl boronic acid derivatives were designed and tested vs KPC-2...
January 22, 2018: ChemMedChem
Xin Yin, Baohong Zou, Xuexue Hong, Mingjun Gao, Weibing Yang, Xiangbin Zhong, Yang He, Peng Kuai, Yonggen Lou, Jirong Huang, Jian Hua, Zuhua He
Breeding for disease resistance is the most effective strategy to control diseases, particularly with broad-spectrum disease resistance in many crops. However, knowledge on genes and mechanism of broad-spectrum resistance and tradeoff between defense and growth in crops is limited. Here, we show that the rice copine genes OsBON1 and OsBON3 are critical suppressors of immunity. Both OsBON1 and OsBON3 changed their protein subcellular localization upon pathogen challenge. Knockdown of OsBON1 and dominant negative mutant of OsBON3 enhanced resistance to rice bacterial and fungal pathogens with either hemibiotrophic or necrotrophic life styles...
January 22, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Karthika Suryaletha, Joby John, Megha Periyappilly Radhakrishnan, Sanil George, Sabu Thomas
Chronic diabetic foot is a global burden affecting millions of people, and the chronicity of an ulcer is directly linked to the diverse bacterial burden and its biofilm mode of infection. The bacterial diversity of 100 chronic diabetic ulcer samples was profiled via traditional culturing method as well as metagenomic approach by sequencing the 16S rRNA V3 hyper-variable region on Illumina Miseq Platform (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA). All the relevant clinical metadata, including duration of diabetes, grade of ulcer, presence of neuropathy, and glycaemic level, were noted and correlated with the microbiota...
January 22, 2018: International Wound Journal
Erin E Mowers, Marina N Sharifi, Kay F MacLeod
Macro-autophagy is an ancient and highly-conserved self-degradative process that plays a homeostatic role in normal cells by eliminating organelles, pathogens and protein aggregates. Autophagy, as it is routinely referred to, also allows cells to maintain metabolic sufficiency and survive under conditions of nutrient stress by recycling the by-products of autophagic degradation, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides. Tumor cells are more reliant than normal cells on autophagy for survival in part due to their rapid growth rate, altered metabolism and nutrient deprived growth environment...
January 21, 2018: FEBS Journal
Mingli Yong, Yijia Liu, Tianqi Chen, Linlin Fan, Zhengyi Wang, Dongwei Hu
In recent years, false smut disease of rice has been one of the most important diseases of cultivated rice in China. Ustilaginoidea virens is an ascomycete fungal pathogen that causes false smut in rice. There is always controversy about whether the pathogen can infect the rice root and cause the occurrence of false smut, mainly due to lack direct cytological evidence. In our study, we observed the cytological structure of rice root invaded by U. virens. The results showed that U. virens could attach to the surface of young roots and penetrate into the intercellular space of the root epidermis...
January 22, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Maíra Duarte Cardoso, Leila Soledade Lemos, Emily Moraes Roges, Jailson Fulgencio de Moura, Davi Castro Tavares, Carlos Alexandre R Matias, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Salvatore Siciliano
AIMS: To perform a microbiological survey regarding the presence, prevalence and characterization of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. in debilitated wrecked marine birds recovered from the center-north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Swabs obtained from 116 alive and debilitated wrecked marine birds, comprising 19 species, from the study area were evaluated by biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and pathogenicity gene screening were performed for bacterial strains of public health importance...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Wo-Tu Tian, Xiao-Jun Huang, Xiao Mao, Qing Liu, Xiao-Li Liu, Sheng Zeng, Xia-Nan Guo, Jun-Yi Shen, Yang-Qi Xu, Hui-Dong Tang, Xiao-Meng Yin, Mei Zhang, Wei-Guo Tang, Xiao-Rong Liu, Bei-Sha Tang, Sheng-Di Chen, Li Cao
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is the most common type of paroxysmal dyskinesia. Approximately half of the cases of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia worldwide are attributable to proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate potential causative genes and clinical characteristics in proline-rich transmembrane protein 2-negative patients with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. METHODS: We analyzed clinical manifestations and performed exome sequencing in a cohort of 163 proline-rich transmembrane protein 2-negative probands, followed by filtering data with a paroxysmal movement disorders gene panel...
January 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Basanta Dhodary, Michele Schilg, Rainer Wirth, Dieter Stefan Spiteller
The specialized, fungal pathogen Escovopsis weberi threatens the mutualistic symbiosis between leaf cutting ants and their garden fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus). Because E. weberi can overwhelm L. gongylophorus without direct contact, it was suspected to secrete toxins. Using NMR and mass spectrometry, we identified several secondary metabolites produced by E. weberi. E. weberi produces five shearinine-type indole triterpenoids including two novel derivatives, shearinine L and shearinine M, as well as the polyketides, emodin and cycloarthropsone...
January 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
L Martinez-Anton, M Marenda, S M Firestone, R N Bushell, G Child, A I Hamilton, S N Long, M A R Le Chevoir
BACKGROUND: Acute polyradiculoneuritis (APN) is an immune-mediated peripheral nerve disorder in dogs that shares many similarities with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in humans, in which the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter spp. now is considered to be a major triggering agent. Little information is available concerning the relationship between APN and Campylobacter spp. in dogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between Campylobacter spp. infection and APN...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Zoya Alteber, Adi Sharbi-Yunger, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Dan Blat, Lior Roitman, Esther Tzehoval, Eran Elinav, Lea Eisenbach
Inflammation plays pivotal roles in different stages of tumor development. Screening for predisposing genetic abnormalities and understanding the roles these genes play in the crosstalk between immune and cancer cells will provide new targets for cancer therapy and prevention. The interferon inducible transmembrane (IFITM) genes are involved in pathogenesis of the gastro-intestinal tract. We aimed at delineating the role of IFITM3 in colonic epithelial homeostasis, inflammation and colitis-associated tumorigenesis using IFITM3-deficient mice...
December 13, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer, Kimberly A Zuhlke, Anna M Johnson, Daniel Liesman, Kathleen A Cooney
BACKGROUND: African Americans have both a higher incidence of prostate cancer and greater disease-specific mortality compared with non-Hispanic whites. Historically, the investigation of the contribution of rare genetic variants to prostate cancer in African American men has been hampered by low participation in large genetic studies, particularly those focused on early-onset and familial disease. METHODS: We sequenced 160 genes purported to be involved in carcinogenic pathways in germline DNA samples collected from 96 African American men diagnosed with early-onset prostate cancer (≤55 years at diagnosis)...
January 21, 2018: Prostate
Jan J G M Verschuuren, Jaap J Plomp, Steve J Burden, Wei Zhang, Yvonne E Fillié-Grijpma, Inge E Stienstra-van Es, Erik H Niks, Mario Losen, Silvère M van der Maarel, Maartje G Huijbers
Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is characterized by fluctuating fatigable weakness. In MuSK MG, involvement of bulbar muscles, neck, and shoulder and respiratory weakness are more prominent than in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) MG. MuSK autoantibodies are mainly of the IgG4 subclass, and as such are unable to activate complement, have low affinity for Fc receptors, and are functionally monovalent. Therefore, the pathogenicity of IgG4 MuSK autoantibodies was initially questioned...
January 21, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
M-D Tabar, R Movilla, L Serrano, L Altet, O Francino, X Roura
OBJECTIVES: To investigate evidence for selected vector-borne pathogen infections in dogs with pericardial effusion living in a Mediterranean area in which several canine vector-borne diseases are endemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Archived EDTA blood (n=68) and pericardial fluid samples (n=58) from dogs with pericardial effusion (n=68) were included. Dogs without pericardial effusion examined for other reasons were included as controls (n=60). Pericardial effusion was classified as neoplastic in 40 dogs, idiopathic in 23 dogs and of unknown aetiology in 5 dogs...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Silvestre Bongiovanni Abel, Edith Inés Yslas, Claudia Rosana Rivarola, Cesar Alfredo Barbero
Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-NPs) were easily obtained applying the solvent displacement method by using N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) as good solvent and water as poor solvent. Different polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), chondroitin sulfate (ChS), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were used as stabilizers. Dynamic Light Scattering and Scanning Electron Microscopy corroborated the size and morphology of the formed NPs. It was demonstrated that the size of nanoparticles could controlled by setting the concentration of PANI in NMP, the NMP to water ratio, and the stabilizer´s nature...
January 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yunfei Dang, Yubang Shen, Xiaoyan Xu, Shentong Wang, Xinzhan Meng, Meng Zhang, Liqun Lv, Rongquan Wang, Jiale Li
The complement system is a significant component of innate immunity. Here, we identified a Bf/C2 homolog (gcBf/C2b) in grass carp. gcBf/C2b shares a high similarity with Bf/C2b counterparts in other teleosts. gcBf/C2b transcription was widely distributed in different tissues, induced by Aeromonas hydrophila in vivo and in vitro, and affected by lipopolysaccharide and flagellin stimulation in vitro. In cells over-expressing gcBf/C2b, transcript levels of all components except gcC5 were significantly enhanced, and gcBf/C2b, gcIL1β, gcTNF-α, gcIFN, gcCD59, gcC5aR1, and gcITGβ-2 were significantly upregulated after A...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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