keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pathogen

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432942/insights-into-the-diversity-of-nod-like-receptors-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-nlrc3-nlrc5-and-nlrx1-in-rainbow-trout
#1
Claudio A Álvarez, Felipe Ramírez-Cepeda, Paula Santana, Elisa Torres, Jimena Cortés, Fanny Guzmán, Paulina Schmitt, Luis Mercado
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are efficient soluble intracellular sensors that activate defense mechanisms against pathogens. In teleost fish, the involvement of NLRs in the immune response is not well understood. However, recent work has evidenced the expression of different NLRs in response to some pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In the present work, the cDNA sequence encoding three new NOD-like receptors were identified in Oncorhynchus mykiss, namely OmNLRC3, OmNLRC5 and OmNLRX1...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432932/surveillance-of-vittaforma-corneae-in-hot-springs-by-a-small-volume-procedure
#2
Jung-Sheng Chen, Tsui-Kang Hsu, Bing-Mu Hsu, Tung-Yi Huang, Yu-Li Huang, Men-Fang Shaio, Dar-Der Ji
Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring...
April 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432858/regulatory-function-of-parasites-in-autoimmune-disease-%C3%A2-outcome-from-experimental-model-infection
#3
Katarzyna Krawczak, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Maria Doligalska
It is estimated that more than half of the nowadays known species are pathogenic parasites. Among macroparasites gastrointestinal nematodes are one of most common and having significant impact on life and health. Those organisms reveal strong, specific immune response in host, involving primary mechanisms associated with regulatory and Th2 cells. Referring to immunomodulatory abilities of helminths, parasite infections started to be considered as a possible therapy for many autoimmune diseases. Clinical trials on 2nd and 3rd stage are conducted in spite that treatment has not been recognized as safe for common use...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432706/varied-pathological-and-therapeutic-response-effects-associated-with-chchd2-mutant-and-risk-variants
#4
Murni Tio, Rujing Wen, Yih Lin Lim, Zul Haikhel Bin Zukifli, Shaoping Xie, Patrick Ho, Zhidong Zhou, Tong-Wey Koh, Yi Zhao, Eng-King Tan
Mutations and polymorphic risk variant of coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 (CHCHD2) have been associated with late-onset Parkinson disease. In vivo pathological evidence of CHCHD2 mutations is currently lacking. Utilizing transgenic Drosophila model, we examined the relative pathophysiologic effect of the pathogenic (c.182C>T, p.Thr61Ile and c.434G>A, p.Arg145Gln) and the risk (c.5C>T, p.Pro2Leu) CHCHD2 variants. All the transgenic models exhibited locomotor dysfunction which could be exacerbated by rotenone exposure, dopaminergic neuron degeneration, reduction in lifespan, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and impairment in synaptic transmission...
April 21, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432700/serum-h-ficolin-levels-clinical-association-with-interstitial-lung-disease-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#5
Takuya Miyagawa, Yoshihide Asano, Yuka de Mestier, Ryosuke Saigusa, Takashi Taniguchi, Takashi Yamashita, Kouki Nakamura, Megumi Hirabayashi, Shunsuke Miura, Yohei Ichimura, Takehiro Takahashi, Ayumi Yoshizaki, Tomomitsu Miyagaki, Makoto Sugaya, Shinichi Sato
Ficolins, a group of oligomeric lectins consisting of three isoforms (H-, L- and M-ficolin), contribute to innate immunity via activating the complement pathway and/or acting directly as opsonins against pathogens and apoptotic cells. Because apoptotic cells likely drive the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc) partly through innate immunity, we assessed the clinical association of serum H-ficolin levels in SSc patients. Despite no difference in serum H-ficolin levels between SSc and control subjects, SSc patients with decreased serum H-ficolin levels tended to have a higher prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432602/sphenopalatine-ganglion-block-in-the-management-of-chronic-headaches
#6
REVIEW
Jeffery Mojica, Bi Mo, Andrew Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block has been used by clinicians in the treatment of a variety of headache disorders, facial pain syndromes, and other facial neuralgias. The sensory and autonomic fibers that travel through the SPG provided the scientific rationale for symptoms associated with these head and neck syndromes. Yet, despite the elucidation of this pathogenic target, the optimal method to block its pain-producing properties has not been determined. Clinicians have developed various invasive and non-invasive techniques, each of which has shown variable rates of success...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432563/complete-sequences-of-the-rna-1-and-rna-2-segments-of-chronic-bee-paralysis-virus-strain-cbpv-bj-detected-in-china
#7
Beibei Li, Shuai Deng, Dahe Yang, Chunsheng Hou, Qingyun Diao
Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral pathogen that affects adult bees. Although several CBPV strains have been reported, little information has been obtained from China. In this study, two major segments of the CBPV Chinese isolate CBPV-BJ, RNA 1 and RNA 2, were determined to be 3657 and 2267 nucleotides (nt) in length, respectively. RNA 1 and RNA 2 contained three and four open reading frames (ORFs), respectively, which agreed with known reference strains (EU122229 and EU122230). The RNA 1 had 98% nucleotide sequence identity to a known Chinese strain (KU950353), and RNA 2 had 97% nucleotide sequence identity to another Chinese strain (KU950354)...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432472/anti-infective-and-anti-inflammatory-pharmacotherapies
#8
Mark I Rosenblatt
Ocular infection and inflammation are common and are associated with myriad ocular conditions ranging from mild disease to blinding conditions. There are numerous anti-invectives with spectra against inciting pathogens. Given the potential for ocular infections to rapidly progress initial broad spectrum therapy is usually required, with therapy tailored as microbiological identification and sensitivities become available. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has become a major health problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy can be institutes to prevent ocular symptoms and end-organ damage...
April 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432378/advances-in-anti-viral-immune-defence-revealing-the-importance-of-the-ifn-jak-stat-pathway
#9
REVIEW
Nicola Raftery, Nigel J Stevenson
Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a potent anti-viral cytokine, critical to the host immune response against viruses. IFN-α is first produced upon viral detection by pathogen recognition receptors. Following its expression, IFN-α embarks upon a complex downstream signalling cascade called the JAK/STAT pathway. This signalling pathway results in the expression of hundreds of effector genes known as interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). These genes are the basis for an elaborate effector mechanism and ultimately, the clearance of viral infection...
April 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432358/differential-sensitivity-to-infections-and-antimicrobial-peptide-mediated-immune-response-in-four-silkworm-strains-with-different-geographical-origin
#10
Ottavia Romoli, Alessio Saviane, Andrea Bozzato, Paola D'Antona, Gianluca Tettamanti, Andrea Squartini, Silvia Cappellozza, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori has an innate immune system, whose main effectors are the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Silkworm strains are commonly grouped into four geographical types (Japanese, Chinese, European and Tropical) and are generally characterised by a variable susceptibility to infections. To clarify the genetic and molecular mechanisms on which the different responses to infections are based, we exposed one silkworm strain for each geographical area to oral infections with the silkworm pathogens Enterococcus mundtii or Serratia marcescens...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432321/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineage-distribution-in-xinjiang-and-gansu-provinces-china
#11
Haixia Chen, Li He, Hairong Huang, Chengmin Shi, Xumin Ni, Guangming Dai, Liang Ma, Weimin Li
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432302/a-bacterial-abc-transporter-enables-import-of-mammalian-host-glycosaminoglycans
#12
Sayoko Oiki, Bunzo Mikami, Yukie Maruyama, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, constitute mammalian extracellular matrices. The uronate and amino sugar residues in hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate are linked by 1,3-glycoside bond, while heparin contains 1,4-glycoside bond. Some bacteria target GAGs as means of establishing colonization and/or infection, and bacterial degradation mechanisms of GAGs have been well characterized. However, little is known about the bacterial import of GAGs. Here, we show a GAG import system, comprised of a solute-binding protein (Smon0123)-dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, in the pathogenic Streptobacillus moniliformis...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432224/a-bacterial-cause-of-cancer-an-historical-essay
#13
Marshall A Lichtman
This article reviews the history of the discovery of microbes that increase the risk of cancer of some tissues with a special emphasis on the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and the role played by two Australian physicians, neither schooled in research, who had open minds about the shibboleth that mycobacteria (acid-fast organisms) can survive the acid environment of the stomach, but that other pathogenic bacteria cannot. They discovered one of the most important human pathogens, Helicobacter pylori, and showed it capable of inducing severe gastric inflammatory disease...
April 21, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432209/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-of-the-seasonal-dynamics-of-airway-pathogens-in-the-aetiology-of-exacerbations-in-copd
#14
Tom M A Wilkinson, Emmanuel Aris, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Mathieu Peeters, Thierry G Pascal, Sonia Schoonbroodt, Andrew C Tuck, Viktoriya Kim, Kristoffer Ostridge, Karl J Staples, Nicholas Williams, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Jeanne-Marie Devaster
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is incompletely understood. Understanding the relationship between chronic bacterial airway infection and viral exposure may explain the incidence and seasonality of these events. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cohort study (NCT01360398), patients with COPD aged 40-85 years underwent sputum sampling monthly and at exacerbation for detection of bacteria and viruses. Results are presented for subjects in the full cohort, followed for 1 year...
April 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432200/tissue-adaptation-implications-for-gut-immunity-and-tolerance
#15
REVIEW
Ana M C Faria, Bernardo S Reis, Daniel Mucida
Tissue adaptation is an intrinsic component of immune cell development, influencing both resistance to pathogens and tolerance. Chronically stimulated surfaces of the body, in particular the gut mucosa, are the major sites where immune cells traffic and reside. Their adaptation to these environments requires constant discrimination between natural stimulation coming from harmless microbiota and food, and pathogens that need to be cleared. This review will focus on the adaptation of lymphocytes to the gut mucosa, a highly specialized environment that can help us understand the plasticity of leukocytes arriving at various tissue sites and how tissue-related factors operate to shape immune cell fate and function...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432133/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-t-cell-heterogeneity-plasticity-and-selection-in-humans
#16
Federica Sallusto, Antonino Cassotta, Daniel Hoces, Mathilde Foglierini, Antonio Lanzavecchia
The wide range of effector and memory T cells is instrumental for immune regulation and tailored mechanisms of protection against pathogens. Here, we will focus on human CD4 T cells and discuss T-cell plasticity and intraclonal diversification in the context of a progressive and selective model of CD4 T-cell differentiation.
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432132/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-epigenome-a-dynamic-vehicle-for-transmitting-and-recording-cytokine-signaling
#17
John L Johnson, Golnaz Vahedi
CD4(+) T cells are critical for the elimination of an immense array of microbial pathogens. Although there are aspects of helper T-cell differentiation that can be modeled as a classic cell-fate commitment, CD4(+) T cells also maintain considerable flexibility in their transcriptional program. Here, we present an overview of chromatin biology during cellular reprogramming and, within this context, envision how the scope of cellular reprogramming may be expanded to further our understanding of the controversy surrounding CD4(+) T lymphocyte plasticity or determinism...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432131/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-if-so-is-there-potential-for-efficacious-microbiota-based-vaccines
#18
Dan R Littman
The gut-resident constituents of the microbiota protect the mucosa from invasive pathogens through engagement of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. They are also likely to provide systemic protection from pathogens, by enhancing host robustness and tolerance to the invasive microbes and by inducing immune responses that prevent their growth. These properties of commensal microbiota, particularly the capacity of some bacteria to induce diverse types of antigen-specific immune responses, raises the prospect that they could be deployed as vaccine vectors to generate effective local and systemic immunity to viral and bacterial pathogens...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432130/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-engaging-our-endogenous-adjuvants
#19
Nicholas Collins, Yasmine Belkaid
The reliance of the immune system on constitutive microbial stimulation support the idea that both responsiveness to vaccines and vaccine design need to be considered in the context of host-microbiota interactions. Manipulation of microbe function or composition via diet alteration or microbiota engraftment may soon become a viable approach to control immunity and, as such, vaccine responses. Learning from our endogenous original adjuvants could be critical in overcoming the enormous hurdle of vaccine design against the numerous pathogens that cause chronic infection...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432128/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-issues-of-sovereignty-federalism-and-points-testing-in-the-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-spaces-of-the-host-microbial-superorganism
#20
Andrew J Macpherson
In contrast to live attenuated vaccines, which are designed to induce immunity through a time-limited bloom in systemic tissues, the microbiota is a persistent feature of body surfaces, especially the intestine. The immune responses to the microbiota are idiosyncratic depending on the niche intimacy of different taxa and generally adapt the host to avoid overgrowth and maintain mutualism rather than to eliminate the organisms of that taxon. Both the microbiota and the host have so much molecular cross talk controlling each other, that the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic spaces of the host-microbial superorganism are federal rather than sovereign...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
keyword
keyword
34806
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"