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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244054/a-systematic-review-for-functional-neuroimaging-studies-of-cognitive-reserve-across-the-cognitive-aging-spectrum
#1
Mia Anthony, Feng Lin
Objective: Cognitive reserve has been proposed to explain the discrepancy between clinical symptoms and the effects of aging or Alzheimer's pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help elucidate how neural reserve and compensation delay cognitive decline and identify brain regions associated with cognitive reserve. This systematic review evaluated neural correlates of cognitive reserve via fMRI (resting-state and task-related) studies across the cognitive aging spectrum (i...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238313/differential-neural-processing-of-social-exclusion-and-inclusion-in-adolescents-with-non-suicidal-self-injury-and-young-adults-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#2
Rebecca C Brown, Paul L Plener, Georg Groen, Dominik Neff, Martina Bonenberger, Birgit Abler
Introduction: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, NSSI often occurs independently of BPD. Altered neural processing of social exclusion has been shown in adolescents with NSSI and adults with BPD with additional alterations during social inclusion in BPD patients. Aims of this study were to investigate differences in neural processing of social inclusion and exclusion situations between adolescents with NSSI and young adults with BPD and NSSI...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228027/an-insulin-resistance-associated-neural-correlate-of-impulsivity-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Kristen L Eckstrand, Nishit Mummareddy, Hakmook Kang, Ronald Cowan, Minchun Zhou, David Zald, Heidi J Silver, Kevin D Niswender, Malcolm J Avison
Central insulin resistance (IR) influences striatal dopamine (DA) tone, an important determinant of behavioral self-regulation. We hypothesized that an association exists between the degree of peripheral IR and impulse control, mediated by the impact of IR on brain circuits controlling the speed of executing "go" and/or "stop" responses. We measured brain activation and associated performance on a stop signal task (SST) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age, 48.1 ± 6.9 yrs (mean ± SD); BMI, 36.5 ± 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227148/structural-abnormalities-and-altered-regional-brain-activity-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-simple-spinal-cord-involvement
#4
Ping Yin, Yi Liu, Hua Xiong, Yongliang Han, Shambhu Kumar Sah, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yongmei Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes of the structural and functional abnormalities in multiple sclerosis with simple spinal cord involvement (MS-SSCI) by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), voxel based morphology (VBM) and diffusion tensor tractography. METHODS: The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of 22 patients with MS-SSCI and 22 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender and education were compared by using RS-fMRI...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226175/longitudinal-transcranial-measurement-of-functional-activation-in-the-rat-brain-by-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy
#5
Igor Blanco, Peyman Zirak, Tanja Dragojević, Clara Castellvi, Turgut Durduran, Carles Justicia
Neural activity is an important biomarker for the presence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular alterations, and brain trauma; furthermore, it is a surrogate marker for treatment effects. These pathologies may occur and evolve in a long time-period, thus, noninvasive, transcutaneous techniques are necessary to allow a longitudinal follow-up. In the present work, we have customized noninvasive, transcutaneous, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to localize changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by neural activity...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223933/task-based-and-resting-state-fmri-reveal-compensatory-network-changes-following-damage-to-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus
#6
Glyn P Hallam, Hannah E Thompson, Mark Hymers, Rebecca E Millman, Jennifer M Rodd, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network...
October 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221833/giving-others-the-option-of-choice-an-fmri-study-on-low-cost-cooperation
#7
Imke L J Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam, David M Amodio, Niels J Van Doesum, Dick J Veltman, Paul A M Van Lange
Successful social relationships require a consideration of a partner's thoughts and intentions. This aspect of social life is captured in the social mindfulness paradigm (SoMi task), in which participants make decisions that either limit or preserve options for their interaction partner's subsequent choice. Here we investigated the neural correlates of spontaneous socially mindful and unmindful behaviours. Functional magnetic resonance data were acquired from 47 healthy adolescents and young adults (age 16-27) as they completed the SoMi task...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220349/neural-correlates-of-motor-cognitive-dual-tasking-in-young-and-old-adults
#8
Selma Papegaaij, Tibor Hortobágyi, Ben Godde, Wim A Kaan, Peter Erhard, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute single-tasks with higher brain activation. In the brain regions that are needed for both tasks, the reduced residual capacity may interfere with performance of the dual-task. This competition for shared brain regions has been called structural interference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219633/brain-activity-during-phonation-in-healthy-female-singers-with-supraglottic-compression-an-fmri-pilot-study
#9
Maryna Kryshtopava, Kristiane Van Lierde, Charlotte Defrancq, Michiel De Moor, Zoë Thijs, Evelien D'Haeseleer, Iris Meerschman, Pieter Vandemaele, Guy Vingerhoets, Sofie Claeys
This pilot study evaluated the usability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect brain activation during phonation in healthy female singers with supraglottic compression. Four healthy female classical singers (mean age: 26 years) participated in the study. All subjects had normal vocal folds and vocal characteristics and showed supraglottic compression. The fMRI experiment was carried out using a block design paradigm. Brain activation during phonation and exhalation was analyzed using Brain Voyager software (Brain Innovation B...
December 8, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216861/impaired-mixed-emotion-processing-in-the-right-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-an-fmri-study
#10
Ádám György Szabó, Kinga Farkas, Csilla Marosi, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Rudas, János Réthelyi, Gábor Csukly
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a negative effect on the activity of the temporal and prefrontal cortices in the processing of emotional facial expressions. However no previous research focused on the evaluation of mixed emotions in schizophrenia, albeit they are frequently expressed in everyday situations and negative emotions are frequently expressed by mixed facial expressions. METHODS: Altogether 37 subjects, 19 patients with schizophrenia and 18 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214483/psychotherapyplus-augmentation-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-cbt-with-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-major-depressive-disorder-study-design-and-methodology-of-a-multicenter-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Malek Bajbouj, Sabine Aust, Jan Spies, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sarah V Mayer, Maike Peters, Christian Plewnia, Andreas J Fallgatter, Lukas Frase, Claus Normann, Nora Behler, Linda Wulf, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Frank Padberg
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide. About 20-30% of patients do not respond to the standard psychopharmacological and/or psychotherapeutic interventions. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies in MDD patients reveal altered activation patterns in lateral prefrontal brain areas. Successful cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is associated with a recovery of these neural alterations. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of influencing prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive functions such as working memory and emotion regulation...
December 6, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213031/-neuronet-restructuring-in-focal-and-generalized-epilepsy-according-to-resting-state-fmri
#12
L A Mayorova, I S Samotaeva, N N Lebedeva, R V Luzin, V V Gaskin, F K Rider, A M Teplyshova, R G Akzhigitov, A B Guekht
AIM: To compare neuronet restructuring in focal and generalized epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients, aged from 18 to 65 years, with the diagnosis of epilepsy, including 63 patients with focal epilepsy and 14 with generalized epilepsy, were examined. A control group included 23 healthy people. Neuronet restructuring was studied using fMRI. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: According to resting state fMRI, there were between-group differences in spatial organization (activity map) of the brain structures as well as in the results of cross-correlation analysis of interaction maps of resting-state networks...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209202/neural-basis-of-enhanced-executive-function-in-older-video-game-players-an-fmri-study
#13
Ping Wang, Xing-Ting Zhu, Zhigang Qi, Silin Huang, Hui-Jie Li
Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209199/decreased-complexity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-resting-state-fmri-evidence-of-brain-entropy-mapping
#14
Bin Wang, Yan Niu, Liwen Miao, Rui Cao, Pengfei Yan, Hao Guo, Dandan Li, Yuxiang Guo, Tianyi Yan, Jinglong Wu, Jie Xiang, Hui Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequently observed, irreversible brain function disorder among elderly individuals. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been introduced as an alternative approach to assessing brain functional abnormalities in AD patients. However, alterations in the brain rs-fMRI signal complexities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients remain unclear. Here, we described the novel application of permutation entropy (PE) to investigate the abnormal complexity of rs-fMRI signals in MCI and AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209197/asymmetry-of-hemispheric-network-topology-reveals-dissociable-processes-between-functional-and-structural-brain-connectome-in-community-living-elders
#15
Yu Sun, Junhua Li, John Suckling, Lei Feng
Human brain is structurally and functionally asymmetrical and the asymmetries of brain phenotypes have been shown to change in normal aging. Recent advances in graph theoretical analysis have showed topological lateralization between hemispheric networks in the human brain throughout the lifespan. Nevertheless, apparent discrepancies of hemispheric asymmetry were reported between the structural and functional brain networks, indicating the potentially complex asymmetry patterns between structural and functional networks in aging population...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209186/the-neural-association-between-tendency-to-forgive-and-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-healthy-young-adults
#16
Haijiang Li, Jiamei Lu
The tendency to forgive (TTF) refers to one's global dispositional level of forgiveness across situations and relationships. Previous brain imaging studies examined activation patterns underlying forgiving process, yet the association between individual differences in the TTF and spontaneous brain activity at resting-state remains unknown. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the correlation between the TTF and spontaneous brain activity in a young adult sample...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205692/changing-brain-connectivity-dynamics-from-early-childhood-to-adulthood
#17
Ashkan Faghiri, Julia M Stephen, Yu-Ping Wang, Tony W Wilson, Vince D Calhoun
Brain maturation through adolescence has been the topic of recent studies. Previous works have evaluated changes in morphometry and also changes in functional connectivity. However, most resting-state fMRI studies have focused on static connectivity. Here we examine the relationship between age/maturity and the dynamics of brain functional connectivity. Utilizing a resting fMRI dataset comprised 421 subjects ages 3-22 from the PING study, we first performed group ICA to extract independent components and their time courses...
December 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203671/early-childhood-stress-exposure-reward-pathways-and-adult-decision-making
#18
Rasmus M Birn, Barbara J Roeber, Seth D Pollak
Individuals who have experienced chronic and high levels of stress during their childhoods are at increased risk for a wide range of behavioral problems, yet the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We measured the life circumstances of a community sample of school-aged children and then followed these children for a decade. Those from the highest and lowest quintiles of childhood stress exposure were invited to return to our laboratory as young adults, at which time we reassessed their life circumstances, acquired fMRI data during a reward-processing task, and tested their judgment and decision making...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198247/analysis-of-pseudohomophone-orthographic-errors-through-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri
#19
Joan Guardia-Olmos, Daniel Zarabozo-Hurtado, Maribe Peró-Cebollero, Esteban Gudayol-Farré, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Andrés González-Garrido
The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language such as Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition because in Spanish it is common to write pseudohomophones as valid words. The main objective of the present study was to explore the possible differences in activation patterns in brain areas while processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors between participants with high (High Spelling Skills (HSS)) and low (Low Spelling Skills (LSS)) spelling orthographic abilities. We hypothesize that (a) the detection of orthographic errors will activate bilateral inferior frontal gyri, and that (b) this effect will be greater in the HSS group...
December 4, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197726/the-neural-signature-of-self-concept-development-in-adolescence-the-role-of-domain-and-valence-distinctions
#20
R van der Cruijsen, S Peters, L P E van der Aar, E A Crone
Neuroimaging studies in adults showed that cortical midline regions including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are important in self-evaluations. The goals of this study were to investigate the contribution of these regions to self-evaluations in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, and to examine whether these differed per domain (academic, physical and prosocial) and valence (positive versus negative). Also, we tested whether this activation changes across adolescence...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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