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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650517/adaptive-change-in-chewing-related-brain-activity-while-wearing-a-palatal-plate-an-fmri-study
#1
Yuka Inamochi, Kenji Fueki, Nobuo Usui, Masato Taira, Noriyuki Wakabayashi
Prosthodontic treatment success depends on patients' ability to adapt to an altered oral environment containing removable prostheses. We investigated adaptive chewing-related brain activity changes in response to a new oral environment. Twenty-eight fully dentate subjects (mean age: 28.6 years) wore experimental denture-base palatal plates (3-mm thick), for 7 days. We measured food mixing ability and cycle time, and assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging during chewing at pre-insertion (Day 0), and immediately (Day 1), 3 days (Day 3), and 7 days (Day 7) after insertion...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648917/neural-changes-related-to-motion-processing-in-healthy-aging
#2
Stefanie C Biehl, Melanie Andersen, Gordon D Waiter, Karin S Pilz
Behavioral studies have found a striking decline in the processing of low-level motion in healthy aging whereas the processing of more relevant and familiar biological motion is relatively preserved. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the neural correlates of low-level radial motion processing and biological motion processing in 19 healthy older adults (age range 62-78 years) and in 19 younger adults (age range 20-30 years). Brain regions related to both types of motion stimuli were evaluated and the magnitude and time courses of activation in those regions of interest were calculated...
June 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648758/the-time-window-for-successful-right-hemispheric-language-reorganization-in-children
#3
Karen Lidzba, Hanna Küpper, Gerhard Kluger, Martin Staudt
AIM: To identify, in a retrospective, observational study, the time window during which successful right-hemispheric language reorganization is possible after left-hemispheric brain damage. METHOD: 25 patients (10 females; age 6-41 years; ≥12 months after insult; age at insult 0;3-15;11 years) with acute, language-relevant left-hemispheric insults acquired during childhood and adolescence completed questionnaires for self-assessment of language problems. 12 patients of those reporting no (n = 8) or only moderate (n = 4) language problems participated in language fMRI...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648549/hippocampal-spatial-mechanisms-relate-to-the-development-of-arithmetic-symbol-processing-in-children
#4
Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Jessica Léone, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
Understanding the meaning of abstract mathematical symbols is a cornerstone of arithmetic learning in children. Studies have long focused on the role of spatial intuitions in the processing of numerals. However, it has been argued that such intuitions may also underlie symbols that convey fundamental arithmetic concepts, such as arithmetic operators. In the present cross-sectional study, we used fMRI to investigate how and when associations between arithmetic operators and brain regions processing spatial information emerge in children from 3(rd) to 10(th) grade...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648285/simultaneous-learning-of-two-languages-from-birth-positively-impacts-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-control
#5
Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J Chai, Kaija M Sander, Denise Klein
This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals...
June 22, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647831/alterations-in-regional-homogeneity-of-resting-state-brain-activity-in-fatigue-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Junyi Li, Yongsheng Yuan, Min Wang, Jiejin Zhang, Li Zhang, Siming Jiang, Jian Ding, Kezhong Zhang
Fatigue is a common complaint in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neural bases of fatigue in PD remain uncertain. In this cross-sectional study, our aim was to study the change of the local brain function in PD patients with fatigue. Among 49 patients with PD, 17 of them had fatigue and the remaining 32 patients without fatigue, and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects were evaluated with Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and had a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645869/real-time-changes-in-brain-activity-during-sacral-neuromodulation-for-overactive-bladder
#7
Bradley C Gill, Javier Pizarro Berdichevsky, Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Thaddeus S Brink, Brian K Marks, Adrienne Quirouet, Sandip P Vasavada, Stephen E Jones, Howard B Goldman
PURPOSE: To use functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) for identifying changes in brain activity during sacral neuromodulation(SNM) in women with overactive bladder(OAB) who were responsive to therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with non-neurogenic refractory OAB who responded to SNM, had a stable program for at least 3 months, with no subsequent OAB treatment were recruited. Enrolled patients completed pre-fMRI validated symptom and quality of life instruments...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638719/abnormal-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-and-functional-connectivity-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-leukoaraiosis
#8
Rongchuan Cheng, Honglin Qi, Yong Liu, Shifu Zhao, Chuanming Li, Chen Liu, Jian Zheng
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the cerebral function deficits in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) and the correlation with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) using functional MRI (fMRI) technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with LA and 30 volunteers were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scanning. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of rs-fMRI signals for the two groups was compared using two-sample t tests...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#9
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626012/pharmacological-modulation-of-noradrenergic-arousal-circuitry-disrupts-functional-connectivity-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans
#10
Andrew H Song, Aaron Kucyi, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Marco L Loggia, Oluwaseun Akeju
State dependent activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has long suggested a role for noradrenergic modulation of arousal. However, in vivo insights into noradrenergic arousal circuitry have been constrained by the fundamental inaccessibility of the human brain for invasive studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies performed during site-specific pharmacological manipulations of arousal levels may be used to study brain arousal circuitry. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic that alters the level of arousal by selectively targeting α2 adrenergic receptors on LC neurons, resulting in reduced firing rate and norepinephrine release...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624581/polygenic-risk-for-depression-and-the-neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-healthy-subjects
#11
Dilara Yüksel, Bruno Dietsche, Andreas J Forstner, Stephanie H Witt, Robert Maier, Marcella Rietschel, Carsten Konrad, Markus M Nöthen, Udo Dannlowski, Bernhard T Baune, Tilo Kircher, Axel Krug
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show impairments of cognitive functioning such as working memory (WM), and furthermore alterations during WM-fMRI tasks especially in frontal and parietal brain regions. The calculation of a polygenic risk score (PRS) can be used to describe the genetic influence on MDD, hence imaging genetic studies aspire to combine both genetics and neuroimaging data to identify the influence of genetic factors on brain functioning. We aimed to detect the effect of MDD-PRS on brain activation during a WM task measured with fMRI and expect healthy individuals with a higher PRS to be more resembling to MDD patients...
June 15, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617520/abnormal-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-patients-with-anisometropic-amblyopia-using-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Angcang Tang, Taolin Chen, Junran Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Longqian Liu
PURPOSE: To explore the abnormality of spontaneous activity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI). METHODS: Twenty-four participants were split into two groups. The anisometropic amblyopia group had 10 patients, all of whom had anisometropic amblyopia of the right eye, and the control group had 14 healthy subjects. All participants underwent Rs-fMRI scanning. Measurement of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the brain, which is a measure of the amplitudes of spontaneous brain activity, was used to investigate brain changes between the anisometropic amblyopia and control groups...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616381/anosognosia-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-insight-into-the-neural-mechanism-using-functional-and-molecular-imaging
#13
Patrizia Vannini, Bernard Hanseeuw, Catherine E Munro, Rebecca E Amariglio, Gad A Marshall, Dorene M Rentz, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)) to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615426/modulation-of-intrinsic-resting-state-fmri-networks-in-women-with-chronic-migraine
#14
X Michelle Androulakis, Kaitlin Krebs, B Lee Peterlin, Tianming Zhang, Nasim Maleki, Souvik Sen, Chris Rorden, Priyantha Herath
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intrinsic resting functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN) network in women with chronic migraine (CM), and whether clinical features are associated with such abnormalities. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state connectivity in 29 women with CM as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Relationships between clinical characteristics and changes in targeted networks connectivity were evaluated using a multivariate linear regression model...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612930/peer-influence-via-instagram-effects-on-brain-and-behavior-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#15
Lauren E Sherman, Patricia M Greenfield, Leanna M Hernandez, Mirella Dapretto
Mobile social media often feature the ability to "Like" content posted by others. This study examined the effect of Likes on youths' neural and behavioral responses to photographs. High school and college students (N = 61, ages 13-21) viewed theirs and others' Instagram photographs while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Participants more often Liked photographs that appeared to have received many (vs. few) Likes. Popular photographs elicited greater activity in multiple brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a hub of the brain's reward circuitry...
June 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610744/prenatal-manganese-exposure-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-emotional-brain-areas-in-children
#16
Erik de Water, Erika Proal, Victoria Wang, Sandra Martínez Medina, Lourdes Schnaas, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Cheuk Y Tang, Megan K Horton
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal that is neurotoxic at high levels of exposure. Disruption of brain maturation processes during the prenatal period may have lasting consequences. During this critical period, the developing human brain is uniquely vulnerable to exposure to environmental toxicants such as Mn, and prenatal Mn exposure has been associated with changes in brain areas involved in emotion processing and regulation. The goal of the present pilot study was to examine whether prenatal Mn exposure is associated with changes in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the brain in childhood, focusing on changes in emotional brain areas...
June 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605663/patients-with-bulimia-nervosa-do-not-show-typical-neurodevelopment-of-cognitive-control-under-emotional-influences
#17
Michael F W Dreyfuss, Melissa L Riegel, Gloria A Pedersen, Alexandra O Cohen, Melanie R Silverman, Jonathan P Dyke, Laurel E S Mayer, B Timothy Walsh, B J Casey, Allegra I Broft
Bulimia nervosa (BN) emerges in the late teen years and is characterized by binge eating and related compensatory behaviors. These behaviors often co-occur with periods of negative affect suggesting an association between emotions and control over eating behavior. In the current study, we examined how cognitive control and neural processes change under emotional states of arousal in 46 participants with (n=19) and without (n=27) BN from the ages of 18-33 years. Participants performed a go/nogo task consisting of brief negative, positive and neutral emotional cues and sustained negative, positive and neutral emotional states of arousal during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600740/functional-reorganization-during-cognitive-function-tasks-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Jürgen Keller, Sarah Böhm, Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Markus Loose, Martin Gorges, Jan Kassubek, Ingo Uttner, Sharon Abrahams, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
Cognitive deficits, especially in the domains of social cognition and executive function including verbal fluency, are common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. There is yet sparse understanding of pathogenesis of the underlying, possibly adaptive, cortical patterns. To address this issue, 65 patients with ALS and 33 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls were tested on cognitive and behavioral deficits with the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), cortical activity during social cognition and executive function tasks (theory of mind, verbal fluency, alternation) adapted from the ECAS was determined in a 3 Tesla scanner...
June 9, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598121/-regional-homogeneity-changes-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorders-after-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#19
Min-Lan Yuan, Zheng-Jia Ren, Hong-Ru Zhu, Yan Zhang, Ya-Jing Meng, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorders (SAD) before and after cognitive behavior therapy (CBT),and determine the neuromechanism of formation,treatment and recovery of SAD. METHODS: Fifteen SAD patients were treated with an eight-week group CBT.The patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state before and after the treatments.Eighteen healthy controls (HC) were recruited and underwent a baseline fMRI scan...
November 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594850/no-changes-in-functional-connectivity-during-motor-recovery-beyond-5-weeks-after-stroke-a-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#20
Tanja C W Nijboer, Floor E Buma, Caroline Winters, Mariska J Vansteensel, Gert Kwakkel, Nick F Ramsey, Mathijs Raemaekers
Spontaneous motor recovery after stroke appears to be associated with structural and functional changes in the motor network. The aim of the current study was to explore time-dependent changes in resting-state (rs) functional connectivity in motor-impaired stroke patients, using rs-functional MRI at 5 weeks and 26 weeks post-stroke onset. For this aim, 13 stroke patients from the EXPLICIT-stroke Trial and age and gender-matched healthy control subjects were included. Patients' synergistic motor control of the paretic upper-limb was assessed with the upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE) within 2 weeks, and at 5 and 26 weeks post-stroke onset...
2017: PloS One
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