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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914197/young-adult-born-neurons-enhance-hippocampal-dependent-performance-via-influences-on-bilateral-networks
#1
Jia-Min Zhuo, Hua-An Tseng, Mitul Desai, Mark E Bucklin, Ali I Mohammed, Nick Tm Robinson, Edward S Boyden, Lara M Rangel, Alan P Jasanoff, Howard J Gritton, Xue Han
Adult neurogenesis supports performance in many hippocampal dependent tasks. Considering the small number of adult-born neurons generated at any given time, it is surprising that this sparse population of cells can substantially influence behavior. Recent studies have demonstrated that heightened excitability and plasticity may be critical for the contribution of young adult-born cells for certain tasks. What is not well understood is how these unique biophysical and synaptic properties may translate to networks that support behavioral function...
December 3, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913157/further-evidence-of-alerted-default-network-connectivity-and-association-with-theory-of-mind-ability-in-schizophrenia
#2
Omar Mothersill, Noreen Tangney, Derek W Morris, Hazel McCarthy, Thomas Frodl, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Gary Donohoe
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. METHODS: Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909405/classifying-cognitive-profiles-using-machine-learning-with-privileged-information-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Hanin H Alahmadi, Yuan Shen, Shereen Fouad, Caroline Di B Luft, Peter Bentham, Zoe Kourtzi, Peter Tino
Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a "Learning with privileged information" approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909099/neural-tuning-to-numerosity-relates-to-perceptual-tuning-in-3-to-6-year-old-children
#4
Alyssa J Kersey, Jessica F Cantlon
: Neural representations of approximate numerical value, or numerosity, have been observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in monkeys and humans, including children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that children as young as 3 to 4 years old exhibit neural tuning to cardinal numerosities in the IPS and that their neural responses are accounted for by a model of numerosity coding that has been used to explain neural responses in the adult IPS. We also found that the sensitivity of children's neural tuning to number in the right IPS was comparable to their numerical discrimination sensitivity observed behaviorally, outside of the scanner...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903342/-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-childhood-and-adolescence-onset-schizophrenia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#5
D Lü, R R Shao, Y H Liang, Y H Xia, S Q Guo
Objective: To explore the whole brain activity features of childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia using resting state fMRI. Methods: A total of 63 childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia patients (patients group), admitted to the second affiliated hospital of Xinxiang Medical University from October 2013 to October 2015 and fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and 39 healthy controls with age, sex and education matched (control group) were enrolled, then a resting-state fMRI scan was conducted for each participant...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893236/training-in-the-adolescent-brain-an-fmri-training-study-on-divergent-thinking
#6
Sietske W Kleibeuker, Claire E Stevenson, Laura van der Aar, Sandy Overgaauw, Anna C van Duijvenvoorde, Eveline A Crone
Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an alternative uses task, a valid measure to test divergent thinking, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images were acquired before and after a training program. In between the 2 scanning sessions the experimental group completed 2 weeks of divergent thinking training (8 sessions) and the control group completed 2 weeks of rule switching training (8 session)...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891099/reduced-phrenic-motoneuron-recruitment-during-sustained-inspiratory-threshold-loading-compared-to-single-breath-loading-a-twitch-interpolation-study
#7
Mathieu Raux, Alexandre Demoule, Stefania Redolfi, Capucine Morelot-Panzini, Thomas Similowski
In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganization and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganization between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment), we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganization should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888020/neural-correlates-of-affective-empathy-and-reinforcement-learning-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-fmri-evidence-from-a-gambling-task
#8
Christina Schwenck, Angela Ciaramidaro, Marina Selivanova, Jennifer Tournay, Christine M Freitag, Michael Siniatchkin
BACKGROUND: Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. METHODS: Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition)...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885501/valence-of-affective-verbal-fluency-fmri-studies-on-neural-organization-of-emotional-concepts-joy-and-fear
#9
Barbara Gawda, Ewa Szepietowska, Pawel Soluch, Tomasz Wolak
The present study was designed to examine the underlying brain mechanisms of positive and negative emotional verbal fluency. Three verbal fluency tasks (one non-emotional phonemic task, two emotional tasks: Joy and Fear) were used in this study. The results were analyzed for 35 healthy, Polish-speaking, right-handed adults aged 20-35. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (3T) was used to show brain activity during active participation in emotional verbal fluency tasks. The results reported for emotional fluency confirmed activation of different brain regions for the negative and positive emotional verbal fluency: in positive emotional verbal fluency Joy elicits greater activation in the frontal regions and the cingulate cortex, while in negative verbal fluency Fear is reflected in activation of parietal and temporal areas...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881961/functional-connectivity-of-child-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients-correlation-with-iq
#10
Bo-Yong Park, Jisu Hong, Seung-Hak Lee, Hyunjin Park
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881920/altered-spontaneous-brain-activity-pattern-in-patients-with-high-myopia-using-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Xin Huang, Fu-Qing Zhou, Yu-Xiang Hu, Xiao-Xuan Xu, Xiong Zhou, Yu-Lin Zhong, Jun Wang, Xiao-Rong Wu
OBJECTIVE: Many previous reports have demonstrated significant neural anatomy changes in the brain of high myopic (HM) patients, whereas the spontaneous brain activity changes in the HM patients at rest are not well studied. Our objective was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to investigate the changes in spontaneous brain activity in HM patients and their relationships with clinical features. METHODS: A total of 38 patients with HM (17 males and 21 females) and 38 healthy controls (HCs) (17 males and 21 females) closely matched in age, sex, and education underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880789/targeting-ruminative-thinking-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-depressive-relapse-rumination-focused-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-resting-state-fmri
#12
Rachel H Jacobs, Edward R Watkins, Amy T Peters, Claudia G Feldhaus, Alyssa Barba, Julie Carbray, Scott A Langenecker
: This pilot randomized control trial was designed to examine whether Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (RFCBT) reduces rumination and residual depressive symptoms among adolescents with a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who are at risk for relapse. We also examined whether these changes in symptoms were associated with changes in functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Thirty-three adolescents (ages 12-18) were randomized to eight weeks of RFCBT or an assessment only (AO) control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880785/individual-differences-in-dynamic-functional-brain-connectivity-across-the-human-lifespan
#13
Elizabeth N Davison, Benjamin O Turner, Kimberly J Schlesinger, Michael B Miller, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett, Jean M Carlson
Individual differences in brain functional networks may be related to complex personal identifiers, including health, age, and ability. Dynamic network theory has been used to identify properties of dynamic brain function from fMRI data, but the majority of analyses and findings remain at the level of the group. Here, we apply hypergraph analysis, a method from dynamic network theory, to quantify individual differences in brain functional dynamics. Using a summary metric derived from the hypergraph formalism-hypergraph cardinality-we investigate individual variations in two separate, complementary data sets...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880010/abnormal-baseline-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#14
Dan Li, Peiyu Huang, Yufeng Zang, Yuting Lou, Zhidong Cen, Quanquan Gu, Min Xuan, Fei Xie, Zhiyuan Ouyang, Bo Wang, Minming Zhang, Wei Luo
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in spontaneous brain activity between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), PD patients without RBD, and normal controls, which may shed new light on the neural mechanism of RBD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen PD patients with RBD, 16 patients without RBD, and 19 age- and gender-matched normal controls underwent clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868422/correction-to-dennison-et-al-2016
#15
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Neurobehavioral markers of resilience to depression amongst adolescents exposed to child abuse" by Meg J. Dennison, Margaret A. Sheridan, Daniel S. Busso, Jessica L. Jenness, Matthew Peverill, Maya L. Rosen and Katie A. McLaughlin (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2016[Nov], Vol 125[8], 1201-1212). In the original record, there was an error in the title. The word "Adolescents" was singular. The online version of this article has been corrected.(The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-52992-014...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861755/longitudinal-changes-in-social-brain-development-processing-outcomes-for-friend-and-self
#16
Barbara R Braams, Eveline A Crone
Adolescence is an important time for social development during which friendships become more intimate and complex. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we tested how outcomes for friends are processed on the neural level across adolescence. Participants between 8 and 27 years of age were tested twice with a 2-year difference between the first (N = 299) and second (N = 254) time points. Participants performed a task in which they could win and lose money for themselves and their best friend...
November 11, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860025/low-level-alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-and-its-impact-on-cognitive-control-development
#17
Sarah Jurk, Eva Mennigen, Thomas Goschke, Michael N Smolka
Adolescence is a critical period for maturation of cognitive control and most adolescents start experimenting with alcohol around that time. On the one hand, recent studies indicate that low control abilities predict future problematic alcohol use. On the other hand, binge drinking during young adulthood can (further) impair cognitive control. However, so far no study examined the effects of low-level alcohol use during adolescence. In the present longitudinal fMRI study, we therefore investigated the development of cognitive control in a community-based sample of 92 adolescents at ages 14, 16 and 18...
November 17, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859973/reorganization-of-brain-connectivity-in-obesity
#18
Paul Geha, Guillermo Cecchi, R Todd Constable, Chadi Abdallah, Dana M Small
Global brain connectivity (GBC) identifies regions of the brain, termed "hubs," which are densely connected and metabolically costly, and have a wide influence on brain function. Since obesity is associated with central and peripheral metabolic dysfunction we sought to determine if GBC is altered in obesity. Two independent fMRI data sets were subjected to GBC analyses. The first data set was acquired while participants (n = 15 healthy weight and 15 obese) tasted milkshake and the second with participants at rest (n = 33 healthy weight and 28 obese)...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859960/cognitive-phenotypes-in-parkinson-s-disease-differ-in-terms-of-brain-network-organization-and-connectivity
#19
Renaud Lopes, Christine Delmaire, Luc Defebvre, Anja J Moonen, Annelien A Duits, Paul Hofman, Albert F G Leentjens, Kathy Dujardin
Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease and we suspect that dysfunctions of connected brain regions can be the source of these deficits. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity according to differences in cognitive profiles in Parkinson's disease. 119 participants were enrolled and divided into four groups according to their cognitive phenotypes (determined by a cluster analysis): (i) 31 cognitively intact patients (G1), (ii) 31 patients with only slight mental slowing (G2), (iii) 43 patients with mild to moderate deficits mainly in executive functions (G3), (iv) 14 patients with severe deficits in all cognitive domains (G4-5)...
November 17, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859933/spectroscopic-biomarkers-of-motor-cortex-developmental-plasticity-in-hemiparetic-children-after-perinatal-stroke
#20
Helen L Carlson, Frank P MacMaster, Ashley D Harris, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes hemiparetic cerebral palsy and lifelong motor disability. Bilateral motor cortices are key hubs within the motor network and their neurophysiology determines clinical function. Establishing biomarkers of motor cortex function is imperative for developing and evaluating restorative interventional strategies. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) quantifies metabolite concentrations indicative of underlying neuronal health and metabolism in vivo. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided MRS to investigate motor cortex metabolism in children with perinatal stroke...
November 17, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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