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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033811/altered-local-spatiotemporal-consistency-of-resting-state-bold-signals-in-patients-with-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures
#1
Shuai Ma, Sisi Jiang, Rui Peng, Qiong Zhu, Hongbin Sun, Jianfu Li, Xiaoyan Jia, Ilan Goldberg, Liang Yu, Cheng Luo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal Consistency of spontaneous activities in local brain regions in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The resting-state fMRI data were acquired from nineteen patients with GTCS and twenty-two matched healthy subjects. FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) metric was used to analyze the spontaneous activity in whole brain. The FOCA difference between two groups were detected using a two sample t-test analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033782/neural-correlates-of-direct-access-trading-in-a-real-stock-market-an-fmri-investigation
#2
GianMario Raggetti, Maria G Ceravolo, Lucrezia Fattobene, Cinzia Di Dio
Background: While financial decision making has been barely explored, no study has previously investigated the neural correlates of individual decisions made by professional traders involved in real stock market negotiations, using their own financial resources. Aim: We sought to detect how different brain areas are modulated by factors like age, expertise, psychological profile (speculative risk seeking or aversion) and, eventually, size and type (Buy/Sell) of stock negotiations, made through Direct Access Trading (DAT) platforms...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032323/neural-activity-during-traumatic-film-viewing-is-linked-to-endogenous-estradiol-and-hormonal-contraception
#3
Stephan F Miedl, Melanie Wegerer, Hubert Kerschbaum, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Women are at higher risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and recent research has highlighted a modulating role of female sex hormones for cognitive and emotional processes potentially underlying PTSD symptoms. However, studies combining fMRI recordings of brain activity during trauma film viewing with assessment of female sex hormones are missing. The trauma film paradigm - a widely used experimental analogue for trauma exposure - confronts healthy participants with traumatic film clips and thus allows studying peritraumatic processing under laboratory conditions...
October 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#4
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030974/dopamine-transporter-gene-methylation-is-associated-with-nucleus-accumbens-activation-during-reward-processing-in-healthy-but-not-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#5
Christine Muench, Corinde E Wiers, Carlos R Cortes, Reza Momenan, Falk W Lohoff
BACKGROUND: Alcohol's reinforcement is mediated by dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum, which is modulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). We hypothesized that methylomic variation in the DAT gene (SLC6A3) affects DAT expression thus contributing to differences in brain reward circuitry in individuals with alcohol dependence (ALC). METHODS: Blood from 45 recently detoxified ALC and 45 healthy control (HC) individuals was used to assess DNA methylation across 5 functional regions of SLC6A3...
October 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020651/is-negative-self-referent-bias-an-endophenotype-for-depression-an-fmri-study-of-emotional-self-referent-words-in-twins-at-high-vs-low-risk-of-depression
#6
K W Miskowiak, J E Larsen, C J Harmer, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, J Macoveanu, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of self-referent emotional words seem to be trait-marks of depression. However, it is unclear whether these neurocognitive changes are present in unaffected first-degree relatives and constitute an illness endophenotype. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy, never-depressed monozygotic or dizygotic twins with a co-twin history of depression (high-risk group: n = 26) or no first-degree family history of depression (low-risk group: n = 27) underwent neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) as part of a follow-up cohort study...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993819/vigilance-the-amygdala-and-anxiety-in-youths-with-a-history-of-institutional-care
#7
Jennifer A Silvers, Bonnie Goff, Laurel J Gabard-Durnam, Dylan G Gee, Dominic S Fareri, Christina Caldera, Nim Tottenham
BACKGROUND: Early adversity is commonly associated with alterations of amygdala circuitry and increased anxiety. While many theoretical and clinical accounts of early adversity suggest that it increases vigilance to threatening stimuli, the present study tested whether heightened anxiety and amygdala reactivity associated with early adversity enhanced goal-directed attention for threatening stimuli. Showing this association would provide support that these adversity-induced alterations are developmental adaptations of the individual...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992271/preschool-negative-emotionality-predicts-activity-and-connectivity-of-the-fusiform-face-area-and-amygdala-in-later-childhood
#8
Sarah J Kann, Jonathan F O'Rawe, Anna S Huang, Daniel N Klein, Hoi-Chung Leung
Negative emotionality (NE) refers to individual differences in the propensity to experience and react with negative emotions and is associated with increased risk of psychological disorder. However, research on the neural bases of NE has focused almost exclusively on amygdala activity during emotional face processing. This study broadened this framework by examining the relationship between observed NE in early childhood and subsequent neural responses to emotional faces in both the amygdala and the fusiform face area (FFA) in a late childhood/early adolescent sample...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990857/the-role-of-regional-heterogeneity-in-age-related-differences-in-functional-hemispheric-asymmetry-an-fmri-study
#9
Jiamin Gladys Heng, Chiao-Yi Wu, Josephine Astrid Archer, Makoto Miyakoshi, Toshiharu Nakai, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen
Neuroimaging literature has documented age-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction in frontal regions during task performances. As most studies employed working memory paradigms, it is therefore less clear if this pattern of neural reorganization is constrained by working memory processes or it would also emerge in other cognitive domains which are predominantly lateralized. Using blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study used a homophone judgment task and a line judgment task to investigate age-related differences in functional hemispheric asymmetry in language and visuospatial processing respectively...
October 9, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988829/age-related-prefrontal-compensatory-mechanisms-for-inhibitory-control-in-the-antisaccade-task
#10
Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Alicia Peltsch, Nadia Alahyane, Donald C Brien, Brian C Coe, Angeles Garcia, Douglas P Munoz
Cognitive decline during aging includes impairments in frontal executive functions like reduced inhibitory control. However, decline is not uniform across the population, suggesting individual brain response variability to the aging process. Here we tested the hypothesis, within the oculomotor system, that older adults compensate for age-related neural alterations by changing neural activation levels of the oculomotor areas, or even by recruiting additional areas to assist with cognitive performance. We established that the observed changes had to be related to better cognitive performance to be considered as compensatory...
October 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988149/neural-dysfunction-during-temporal-discounting-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Kaylita Chantiluke, Clodagh Murphy, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Both Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are associated with choice impulsivity, i.e. the tendency to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. However, the extent to which this impulsivity is mediated by shared or distinct underlying neural mechanisms is unclear. Twenty-six boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 matched controls (aged 12-18) completed an fMRI version of an individually adjusted temporal discounting (TD) task which requires choosing between a variable amount of money now or £100 in one week, one month or one year...
November 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987787/tonotopic-organisation-of-the-auditory-cortex-in-sloping-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#12
Tomasz Wolak, Katarzyna Cieśla, Artur Lorens, Krzysztof Kochanek, Monika Lewandowska, Mateusz Rusiniak, Agnieszka Pluta, Joanna Wójcik, Henryk Skarżyński
Although the tonotopic organisation of the human primary auditory cortex (PAC) has already been studied, the question how its responses are affected in sensorineural hearing loss remains open. Twenty six patients (aged 38.1 ± 9.1 years; 12 men) with symmetrical sloping sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and 32 age- and gender-matched controls (NH) participated in an fMRI study using a sparse protocol. The stimuli were binaural 8s complex tones with central frequencies of 400 HzCF, 800 HzCF, 1600 HzCF, 3200 HzCF, or 6400 HzCF, presented at 80 dB(C)...
September 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987668/abnormal-brain-function-in-neuromyelitis-optica-a-fmri-investigation-of-mpasat
#13
Fei Wang, Yaou Liu, Jianjun Li, Matthew Sondag, Meng Law, Chi-Shing Zee, Huiqing Dong, Kuncheng Li
PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment with the Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) patients is debated. The present study is to study patterns of brain activation in NMO patients during a pair of task-related fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 20 patients with NMO and 20 control subjects matched for age, gender, education and handedness. All patients with NMO met the 2006 Wingerchuk diagnostic criteria. The fMRI paradigm included an auditory attention monitoring task and a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (mPASAT)...
October 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984601/failure-to-recover-from-proactive-semantic-interference-and-abnormal-limbic-connectivity-in-asymptomatic-middle-aged-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Stella M Sánchez, Carolina Abulafia, Barbara Duarte-Abritta, M Soledad Ladrón de Guevara, Mariana N Castro, Lucas Drucaroff, Gustavo Sevlever, Charles B Nemeroff, Daniel E Vigo, David A Loewenstein, Mirta F Villarreal, Salvador M Guinjoan
BACKGROUND: We have obtained previous evidence of limbic dysfunction in middle-aged, asymptomatic offspring of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients, and failure to recover from proactive semantic interference has been shown to be a sensitive cognitive test in other groups at risk for LOAD. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of specific proactive semantic interference deficits as they relate to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neocortical and limbic functional connectivity in middle aged offspring of individuals with LOAD (O-LOAD) and age-equivalent controls...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982708/the-reduction-of-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-grey-matter-volume-correlates-with-loss-of-economic-rationality-in-aging
#15
Hui-Kuan Chung, Agnieszka Tymula, Paul Glimcher
The population of people above 65 years old continues to grow and there is mounting evidence that as humans age, they are more likely to make errors. However, the specific effect of neuroanatomical aging on the efficiency of economic decision-making is poorly understood. We used whole brain voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis to determine where reduction of gray matter volume in healthy female and male adults over the age of 65 correlates with a classic measure of economic irrationality: violations of the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981541/contrasting-resting-state-fmri-abnormalities-from-sickle-and-non-sickle-anemia
#16
Julie Coloigner, Yeun Kim, Adam Bush, Soyoung Choi, Melissa C Balderrama, Thomas D Coates, Sharon H O'Neil, Natasha Lepore, John C Wood
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic blood disorder that is often associated with acute and chronic cerebrovascular complications, including strokes and impaired cognition. Using functional resting state magnetic resonance images, we performed whole-brain analysis of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), to detect areas of spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent signal across brain regions. We compared the ALFF of 20 SCD patients to that observed in 19 healthy, age and ethnicity-matched, control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980102/fmri-brain-activation-in-patients-with-insomnia-disorder-during-a-working-memory-task
#17
Young-Don Son, Jae Myeong Kang, Seong-Jin Cho, Jung-Sun Lee, Hee Young Hwang, Seung-Gul Kang
PURPOSE: This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate differences in the functional brain activation of patients with insomnia disorder (n = 21, mean age = 36.6) and of good sleepers (n = 26, mean age = 33.2) without other comorbidities or structural brain abnormalities during a working memory task. METHODS: All participants completed a clinical questionnaire, were subjected to portable polysomnography (PSG), and performed the working memory task during an fMRI scan...
October 4, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977574/the-effects-of-experimental-manipulation-of-sleep-duration-on-neural-response-to-food-cues
#18
Kathryn E Demos, Lawrence H Sweet, Chantelle N Hart, Jeanne M McCaffery, Samantha E Williams, Kimberly A Mailloux, Jennifer Trautvetter, Max M Owens, Rena R Wing
Despite growing literature on neural food cue-responsivity in obesity, little is known about how the brain processes food cues following partial sleep deprivation, and whether short sleep leads to changes similar to those observed in obesity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that short sleep leads to increased reward-related and decreased inhibitory control-related processing of food cues.In a within-subject design, 30 participants [22 female, mean age=36.7 SD=10.8 years, BMI range 20...
July 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977527/two-days-sleep-debt-causes-mood-decline-during-resting-state-via-diminished-amygdala-prefrontal-connectivity
#19
Yuki Motomura, Ruri Katsunuma, Michitaka Yoshimura, Kazuo Mishima
Study objectives: Sleep debt has been suggested to evoke emotional instability by diminishing the suppression of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Here, we investigated how short-term sleep debt affects resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC, subjective mood, and sleep parameters. Methods: Eighteen healthy adult men aged 29±8.24 years participated in a 2-day sleep control session (SC; time in bed, 9 h) and 2-day sleep debt session (SD; time in bed, 3 h)...
July 29, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974131/assessment-of-human-placental-perfusion-by-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-mr-imaging
#20
Nathalie Siauve, Pierre Humbert Hayot, Benjamin Deloison, Gihad E Chalouhi, Marianne Alison, Daniel Balvay, Laurence Bussières, Olivier Clément, Laurent J Salomon
PURPOSE: To provide functional information on the human placenta, including perfusion, and diffusion, with no contrast agent injection, and to study correlations between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) placental parameters and fetal growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI was performed in women undergoing legal termination of pregnancy at 17-34 weeks, including a 4-b-value and 11-b-value DW sequences. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), the restricted diffusion coefficient (D), the pseudoperfusion coefficient (D*), and the perfusion fraction (f) were calculated...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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