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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346953/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-state-of-the-art-review
#1
Mario Mastrangelo
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy usually with onset between 1 and 8 years of age. Functional neuroimaging studies recently introduced the concept of Lennox-Gastaut as "secondary network epilepsy" resulting from dysfunctions of a complex system involving both cortical and subcortical structures (default-mode network, corticoreticular connections, and thalamus). These dysfunctions are produced by different disorders including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies, meningoencephalitis, cortical malformations, neurocutaneous disorders, or tumors...
March 27, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346831/anxiety-and-depression-as-longitudinal-predictors-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#2
Antônio Carlos Cruz Freire, Milena Pereira Pondé, Aihua Liu, Jean Caron
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have dealt with the potential correlation between anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: This longitudinal study was conducted in the city of Montreal, Canada, with 352 older adults aged 55 years or more. The participants were interviewed at baseline and again 2 years later. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score was estimated and compared between the 2 time points, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess major depression and anxiety, and the K10 measured high psychological distress...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346765/the-medial-temporal-memory-system-in-down-syndrome-translating-animal-models-of-hippocampal-compromise
#3
Caron A C Clark, Fabian Fernandez, Stella Sakhon, Goffredina Spanò, Jamie O Edgin
Recent studies have highlighted the dentate gyrus as a region of increased vulnerability in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). It is unclear to what extent these findings are reflected in the memory profile of people with the condition. We developed a series of novel tasks to probe distinct medial temporal functions in children and young adults with DS, including object, spatial, and serial order memory. Relative to mental age-matched controls (n = 45), individuals with DS (n = 28) were unimpaired on subtests involving short-term object or configural recall that was divorced from spatial or temporal contexts...
March 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346588/association-between-childhood-onset-epilepsy-and-amyloid-burden-5-decades-later
#4
Juho Joutsa, Juha O Rinne, Bruce Hermann, Mira Karrasch, Anu Anttinen, Shlomo Shinnar, Matti Sillanpää
Importance: The effect of childhood epilepsy on later-life cognitive and brain health is an unclear and little-explored issue. Objective: To determine whether adults with a history of childhood-onset epilepsy exhibit increased brain amyloid accumulation, possibly predisposing to accelerated cognitive impairment or even frank cognitive disorders in later life. Design, Setting, and Participants: Forty-one adults from a population-based cohort of individuals with childhood-onset epilepsy in southwestern Finland, together with 46 matched population-based controls, underwent amyloid ligand carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography after long-term prospective follow-up...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346565/anticholinergic-burden-and-functional-status-in-older-people-with-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-regal-project
#5
V Boccardi, M Baroni, L Paolacci, S Ercolani, A Longo, M Giordano, C Ruggiero, P Mecocci
OBJECTIVE: The use of drugs with intrinsic anticholinergic properties is widespread among old age persons. A growing body of evidences suggest that a high anticholinergic burden is associated with physical and cognitive impairment. However, the association between anticholinergic drug use and functional status is still poorly investigated, particularly among subjects with initial cognitive impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study examining the association between drug-related anticholinergic burden and functional status in cognitively healthy (CH) (n=691), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=541) or mild Alzheimer's diseases (AD) (n=1127) subjects...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346535/caudwell-xtreme-everest-a-prospective-study-of-the-effects-of-environmental-hypoxia-on-cognitive-functioning
#6
Konstadina Griva, Jan Stygall, Mark H Wilson, Daniel Martin, Denny Levett, Kay Mitchell, Monty Mythen, Hugh E Montgomery, Mike P Grocott, Golnar Aref-Adib, Mark Edsell, Tracie Plant, Chris Imray, Debbie Cooke, Jane Harrington, Maryam Khosravi, Stanton P Newman
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological consequences of exposure to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH) remain unclear. We thus investigated them in a large group of healthy volunteers who trekked to Mount Everest base camp (5,300 m). METHODS: A neuropsychological (NP) test battery assessing memory, language, attention, and executive function was administered to 198 participants (age 44.5±13.7 years; 60% male). These were studied at baseline (sea level), 3,500 m (Namche Bazaar), 5,300 m (Everest Base Camp) and on return to 1,300 m (Kathmandu) (attrition rate 23...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346532/decline-in-changing-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-scores-is-associated-with-post-stroke-cognitive-decline-determined-by-a-formal-neuropsychological-evaluation
#7
Hui Hui Tan, Jing Xu, Hock Luen Teoh, Bernard Poon-Lap Chan, Raymond Chee Seong Seet, Narayanaswarmy Venketasubramanian, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, YanHong Dong
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine changes in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores within a one-year period after stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in associating cognitive decline determined by a formal neuropsychological test battery. METHODS: Patients with ischemic stroke/TIA received MoCA and MMSE at baseline within 14 days after stroke/TIA, at 3-6 months and 1-year follow-ups. The scores of MoCA and MMSE were considered to have declined if there were a reduction of ≥2 points in the respective scores measured across two time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346387/oprm1-c-118a-g-polymorphism-and-duration-of-morphine-treatment-associated-with-morphine-doses-and-quality-of-life-in-palliative-cancer-pain-settings
#8
Aline Hajj, Lucine Halepian, Nada El Osta, Georges Chahine, Joseph Kattan, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz
Despite increased attention on assessment and management, pain remains the most persistent symptom in patients with cancer, in particular in end-of-life settings, with detrimental impact on their quality-of-life (QOL). We conducted this study to evaluate the added value of determining some genetic and non-genetic factors to optimize cancer pain treatment. Eighty-nine patients were included in the study for the evaluation of palliative cancer pain management. The regression analysis showed that age, OPRM1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), as well as the duration of morphine treatment were significantly associated with morphine doses at 24 h (given by infusion pump; p = 0...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345590/associations-of-parental-age-with-health-and-social-factors-in-adult-offspring-methodological-pitfalls-and-possibilities
#9
David Carslake, Per Tynelius, Gerard van den Berg, George Davey Smith, Finn Rasmussen
Parental age is increasing rapidly in many countries. Analysis of this potentially important influence on offspring well-being is hampered by strong secular trends and socioeconomic patterning and by a shortage of follow-up data for adult offspring. We used Swedish national data on up to 3,653,938 offspring to consider the associations of parental age with a suite of outcomes in adult offspring, comparing the results from an array of statistical methods for optimal causal inference. The offspring of older mothers had higher BMI, blood pressure, height, intelligence, non-cognitive ability and socioeconomic position...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345503/physical-fitness-and-shapes-of-subcortical-brain-structures-in-children
#10
Francisco B Ortega, Daniel Campos, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Signe Altmäe, Cristina Martínez-Zaldívar, Miguel Martín-Matillas, Andrés Catena, Cristina Campoy
A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345388/cortisol-levels-in-fingernails-neurocognitive-performance-and-clinical-variables-in-euthymic-bipolar-i-disorder
#11
Andres Herane-Vives, Anthony J Cleare, Chin-Kuo Chang, Valeria de Angel, Andrew Papadopoulos, Susanne Fischer, Rozmin Halari, Eric Y W Cheung, Allan H Young
OBJECTIVES: Neurocognitive impairment has been found in bipolar patients. Hypercortisolemia is one possible cause but there has been no agreement on this. Previous sampling methods assessed only acute cortisol levels, whereas the association between cortisol and psychopathology might be better understood by investigating chronic levels. Fingernails are a novel method for measuring chronic cortisol concentration (CCC). Here, we measured CCC in euthymic bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and healthy controls using fingernails to investigate whether differences in CCC influenced neurocognitive performance...
March 27, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345266/cross-sectional-study-of-equol-producer-status-and-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#12
Michiya Igase, Keiji Igase, Yasuharu Tabara, Yasumasa Ohyagi, Katsuhiko Kohara
AIM: It is well known that consumption of isoflavones reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the effectiveness of isoflavones in preventing dementia is controversial. A number of intervention studies have produced conflicting results. One possible reason is that the ability to produce equol, a metabolite of a soy isoflavone, differs greatly in individuals. In addition to existing data, we sought to confirm whether an apparent beneficial effect in cognitive function is observed after soy consumption in equol producers compared with non-producers...
March 27, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345118/effect-of-paullinia-cupana-mart-commercial-extract-during-the-aging-of-middle-age-wistar-rats-differential-effects-on-the-hippocampus-and-striatum
#13
Moara Rodrigues Mingori, Luana Heimfarth, Charles Francisco Ferreira, Henrique Mautone Gomes, Karla Suzana Moresco, Jeferson Delgado, Sabrina Roncato, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344759/susceptibility-to-ebbinghaus-and-m%C3%A3-ller-lyer-illusions-in-autistic-children-a-comparison-of-three-different-methods
#14
Catherine Manning, Michael J Morgan, Craig T W Allen, Elizabeth Pellicano
BACKGROUND: Studies reporting altered susceptibility to visual illusions in autistic individuals compared to that typically developing individuals have been taken to reflect differences in perception (e.g. reduced global processing), but could instead reflect differences in higher-level decision-making strategies. METHODS: We measured susceptibility to two contextual illusions (Ebbinghaus, Müller-Lyer) in autistic children aged 6-14 years and typically developing children matched in age and non-verbal ability using three methods...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344674/relationships-between-individual-endorsement-of-aggressive-behaviors-and-thoughts-with-prejudice-relevant-correlates-among-adolescents
#15
Giovanni Piumatti, Cristina Mosso
The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings...
March 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344556/the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-plant-extracts-and-plant-secondary-metabolites-on-chronic-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-aging-a-mechanistic-and-empirical-review
#16
REVIEW
Christina Kure, Jorinde Timmer, Con Stough
Advances in healthcare have considerably improved the life expectancy of the human population over the last century and this has brought about new challenges. As we live longer the capacity for cognitive aging increases. Consequently, it has been noted that decline in cognitive performance in the elderly in domains of reasoning, problem solving skills, attention, processing speed, working memory and episodic memory is a significant societal problem. Despite the enormity of this issue there are relatively few interventions for cognitive aging...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344553/youthful-processing-speed-in-older-adults-genetic-biological-and-behavioral-predictors-of-cognitive-processing-speed-trajectories-in-aging
#17
Nicholas T Bott, Brianne M Bettcher, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Darvis T Frazier, Matthew Wynn, Anna Karydas, Kristine Yaffe, Joel H Kramer
Objective: To examine the impact of genetic, inflammatory, cardiovascular, lifestyle, and neuroanatomical factors on cognitive processing speed (CPS) change over time in functionally intact older adults. Methods: This observational study conducted over two time points, included 120 community dwelling cognitively normal older adults between the ages of 60 and 80 from the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center. Participants were followed with composite measures of CPS, calculated based on norms for 20-30 year-olds...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344552/adding-recognition-discriminability-index-to-the-delayed-recall-is-useful-to-predict-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative
#18
María J Russo, Jorge Campos, Silvia Vázquez, Gustavo Sevlever, Ricardo F Allegri
Background: Ongoing research is focusing on the identification of those individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are most likely to convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether recognition memory tasks in combination with delayed recall measure of episodic memory and CSF biomarkers can predict MCI to AD conversion at 24-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 397 amnestic-MCI subjects from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative were included. Logistic regression modeling was done to assess the predictive value of all RAVLT measures, risk factors such as age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and CSF biomarkers for progression to AD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344365/synthesizing-results-from-empirical-research-on-computer-based-scaffolding-in-stem-education-a-meta-analysis
#19
Brian R Belland, Andrew E Walker, Nam Ju Kim, Mason Lefler
Computer-based scaffolding assists students as they generate solutions to complex problems, goals, or tasks, helping increase and integrate their higher order skills in the process. However, despite decades of research on scaffolding in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education, no existing comprehensive meta-analysis has synthesized the results of these studies. This review addresses that need by synthesizing the results of 144 experimental studies (333 outcomes) on the effects of computer-based scaffolding designed to assist the full range of STEM learners (primary through adult education) as they navigated ill-structured, problem-centered curricula...
April 2017: Review of Educational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344067/upregulation-of-orexin-hypocretin-expression-in-aged-rats-effects-on-feeding-latency-and-neurotransmission-in-the-insular-cortex
#20
Janel M Hagar, Victoria A Macht, Steven P Wilson, James R Fadel
Aging is associated with changes in numerous homeostatic functions, such as food intake, that are thought to be mediated by the hypothalamus. Orexin/hypocretin neurons of the hypothalamus regulate several physiological functions, including feeding, sleep and wakefulness. Evidence from both clinical and animal studies supports the notion that aging is associated with loss or dysregulation of the orexin system. Here, we used virus-mediated gene transfer to manipulate expression of orexin peptides in young and aged rats and examined behavioral and neurochemical correlates of food intake in these animals...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
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