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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143632/a-method-for-estimating-maternal-and-newborn-lives-saved-from-health-related-investments-funded-by-the-uk-government-department-for-international-development-using-the-lives-saved-tool
#1
Ingrid K Friberg, Angela Baschieri, Jo Abbotts
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the UK Government Department for International Development (DFID) committed through its 'Framework for results for reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH)' to save 50,000 maternal lives and 250,000 newborn lives by 2015. They also committed to monitoring the performance of this portfolio of investments to demonstrate transparency and accountability. Methods currently available to directly measure lives saved are cost-, time-, and labour-intensive. The gold standard for calculating the total number of lives saved would require measuring mortality with large scale population based surveys or annual vital events surveillance...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137679/trial-of-acute-femoral-fracture-fixation-traffix-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-trial
#2
Xavier L Griffin, Matthew L Costa, Juul Achten, Melina Dritsaki, Janis Baird, Nicholas Parsons
BACKGROUND: Distal femoral fractures are a source of considerable morbidity and best treatment is currently uncertain. The Trial of Acute Femoral Fracture Fixation (TrAFFix) is a randomised, parallel-group feasibility study designed to inform the design of a later, definitive clinical trial comparing intramedullary nails and locking plates for the treatment of distal femoral fractures. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients aged 50 years and older with a femoral fracture within the distal two Müller squares are potentially eligible for inclusion...
November 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133621/the-mutational-landscape-of-gastrointestinal-malignancies-as-reflected-by-circulating-tumor-dna
#3
Paul Riviere, Paul T Fanta, Sadakatsu Ikeda, Joel Baumgartner, Gregory M Heestand, Razelle Kurzrock
We aimed to assess the utility of a novel, non-invasive method of detecting genomic alterations in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies i.e., the use of liquid biopsies to obtain blood-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) through an analysis of the genomic landscape of ctDNA (68 genes) from 213 patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancers. The most common cancer types were colorectal adenocarcinoma (N=55 (26%)), appendiceal adenocarcinoma (N=46 (22%)), hepatocellular carcinoma (N=31 (15%)), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (N=25 (12%))...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126405/electronic-portfolio-use-in-pediatric-residency-and-perceived-efficacy-as-a-tool-for-teaching-lifelong-learning
#4
Annabel Frank, Kimberly Gifford
BACKGROUND: Residency programs use electronic portfolios (efolios) to organize data, track resident performance, and sometimes teach and assess lifelong learning (LLL) skills. Published studies on efolios in graduate medical education are mostly descriptions of implementation at individual institutions. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was sent to 199 pediatric residency program directors across the United States. Efolio usage patterns were described and compared between program directors that perceived efolios effective at fostering LLL and those that did not...
November 10, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117604/-in-depth-analysis-of-cost-structure-for-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-a-performance-based-hospital-budget
#5
Fritz-Georg Lehnhardt, Ines Dohle, Alexander Sartorius, Michael Grözinger
Objective New medical guideline recommendations for the treatment of major depressive disorders and regulative changes in the payment system of the German mental health care system warrant a revision of the framework in which electroconvulsive therapies (ECT) are offered. Methods A cost structure analysis of the clinical resources essential for the ECT procedure was conducted and economically validated, exemplified at a German inpatient ECT treatment center. Results The identification of directly attributable costs to the ECT intervention presupposes an accurate assessment of personnel engagement time and material consumption as well as an inclusion of overhead costs for the operational readiness of the hospital...
November 8, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116980/rethinking-the-educator-portfolio-an-innovative-criteria-based-model
#6
Kanade Shinkai, Chen Amy Chen, Brian S Schwartz, Helen Loeser, Cynthia Ashe, David M Irby
PROBLEM: Academic medical centers struggle to achieve parity in advancement and promotions between educators and discovery-oriented researchers in part because of narrow definitions of scholarship, lack of clear criteria for measuring excellence, and barriers to making educational contributions available for peer review. Despite recent progress in expanding scholarship definitions and identifying excellence criteria, these advances are not integrated into educator portfolio (EP) templates or curriculum vitae platforms...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114346/enhanced-skills-in-global-health-and-health-equity-guidelines-for-curriculum-development
#7
Russell Dawe, Andrea Pike, Monica Kidd, Praseedha Janakiram, Eileen Nicolle, Jill Allison
Introduction: Global health addresses health inequities in the care of underserved populations, both domestic and international. Given that health systems with a strong primary care foundation are the most equitable, effective and efficient, family medicine is uniquely positioned to engage in global health. However, there are no nationally recognized standards in Canada for postgraduate family medicine training in global health. Objective: To generate consensus on the essential components of a Global Health/Health Equity Enhanced Skills Program in family medicine...
April 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112452/high-throughput-prediction-of-nephrotoxicity-in-humans
#8
Lit-Hsin Loo, Daniele Zink
The Lush Science Prize 2016 was awarded to Daniele Zink and Lit-Hsin Loo for the interdisciplinary and collaborative work between their research groups in developing alternative methods for the prediction of nephrotoxicity in humans. The collaboration has led to the establishment of a series of pioneering alternative methods for nephrotoxicity prediction, which includes: predictive gene expression markers based on pro-inflammatory responses; predictive in vitro cellular models based on pluripotent stem cell-derived proximal tubular-like cells; and predictive cellular phenotypic markers based on chromatin and cytoskeletal changes...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109261/scale-dependent-portfolio-effects-explain-growth-inflation-and-volatility-reduction-in-landscape-demography
#9
Cang Hui, Gordon A Fox, Jessica Gurevitch
Population demography is central to fundamental ecology and for predicting range shifts, decline of threatened species, and spread of invasive organisms. There is a mismatch between most demographic work, carried out on few populations and at local scales, and the need to predict dynamics at landscape and regional scales. Inspired by concepts from landscape ecology and Markowitz's portfolio theory, we develop a landscape portfolio platform to quantify and predict the behavior of multiple populations, scaling up the expectation and variance of the dynamics of an ensemble of populations...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097072/recommendations-for-randomised-trials-in-surgical-oncology
#10
J C Glasbey, E L Magill, K Brock, S P Bach
Trials of surgical procedures in the treatment of malignant disease face a unique set of challenges. This review aimed to describe recommendations for the design, delivery and reporting of randomised trials in surgical oncology. A literature search was carried out without date limits to identify articles related to trial methodology research in surgery and surgical oncology. A narrative review was framed around two open National Institute of Health Research portfolio trials in colon and rectal cancer: the STAR-TREC trial (ISRCTN14240288) and the ROCCS trial (ISRCTN46330337)...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095894/suicides-as-a-response-to-adverse-market-sentiment-1980-2016
#11
Pankaj Agrrawal, Doug Waggle, Daniel H Sandweiss
Financial crises inflict significant human as well as economic hardship. This paper focuses on the human fallout of capital market stress. Financial stress-induced behavioral changes can manifest in higher suicide and murder-suicide rates. We find that these rates also correlate with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate (negatively associated; a -0.25% drop [in the rate of change in annual suicides for a +1% change in the independent variable]), unemployment rate (positive link; 0.298% increase), inflation rate (positive link; 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091715/antiquorum-sensing-antibiofilm-formation-and-cytotoxicity-activity-of-commonly-used-medicinal-plants-by-inhabitants-of-borabu-sub-county-nyamira-county-kenya
#12
Eric Omori Omwenga, Andreas Hensel, Susana Pereira, Alfred Anakalo Shitandi, Francisco M Goycoolea
Productions of various bacterial traits like production of virulence factors (e.g. toxins, enzymes), biofilm formation, luminescence among others, have been known to be controlled by quorum sensing (QS), a process that is dependent on chemical signals or autoinducers (AIs). Bacteria known to rely on such AIs are known to be virulent and tend to be resistant against various antimicrobial agents. Therefore, strategies aimed at the inhibition of QS pathways, are regarded as potential novel therapies in managing bacterial virulence hence reducing their ability to induce infections in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083475/stabilizing-effects-in-temporal-fluctuations-management-traits-and-species-richness-in-high-diversity-communities
#13
Jan Lepš, Maria Májeková, Alena Vítová, Jiří Doležal, Francesco de Bello
The loss of biodiversity is thought to have adverse effects on multiple ecosystem functions, including the decline of community stability. Decreased diversity reduces the strength of the portfolio effect, a mechanism stabilizing community temporal fluctuations. Community stability is also expected to decrease with greater variability in individual species populations and with synchrony of their fluctuations. In semi-natural meadows, eutrophication is one of the most important drivers of diversity decline; it is expected to increase species fluctuations and synchrony among them, all effects leading to lower community stability...
October 30, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079394/optimising-the-introduction-of-multiple-childhood-vaccines-in-japan-a-model-proposing-the-introduction-sequence-achieving-the-highest-health-gains
#14
Baudouin Standaert, Nadia Schecroun, Olivier Ethgen, Oleksandr Topachevskyi, Yoriko Morioka, Ilse Van Vlaenderen
BACKGROUND: Many countries struggle with the prioritisation of introducing new vaccines because of budget limitations and lack of focus on public health goals. A model has been developed that defines how specific health goals can be optimised through immunisation within vaccination budget constraints. METHODS: Japan, as a country example, could introduce 4 new pediatric vaccines targeting influenza, rotavirus, pneumococcal disease and mumps with known burden of disease, vaccine efficacies and maximum achievable coverages...
September 21, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076995/vaccines-as-epidemic-insurance
#15
Mark V Pauly
This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage)...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076123/-diagnosis-related-groups-in-reconstructive-plastic-surgery-of-malignant-head-and-neck-skin-tumours
#16
Oliver Lotter, Manuela Micheel, Patrick Jaminet
Background Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) were introduced in Germany as a medico-economic classification system 13 years ago. In this analysis, we looked into the compensation for reconstructive plastic surgery after the excision of malignant head and neck skin tumours by DRGs. Material and methods Four main diagnoses (malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma in situ) at a maximum of 6 different locations in the head and neck were combined with the following procedures: excision and primary wound closure, excision with temporary soft tissue coverage, split-thickness or full-thickness skin grafting, local, free or regional pedicle flaps, distant flaps as well as combined procedures for coverage...
October 26, 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074340/evaluation-of-clinical-teaching-quality-in-competency-based-residency-training-in-lithuania
#17
Eglė Vaižgėlienė, Žilvinas Padaiga, Daiva Rastenytė, Algimantas Tamelis, Kęstutis Petrikonis, Cornelia Fluit
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In 2013, all residency programs at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences were renewed into the competency-based medical education curriculum (CBME). In 2015, we implemented the validated EFFECT questionnaire together with the EFFECT-System for quality assessment of clinical teaching in residency training. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of characteristics of the resident (year of training) and clinical teacher (gender, age, and type of academic position) on teaching quality, as well as to assess areas for teaching quality improvement...
September 7, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068548/granular-nanostructure-a-facile-biomimetic-strategy-for-the-design-of-supertough-polymeric-materials-with-high-ductility-and-strength
#18
Pingan Song, Zhiguang Xu, Matthew S Dargusch, Zhi-Gang Chen, Hao Wang, Qipeng Guo
The realization of high strength, large ductility, and great toughness for polymeric materials is a vital factor for practical applications in industry. Unfortunately, until now this remains a huge challenge due to the common opposing trends that exist when promoting improvements in these properties using materials design strategies. In the natural world, the cuticle of mussel byssus exhibits a breaking strain as high as 100%, which is revealed to arise from an architectural granular microphase-separated structure within the protein matrix...
October 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067979/peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-patients-with-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-secrete-higher-levels-of-pro-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-compared-to-those-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-following-in-vitro-stimulation-with-%C3%AE-cell-autoantigens
#19
Darshan Badal, Rajendra Kumar, Mahinder Paul, Devi Dayal, Anil Bhansali, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Rajesh Kumar, Naresh Sachdeva
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) share similar pathological features but differ in age of onset and progression. There is a scarcity of information on differences in CD4+ T-cell responses, particularly, cytokine secretion, between the two forms of autoimmune diabetes. Here proliferative potential and concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of T1DM and LADA patients were compared, after in vitro stimulation with β-cell autoantigens...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065849/biocompatible-synthetic-and-semi-synthetic-polymers-a-patent-preliminary-analysis
#20
Balu Ranganathan, Charles Miller, Anthony Sinskey
Bioengineering has come of ages by setting up spare parts manufacturing units to be used in human body such as invasive implants and interventional controlled drug delivery in vivo systems. As a matter of fact patients on basis of their fiscal strength have the option of undergoing prophylactic tactical manoeuvre for longevity. In this sphere of invasive implants, biocompatible polymer implants are a state of the art cutting edge technology with outstanding innovations leading to number of very successful start-up companies with a plethora of patent portfolios...
October 23, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
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