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Adolescent brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471082/anhedonic-behavior-and-%C3%AE-amino-butyric-acid-during-a-sensitive-period-in-female-rats-exposed-to-early-adversity
#1
Jodi L Lukkes, Shirisha Meda, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
Early life adversity increases depressive behavior that emerges during adolescence. Sensitive periods have been associated with fewer GABAergic interneurons, especially parvalbumin (PV), brain derived growth factor, and its receptor, TrkB. Here, maternal separation (MS) and social isolation (ISO) were used to establish a sensitive period for anhedonic depression using the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm. Female Sprague-Dawley rat pups underwent MS for 4-h/day or received typical care (CON) between postnatal days 2-20; for the ISO condition, separate cohorts were individually housed between days 20-40 or served as controls (CON2)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470796/peers-influence-adolescent-reward-processing-but-not-response-inhibition
#2
Ashley R Smith, Gail M Rosenbaum, Morgan A Botdorf, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Most adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers. Prior research suggests that peers alter adolescents' decision making by increasing reward sensitivity and the engagement of regions involved in the processing of rewards, primarily the striatum. However, the potential influence of peers on the capacity for impulse control, and the associated recruitment of the brain's control circuitry, has not yet been adequately examined. In the current study, adolescents underwent functional neuroimaging while they completed interleaved rounds of risk-taking and response-inhibition tasks...
February 22, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468189/cytosolic-atp-relieves-voltage-dependent-inactivation-of-t-type-calcium-channels-and-facilitates-excitability-of-neurons-in-the-rat-central-medial-thalamus
#3
Tamara Timic Stamenic, Slobodan M Todorovic
The central medial nucleus (CeM) is a part of the intralaminar thalamus, which is involved in the control of arousal and sensory processing. However, ionic conductances and mechanisms that regulate the activity of the CeM are not well studied. Here, we used in vitro electrophysiology in acute brain slices from adolescent rats to demonstrate that T-type calcium currents (T-currents) are prominent in the majority of the studied CeM neurons and are critical determinants of low-threshold calcium spikes (LTSs), which in turn regulate excitability of these neurons...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467679/the-endocannabinoid-system-across-postnatal-development-in-transmembrane-domain-neuregulin-1-mutant-mice
#4
Rose Chesworth, Leonora E Long, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Tim Karl
The use of cannabis is a well-established component risk factor for schizophrenia, particularly in adolescent individuals with genetic predisposition for the disorder. Alterations to the endocannabinoid system have been found in the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we assessed whether molecular alterations exist in the endocannabinoid signalling pathway during brain development in a mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 ( Nrg1 ). We analysed transcripts encoding key molecules of the endocannabinoid system in heterozygous transmembrane domain Nrg1 mutant mice ( Nrg1 TM HET), which is known to have increased sensitivity to cannabis exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467469/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-consumption-on-the-brain-and-behaviour
#5
REVIEW
Linda P Spear
Per occasion, alcohol consumption is higher in adolescents than in adults in both humans and laboratory animals, with changes in the adolescent brain probably contributing to this elevated drinking. This Review examines the contributors to and consequences of the use of alcohol in adolescents. Human adolescents with a history of alcohol use differ neurally and cognitively from other adolescents; some of these differences predate the commencement of alcohol consumption and serve as potential risk factors for later alcohol use, whereas others emerge from its use...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467408/prediction-complements-explanation-in-understanding-the-developing-brain
#6
REVIEW
Monica D Rosenberg, B J Casey, Avram J Holmes
A central aim of human neuroscience is understanding the neurobiology of cognition and behavior. Although we have made significant progress towards this goal, reliance on group-level studies of the developed adult brain has limited our ability to explain population variability and developmental changes in neural circuitry and behavior. In this review, we suggest that predictive modeling, a method for predicting individual differences in behavior from brain features, can complement descriptive approaches and provide new ways to account for this variability...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467362/media-use-and-brain-development-during-adolescence
#7
REVIEW
Eveline A Crone, Elly A Konijn
The current generation of adolescents grows up in a media-saturated world. However, it is unclear how media influences the maturational trajectories of brain regions involved in social interactions. Here we review the neural development in adolescence and show how neuroscience can provide a deeper understanding of developmental sensitivities related to adolescents' media use. We argue that adolescents are highly sensitive to acceptance and rejection through social media, and that their heightened emotional sensitivity and protracted development of reflective processing and cognitive control may make them specifically reactive to emotion-arousing media...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464552/neural-response-to-prosocial-scenes-relates-to-subsequent-giving-behavior-in-adolescents-a-pilot-study
#8
Sarah M Tashjian, David G Weissman, Amanda E Guyer, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is characterized by extensive neural development and sensitivity to social context, both of which contribute to engaging in prosocial behaviors. Although it is established that prosocial behaviors are linked to positive outcomes in adulthood, little is known about the neural correlates of adolescents' prosociality. Identifying whether the brain is differentially responsive to varying types of social input may be important for fostering prosocial behavior. We report pilot results using new stimuli and an ecologically valid donation paradigm indicating (1) brain regions typically recruited during socioemotional processing evinced differential activation when adolescents evaluated prosocial compared with social or noninteractive scenes (N = 20, ages 13-17 years, MAge = 15...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462767/psychosocial-and-neural-indicators-of-resilience-among-youth-with-a-family-history-of-substance-use-disorder
#9
Meghan E Martz, Robert A Zucker, John E Schulenberg, Mary M Heitzeg
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the combined influence of psychosocial and neural protective mechanisms against substance use. The present study examined the extent to which neuroimaging measures of disinhibition predicted resilience against binge drinking and marijuana use among youth with a family history of substance use disorder (SUD; FH+), accounting for psychosocial measures of behavioral control. METHODS: Participants were 57 FH+ youth from the Michigan Longitudinal Study categorized into resilient and high-risk groups based on patterns of weekly binge drinking and monthly marijuana use during early adulthood...
February 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462655/convergence-of-bold-and-erp-measures-of-neural-reactivity-to-emotional-faces-in-children-and-adolescents-with-and-without-anxiety-disorders
#10
Nóra Bunford, Autumn Kujawa, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
The neural bases of emotion are commonly measured using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal and the late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential (ERP) component, but rarely together in the same individuals. Despite evidence of developmental changes in processing socio-emotional signals (e.g., faces) as reflected by both BOLD and LPP indices of brain maturation, the literature on the correspondence between these measures is limited to healthy adults, leaving questions regarding such correspondence across development and in clinical populations unaddressed...
February 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460359/connecting-theory-and-methods-in-adolescent-brain-research
#11
Adriene M Beltz
Networks are often implicated in theories of adolescent brain development, but they are not regularly examined in empirical studies. The aim of this article is to address this disconnect between theory and quantitative methodology, using the dual systems model of adolescent decision making as a prototype. After reviewing the key task-related connectivity methods that have been applied in the adolescent neuroimaging literature (seed-based correlations, psychophysiological interactions, and dynamic causal modeling), a novel connectivity method is introduced (extended unified structural equation modeling)...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460356/broadening-the-impact-of-developmental-neuroscience-on-the-study-of-adolescence
#12
Andrew J Fuligni, Mirella Dapretto, Adriana Galván
Having been a significance source of the renewed interested in the adolescent period, developmental neuroscience now needs to build upon its achievements to date and expand in several areas in order to broaden its impact upon the field. Addressing both typical and atypical development, examining the interaction between brain development and the social environment, studying change over time, and including attention to population diversity can help to produce a truly integrative science of adolescent development...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460355/do-hostile-school-environments-promote-social-deviance-by-shaping-neural-responses-to-social-exclusion
#13
Roberta A Schriber, Christina R Rogers, Emilio Ferrer, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
The present study examined adolescents' neural responses to social exclusion as a mediator of past exposure to a hostile school environment (HSE) and later social deviance, and whether family connectedness buffered these associations. Participants (166 Mexican-origin adolescents, 54.4% female) reported on their HSE exposure and family connectedness across Grades 9-11. Six months later, neural responses to social exclusion were measured. Finally, social deviance was self-reported in Grades 9 and 12. The HSE-social deviance link was mediated by greater reactivity to social deviance in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a region from the social pain network also implicated in social susceptibility...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460352/the-adolescent-brain-cognitive-development-study
#14
Terry L Jernigan, Sandra A Brown, Gayathri J Dowling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460349/adolescent-brain-development-implications-for-understanding-risk-and-resilience-processes-through-neuroimaging-research
#15
Amanda Sheffield Morris, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Jennifer S Silk
This special section focuses on research that utilizes neuroimaging methods to examine the impact of social relationships and socioemotional development on adolescent brain function. Studies include novel neuroimaging methods that further our understanding of adolescent brain development. This special section has a particular focus on how study findings add to our understanding of risk and resilience. In this introduction to the special section, we discuss the role of neuroimaging in developmental science and provide a brief review of neuroimaging methods...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459818/gestational-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cathinone-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-results-in-reduced-maternal-care-and-behavioral-alterations-in-mouse-pups
#16
László I Gerecsei, András Csillag, Gergely Zachar, Lőrinc Gévai, László Simon, Árpád Dobolyi, Ágota Ádám
The member of synthetic cathinone family, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), is a frequently used psychoactive drug of abuse. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of MDPV (administered from the 8th to the 14th day of gestation) on the behavior of neonatal and adolescent mice, as well as its effect on maternal care. We measured maternal care (pup retrieval test, nest building), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (grip strength test) of dams, whereas on pups we examined locomotor activity at postnatal day 7 and day 21 (open field test) and motor coordination on day 21 (grip strength test)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455864/social-influence-on-positive-youth-development-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#17
Eva H Telzer, Jorien van Hoorn, Christina R Rogers, Kathy T Do
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452227/age-and-experience-dependent-changes-in-egr-1-expression-during-the-ontogeny-of-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect-cpfe
#18
P A Robinson-Drummer, T Chakraborty, N A Heroux, J B Rosen, M E Stanton
The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a variant of contextual fear conditioning in which acquisition of the contextual representation and association of the retrieved contextual memory with an immediate foots-hock are separated by 24hrs. During the CPFE, learning- related expression patterns of the early growth response -1 gene (Egr-1) vary based on training phase and brain sub-region in adult and adolescent rats (Asok, Schreiber, Jablonski, Rosen, & Stanton, 2013; Shreiber et al., 2014; Chakraborty, Asok, Stanton, & Rosen, 2016)...
February 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450935/community-violence-exposure-correlates-with-smaller-gray-matter-volume-and-lower-iq-in-urban-adolescents
#19
Oisin Butler, Xiao-Fei Yang, Corinna Laube, Simone Kühn, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Adolescents' exposure to community violence is a significant public health issue in urban settings and has been associated with poorer cognitive performance and increased risk for psychiatric illnesses, including PTSD. However, no study to date has investigated the neural correlates of community violence exposure in adolescents. Sixty-five healthy adolescents (age = 14-18 years; 36 females, 29 males) from moderate- to high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles reported their violence exposure, parents' education level, and free/reduced school lunch status (socio-economic status, SES), and underwent structural neuroimaging and intelligence testing...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449568/binge-alcohol-exposure-causes-neurobehavioral-deficits-and-gsk3%C3%AE-activation-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-rats
#20
Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke
Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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