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Adolescent brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234279/long-term-effects-of-intermittent-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-in-male-and-female-rats
#1
Eva M Marco, Sara Peñasco, María-Donina Hernández, Anabel Gil, Erika Borcel, Marta Moya, Elena Giné, José Antonio López-Moreno, Consuelo Guerri, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking-known as binge-drinking-has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28-52...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231773/molecular-imaging-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Brian Jaeho Hwang, Mona Adel Mohamed, James Robert Brašić
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition with onset in early childhood characterized by marked deficits in interpersonal interactions and communication and by a restricted and repetitive range of interests and activities. This review points out key recent findings utilizing molecular imaging including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and nuclear neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRS indicates an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in high-functioning autism...
December 12, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229299/diffusion-mri-of-white-matter-microstructure-development-in-childhood-and-adolescence-methods-challenges-and-progress
#3
REVIEW
Christian K Tamnes, David R Roalf, Anne-Lise Goddings, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) continues to grow in popularity as a useful neuroimaging method to study brain development, and longitudinal studies that track the same individuals over time are emerging. Over the last decade, seminal work using dMRI has provided new insights into the development of brain white matter (WM) microstructure, connections and networks throughout childhood and adolescence. This review provides an introduction to dMRI, both diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and other dMRI models, as well as common acquisition and analysis approaches...
December 7, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228204/decreased-resting-state-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-correlated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-drug-naive-first-episode-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#4
Yi Liu, Yan Zhang, Luxian Lv, Feihu Hu, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Background: Given that adolescence is a critical epoch in the onset of schizophrenia, studying aberrant brain changes in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS), particularly in patients with drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia, is important to understand the biological mechanism of this disorder. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in separate hemispheres in patients with adult-onset schizophrenia. Our aim to study AOS can provide clues for the early aetiology of schizophrenia...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228120/exploring-individual-brain-variability-during-development-based-on-patterns-of-maturational-coupling-of-cortical-thickness-a-longitudinal-mri-study
#5
Budhachandra S Khundrakpam, John D Lewis, Seun Jeon, Penelope Kostopoulos, Yasser Itturia Medina, François Chouinard-Decorte, Alan C Evans
Structural covariance has recently emerged as a tool to study brain connectivity in health and disease. The main assumption behind the phenomenon of structural covariance is that changes in brain structure during development occur in a coordinated fashion. However, no study has yet explored the correlation of structural brain changes within individuals across development. Here, we used longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging scans from 141 normally developing children and adolescents (scanned 3 times) to introduce a novel subject-based maturational coupling approach...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223425/assessing-age-dependent-multi-task-functional-co-activation-changes-using-measures-of-task-potency
#6
Roselyne J Chauvin, Maarten Mennes, Jan K Buitelaar, Christian F Beckmann
It is being hypothesised that the developing adolescent brain is increasingly enlisting long-range connectivity, allowing improved communication between spatially distant brain regions. The developmental trajectories of such maturational changes remain elusive. Here, we aim to study how the brain engages in multiple tasks (working memory, reward processing, and inhibition) at the network-level and evaluate how effects of age across these tasks are related to each other. We characterise how the brain departs from its functional baseline architecture towards task-induced functional connectivity modulations using a novel measure called task potency, allowing direct comparison between tasks by defining sensitivity to one or multiple tasks...
December 5, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223025/the-intersection-between-response-inhibition-and-substance-use-among-adolescents
#7
Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Tine Blom Osterland, Morten Hesse, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Problems related to the capacity to successfully engage response inhibition are considered a risk factor for the development of substance use disorders (SUDs), but the evidence has been predominantly cross-sectional. In this commentary, we argue that recent longitudinal studies with multi-modal measures of response inhibition can improve understanding of how response inhibition may intersect with substance use among adolescents. Most Stop-Signal studies suggest that slower response inhibition predicts substance use progressions, with one multi-site study showing greater fronto-parietal activity indicative of risk...
November 29, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222816/shyness-and-trajectories-of-functional-network-connectivity-over-early-adolescence
#8
Chad M Sylvester, Diana J Whalen, Andy C Belden, Shana L Sanchez, Joan L Luby, Deanna M Barch
High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7...
December 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222477/a-novel-eeg-based-spectral-analysis-of-persistent-brain-function-alteration-in-athletes-with-concussion-history
#9
Tamanna T K Munia, Ali Haider, Charles Schneider, Mark Romanick, Reza Fazel-Rezai
The neurocognitive sequelae of a sport-related concussion and its management are poorly defined. Detecting deficits are vital in making a decision about the treatment plan as it can persist one year or more following a brain injury. The reliability of traditional cognitive assessment tools is debatable, and thus attention has turned to assessments based on electroencephalogram (EEG) to evaluate subtle post-concussive alterations. In this study, we calculated neurocognitive deficits combining EEG analysis with three standard post-concussive assessment tools...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222023/regional-brain-gray-matter-changes-in-adolescents-with-single-ventricle-heart-disease
#10
Sadhana Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Bhaswati Roy, Mary A Woo, Alan Lewis, Nancy Halnon, Nancy Pike
Adolescents with single ventricle heart disease (SVHD) show autonomic, mood, and cognitive deficits, indicating aberrations in brain areas that regulate these functions. However, the gray matter integrity in autonomic, mood, and cognitive control sites is unclear. We examined regional brain gray matter changes, using high-resolution T1-weighted images (3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner) with voxel based morphometry procedures, as well as mood and cognitive functions in SVHD (n=18; age, 15.7±1.1years; male, 10) and controls (n=31; age, 16...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221915/structural-brain-development-a-review-of-methodological-approaches-and-best-practices
#11
REVIEW
Nandita Vijayakumar, Kathryn L Mills, Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Christian K Tamnes, Sarah Whittle
Continued advances in neuroimaging technologies and statistical modelling capabilities have improved our knowledge of structural brain development in children and adolescents. While this has provided an increasingly nuanced understanding of brain development, the field is still plagued by inconsistent findings. This review highlights the methodological diversity in existing longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on structural brain development during childhood and adolescence, and addresses how such variation might contribute to inconsistencies in the literature...
November 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216635/deficits-in-docosahexaenoic-acid-accrual-during-adolescence-reduce-rat-forebrain-white-matter-microstructural-integrity-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#12
Robert K McNamara, Jennifer D Schurdak, Ruth H Asch, Bart D Peters, Diana M Lindquist
Neuropsychiatric disorders that frequently initially emerge during adolescence are associated with deficits in the omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), elevated proinflammatory signaling, and regional reductions in white matter integrity (WMI). This study determined the effects of altering brain DHA accrual during adolescence on WMI in the rat brain by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and investigated the potential mediating role of proinflammatory signaling. During periadolescent development, male rats were fed a diet deficient in n-3 fatty acids (DEF, n = 20), a fish oil-fortified diet containing preformed DHA (FO, n = 20), or a control diet (CON, n = 20)...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215777/atypical-anorexia-nervosa-is-not-related-to-brain-structural-changes-in-newly-diagnosed-adolescent-patients
#13
Gaia Olivo, Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients. METHOD: We investigated brain structure through a voxel-based morphometry analysis in 22 adolescent females newly-diagnosed with atypical AN, and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214729/finasteride-inhibited-brain-dopaminergic-system-and-open-field-behaviors-in-adolescent-male-rats
#14
Li Li, Yun-Xiao Kang, Xiao-Ming Ji, Ying-Kun Li, Shuang-Cheng Li, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Hui-Xian Cui, Ge-Ming Shi
AIMS: Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Because androgen regulates dopaminergic system in the brain, it could be hypothesized that finasteride may inhibit dopaminergic system. The present study therefore investigates the effects of finasteride in adolescent and early developmental rats on dopaminergic system, including contents of dopamine and its metabolites (dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid and homovanillic acid) and tyrosine hydroxylase expressions both at gene and protein levels...
December 6, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214654/role-of-the-innate-immune-system-in-the-neuropathological-consequences-induced-by-adolescent-binge-drinking
#15
REVIEW
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Consuelo Guerri
Adolescence is a critical stage of brain maturation in which important plastic and dynamic processes take place in different brain regions, leading to development of the adult brain. Ethanol drinking in adolescence disrupts brain plasticity and causes structural and functional changes in immature brain areas (prefrontal cortex, limbic system) that result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. These changes, along with secretion of sexual and stress-related hormones in adolescence, may impact self-control, decision making, and risk-taking behaviors that contribute to anxiety and initiation of alcohol consumption...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214088/advanced-alveolar-soft-part-sarcoma-treated-with-pazopanib-over-three-years
#16
Yoji Shido, Yukihiro Matsuyama
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare malignant tumor that generally occurs in adolescents and young adults. It progresses slowly, but lung and brain metastases often occur in the early phase of the clinical course, and chemotherapy has been reported as not being effective for ASPS. Pazopanib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been clinically available from November 2012 in Japan. This is a case report of a patient presented with multiple lung metastases and unresectable primary abdominal ASPS...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212175/the-role-of-established-east-asian-obesity-related-loci-on-pediatric-leptin-levels-highlights-a-neuronal-influence-on-body-weight-regulation-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-the-bcams-study
#17
Junling Fu, Ge Li, Lujiao Li, Jinhua Yin, Hong Cheng, Lanwen Han, Qian Zhang, Naishi Li, Xinhua Xiao, Struan F A Grant, Mingyao Li, Shan Gao, Jie Mi, Ming Li
Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple variants associated with adult obesity, mostly in European-ancestry populations. We aimed to systematically assess the contribution of key loci, which had been previously shown to be associated in East Asian adults, to childhood obesity, related adipokine profiles and metabolic traits in a Chinese pediatric population. Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) plus metabolic profiles and levels of five adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, fibroblast growth factor 21 and retinol binding protein 4) were evaluated in 3,506 Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211576/development-of-a-web-based-psychosocial-intervention-for-adolescent-and-young-adult-survivors-of-pediatric-brain-tumor
#18
Stacey P Raj, Megan E Narad, Ralph Salloum, Amber Platt, Aimee Thompson, Katherine T Baum, Shari L Wade
PURPOSE: To develop A Survivor's Journey, a web-based psychosocial intervention for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs). METHODS: Stages of development included focus groups with five AYA survivors (ages 16-23 years) and six parents to identify needs and challenges, as well as surveys and interviews with clinical care providers at a survivorship clinic. RESULTS: Concerns reported by AYA survivors, parents, and providers were similar to those reported in the literature, including fatigue, memory deficits, poor mood, health concerns, and challenging peer relationships...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209390/the-mechanism-of-anti-epileptogenesis-by-levetiracetam-treatment-is-similar-to-the-spontaneous-recovery-of-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-during-adolescence
#19
Hiroki Kikuyama, Tadahito Hanaoka, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Yasushi Yoshida, Takafumi Mizuno, Hirotaka Toyoda, Hiroshi Yoneda
Objective: The anti-epileptogenic drug levetiracetam has anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenesis effects. Synergy between cell death and inflammation can lead to increased levels of apoptosis inhibitory factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, aberrant neurogenesis and extended axon sprouting. Once hyperexcitation of the neural network occurs, spontaneous seizures or epileptogenesis develops. This study investigated whether the anti-epileptogenic effect of levetiracetam is due to its alternate apoptotic activity...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209271/development-and-implementation-of-a-new-telerehabilitation-system-for-audiovisual-stimulation-training-in-hemianopia
#20
Francesca Tinelli, Giovanni Cioni, Giulia Purpura
Telerehabilitation, defined as the method by which communication technologies are used to provide remote rehabilitation, although still underused, could be as efficient and effective as the conventional clinical rehabilitation practices. In the literature, there are descriptions of the use of telerehabilitation in adult patients with various diseases, whereas it is seldom used in clinical practice with child and adolescent patients. We have developed a new audiovisual telerehabilitation (AVT) system, based on the multisensory capabilities of the human brain, to provide a new tool for adults and children with visual field defects in order to improve ocular movements toward the blind hemifield...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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