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Adolescent brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028824/the-association-between-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-a-cluster-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adolescents-the-champs-study-dk
#1
Natascha Holbæk Pedersen, Jakob Tarp, Lars Bo Andersen, Anne Kær Gejl, Tao Huang, Lone Peijs, Anna Bugge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028595/-loser-or-popular-neural-response-to-social-status-words-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Jennifer S Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee, Rebecca Kerestes, Julianne M Griffith, Ronald E Dahl, Cecile D Ladouceur
Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development...
September 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024713/a-lack-of-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptors-confers-a-vulnerability-to-redox-dysregulation-consequences-on-parvalbumin-interneurons-and-their-perineuronal-nets
#3
Romain Cardis, Jan-Harry Cabungcal, Daniella Dwir, Kim Q Do, Pascal Steullet
The GluN2A subunit of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a critical role during postnatal brain development as its expression increases while Glun2B expression decreases. Mutations and polymorphisms in GRIN2A gene, coding for GluN2A, are linked to developmental brain disorders such as mental retardation, epilepsy, schizophrenia. Published data suggest that GluN2A is involved in maturation and phenotypic maintenance of parvalbumin interneurons (PVIs), and these interneurons suffer from a deficient glutamatergic neurotransmission via GluN2A-containing NMDARs in schizophrenia...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024676/perinatal-fluoxetine-prevents-the-effect-of-pre-gestational-maternal-stress-on-5-ht-in-the-pfc-but-maternal-stress-has-enduring-effects-on-mpfc-synaptic-structure-in-offspring
#4
Mary Gemmel, Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla, Jodi L Pawluski
Maternal affective disorders are frequently treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs); with up to 10% of women being prescribed these medications during pregnancy. Infant development depends on the early serotonergic environment, which is altered by perinatal SSRIs, raising concern about how these medications affect neural outcomes. While clinical and preclinical research suggests an impact of SSRIs on the developing brain, more research is needed to determine the effects on neuroplasticity, the serotonergic system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neural regions mediating behavior...
October 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022873/adolescent-thc-exposure-in-female-rats-leads-to-cognitive-deficits-through-a-mechanism-involving-chromatin-modifications-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018327/maternal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-neurological-outcomes-in-adolescent-offspring-with-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#6
Yik L Chan, Sonia Saad, Rita Machaalani, Brian G Oliver, Bryce Vissel, Carol Pollock, Nicole M Jones, Hui Chen
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy occurs in approximately 6 per 1000 term newborns leading to devastating neurological consequences, such as cerebral palsy and seizures. Maternal smoking is one of the prominent risk factors contributing to HI injury. Mitochondrial integrity plays a critical role in neural injury and repair during HI. We previously showed that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) can reduce brain mitochondrial fission and autophagosome markers in male offspring. This was accompanied by increased brain cell apoptosis (active caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017758/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacological-characterization-of-asp8477-a-novel-highly-selective-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor
#7
Tomonari Watabiki, Noriko Tsuji, Tetsuo Kiso, Tohru Ozawa, Fumie Narazaki, Shuichiro Kakimoto
Although exogenous agonists for cannabinoid (CB) receptors are clinically effective for treating chronic pain, global activation of brain CB receptors causes frequent central nervous system (CNS) side-effects. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a primary catabolic enzyme for anandamide (AEA), an endogenous CB. Recently, we discovered a novel FAAH inhibitor, 3-pyridyl 4-(phenylcarbamoyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (ASP8477). In vitro studies demonstrated that ASP8477 inhibited human FAAH-1, FAAH-1 (P129T) and FAAH-2 activity with IC50 values of 3...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017139/do-serum-bdnf-levels-vary-in-self-harm-behavior-among-adolescents-and-are-they-correlated-with-traumatic-experiences
#8
Canem Kavurma, Fatma Varol Tas, Burcu Serim Demirgoren, Ferhat Demirci, Pınar Akan, Damla Eyuboglu, Taner Guvenir
The aim of this study was to compare serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between adolescents that harm themselves, those that receive psychiatric treatment but do not harm themselves, healthy adolescents, and childhood traumas and to investigate the relationship between traumatic experiences and serum BDNF levels. The cases were divided into two groups of 40 adolescents exhibiting self-harm behavior (self-harm/diagnosed group) and 30 adolescents receiving psychiatric treatment but not exhibiting self-harm behaviors (non self-harm/diagnosed group)...
September 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016432/is-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-relevant-to-pulmonary-complications-and-mortality-in-multiply-injured-children
#9
Waleed Al-Mahdi, Mazen M Ibrahim, David A Spiegel, Alexandre Arkader, Michael Nance, Keith Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a well-recognized phenomenon in adult trauma populations. The "initial hit" of the traumatic event is often coupled with a systemic immune response characterized by changes in vital signs and laboratory indicators. A "second hit" from surgery during this time frame often results in acute lung injury, along with deterioration of the patient's clinical condition. We hypothesized that children and adolescents would experience SIRS physiology, but would not experience adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or "second hit" related death to the extent seen in the adult populations...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994623/exploring-functional-outcomes-and-allied-health-staffing-levels-in-an-inpatient-paediatric-rehabilitation-unit
#10
Penelope J Ireland, Amanda Francis, Shani Jackman, Kim McLennan
PURPOSE: This study provides data from a paediatric tertiary hospital on the length of stay, functional improvement and allied health workload for children and adolescents on active inpatient rehabilitation programs. METHODS: An audit was conducted of records of patients managed through an inpatient rehabilitation program at a 359 bed tertiary children's hospital in Brisbane, Australia between December 2014 and December 2015. Data relating to diagnosis, length of stay, functional change, occasions of allied health service and hours of patient attributable allied health professional time were collected...
October 10, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990850/the-relationship-between-toxoplasma-gondii-igg-antibodies-and-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-a-new-approach
#11
İsmail Akaltun, Soner Sertan Kara, Tayfun Kara
AIM: Toxoplasma gondii may play a role in the development of psychiatric diseases by affecting the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between serum toxoplasma IgG positivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in children and adolescents. METHOD: Sixty patients diagnosed with OCD and 60 patients with GAD presenting to the pediatric psychiatry clinic, together with 60 control group subjects with no psychiatric diagnosis, were included in the study...
October 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988852/assessment-of-a-nutritional-supplement-containing-resveratrol-prebiotic-fiber-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#12
Sabrina Salberg, Glenn Yamakawa, Jennaya Christensen, Bryan Kolb, Richelle Mychasiuk
Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable and often suffer from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. We hypothesized that the combination of resveratrol (RES), prebiotic fiber (PBF), and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) would be an effective therapeutic supplement for the mitigation of mTBI outcomes in the developing brain. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the supplement (3S) or control condition, which was followed by a mTBI or sham insult...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988578/alcohol-and-puberty
#13
William L Dees, Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava
Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for developing youth. Alcohol use and misuse are especially problematic behaviors during this time. Adolescents are more sensitive to alcohol and less tolerant of its detrimental effects than are adults. Research in humans and animals has revealed that early alcohol consumption can result in delayed pubertal development. Animal studies have shown that alcohol detrimentally affects neuroendocrine systems within the hypothalamic region of the brain that are associated with the normal, timely onset of the pubertal process...
2017: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986325/an-emotional-go-no-go-fmri-study-in-adolescents-with-depressive-symptoms-following-concussion
#14
Rachelle A Ho, Geoffrey B Hall, Michael D Noseworthy, Carol DeMatteo
BACKGROUND: Following concussion, adolescents may experience both poor inhibitory control and increased depressive symptoms. fMRI research suggests a physiological difference between patients with clinical depression and patients with depressive symptoms after concussion. The scarcity of information surrounding depression following concussion in youth makes it difficult to identify patients at risk of depression after injury. This is the first study to examine neural activity patterns in adolescents with post-concussive depressive symptoms...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980490/the-prevalence-of-traumatic-brain-injury-comorbid-anxiety-and-other-psychiatric-disorders-in-an-outpatient-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-service
#15
Michelle Albicini, Matthew Eggleston, Audrey McKinlay
BACKGROUND: A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is prevalent in children and adolescents within the health system, which may be accompanied with higher rates of poor mental health outcomes including anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. AIMS: To explore rates of TBI and associated anxiety and other psychiatric diagnoses in children and adolescents aged 5-18 years within the mental health system. METHODS: Participants were recruited from an outpatient mental health service in Canterbury, New Zealand...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977609/gonadal-hormone-dependent-sexual-differentiation-of-a-female-biased-sexually-dimorphic-cell-group-in-the-principal-nucleus-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-mice
#16
Masahiro Morishita, Sho Maejima, Shinji Tsukahara
We recently reported a female-biased sexually dimorphic area in the mouse brain in the boundary region between the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We reexamined this area and found that it is a ventral part of the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp). The BNSTp is a male-biased sexually dimorphic nucleus, but the ventral part of the BNSTp (BNSTpv) exhibits female-biased sex differences in volume and neuron number. The volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv were increased in males by neonatal orchiectomy and decreased in females by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976920/chronic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-thc-exposure-differently-affects-histone-modifications-in-the-adolescent-and-adult-rat-brain
#17
Pamela Prini, Federica Penna, Emanuele Sciuccati, Tiziana Alberio, Tiziana Rubino
Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for the psychiatric consequences of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁸-THC) exposure, however, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability remain to be established. Histone modifications are emerging as important epigenetic mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, thus, we investigated the impact of chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure on histone modifications in different brain areas of female rats. We checked histone modifications associated to both transcriptional repression (H3K9 di- and tri-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation) and activation (H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation) after adolescent and adult chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976476/comparison-of-unenhanced-t1-weighted-signal-intensities-within-the-dentate-nucleus-and-the-globus-pallidus-after-serial-applications-of-gadopentetate-dimeglumine-versus-gadobutrol-in-a-pediatric-population
#18
Diane M Renz, Stefanie Kümpel, Joachim Böttcher, Alexander Pfeil, Florian Streitparth, Matthias Waginger, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Ulf K Teichgräber, Hans-Joachim Mentzel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in T1-weighted signal intensity (SI) within the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) in a pediatric population after serial applications of the linear gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast medium gadopentetate dimeglumine and the more stable macrocyclic agent gadobutrol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained. Two similar pediatric patient cohorts who underwent at least 3 serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with sole application of gadopentetate dimeglumine or gadobutrol were analyzed...
October 2, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975729/brain-processing-of-rectal-sensation-in-adolescents-with-functional-defecation-disorders-and-healthy-controls
#19
S M Mugie, I J N Koppen, M M van den Berg, P F C Groot, L Reneman, M B de Ruiter, M A Benninga
BACKGROUND: Decreased sensation of urge to defecate is often reported by children with functional constipation (FC) and functional nonretentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate cerebral activity in response to rectal distension in adolescents with FC and FNRFI compared with healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: We included 15 adolescents with FC, 10 adolescents with FNRFI, and 15 young adult HCs. Rectal barostat was performed prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine individual pressure thresholds for urge sensation...
October 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972892/brain-functional-connectivity-patterns-in-children-and-adolescents-with-gender-dysphoria-sex-atypical-or-not
#20
Nienke M Nota, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Martin den Heijer, Dick J Veltman, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Sarah M Burke, Julie Bakker
Various previous studies have reported that brains of people diagnosed with gender dysphoria (GD) show sex-atypical features. In addition, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found that several brain resting-state networks (RSNs) in adults with GD show functional connectivity (FC) patterns that are not sex-atypical, but specific for GD. In the current study we examined whether FC patterns are also altered in prepubertal children and adolescents with GD in comparison with non-gender dysphoric peers...
September 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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