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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#1
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813108/consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-to-the-brain-and-behavior-of-the-offspring
#2
Ricardo A L DE Sousa, Yasmin S Torres, Claudia P Figueiredo, Giselle F Passos, Julia R Clarke
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is a form of insulin resistance triggered during the second/third trimesters of pregnancy in previously normoglycemic women. It is currently estimated that 10% of all pregnancies in the United States show this condition. For many years, the transient nature of GD has led researchers and physicians to assume that long-term consequences were absent. However, GD diagnosis leads to a six-fold increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women and incidence of obesity and T2D is also higher among their infants...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812290/a-preliminary-report-of-cerebral-white-matter-microstructural-changes-associated-with-adolescent-sports-concussion-acutely-and-subacutely-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#3
Trevor Wu, Tricia L Merkley, Elisabeth A Wilde, Amanda Barnes, Xiaoqi Li, Zili David Chu, Stephen R McCauley, Jill V Hunter, Harvey S Levin
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has demonstrated its utility in detecting microscopic post-concussion cerebral white matter structural changes, which are not routinely evident on conventional neuroimaging modalities. In this study, we compared 10 adolescents with sports concussion (SC) to 12 orthopedically-injured (OI) individuals within 96 h and three months post injury to 12 typically-developing (TD) participants using DTI and volumetric analyses. In terms of volume, no group differences were noted between SC, OI and TD groups at both 96 h and three months post concussion...
August 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802560/traumatic-brain-injuries-during-development-disrupt-dopaminergic-signaling
#4
Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Zachary M Weil
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained during peri-adolescent development produce lasting neuro-behavioral changes that render individuals at an increased risk for developing substance abuse disorders. Experimental and clinical evidence of a prolonged period of hypodopaminergia after TBI have been well documented, but the effect of juvenile TBI on dopaminergic dysfunction and its relationship with substance abuse have not been investigated. In order to determine the effect of juvenile brain injury on dopaminergic signaling, female mice were injured at 21days of age and then beginning seven weeks later were assessed for behavioral sensitization to amphetamine, a drug that increases synaptic dopamine availability...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801086/slowly-progressive-leukodystrophy-in-an-adolescent-male-with-phosphoglycerate-kinase-deficiency
#5
Shimpei Baba, Ayumi Kobayashi, Haruna Yokoyama, Kengo Moriyama, Ayako Kashimada, Jun Oyama, Ayako Owada, Shoichi Oyama, Tomohiro Morio, Masatoshi Takagi
We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency who had slowly progressive leukodystrophy during adolescence. The patient had a history of severe neonatal jaundice, hemolytic crisis with rhabdomyolysis triggered by febrile viral infections, dysarthria, and intellectual disability during early childhood. Clumsiness in walking and writing became obvious at ∼10years of age. Evaluations performed by us on the 18-year-old patient confirmed the presence of pyramidal tract signs, increased muscle tone, and generalized dystonia...
August 8, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798340/predictable-chronic-mild-stress-during-adolescence-promotes-fear-memory-extinction-in-adulthood
#6
Jia-Hui Deng, Wei Yan, Ying Han, Chen Chen, Shi-Qiu Meng, Cheng-Yu Sun, Ling-Zhi Xu, Yan-Xue Xue, Xue-Jiao Gao, Na Chen, Fei-Long Zhang, Yu-Mei Wang, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Early-life stress in adolescence has a long-lasting influence on brain function in adulthood, and it is mostly recognized as a predisposing factor for mental illnesses, such as anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. Previous studies also indicated that adolescent predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) in early life promotes resilience to depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. However, the role of PCMS in associated memory process is still unclear. In the present study, we found that adolescent PCMS facilitated extinction and inhibited fear response in reinstatement and spontaneous recovery tests in adult rats, and this effect was still present 1 week later...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795001/evaluation-and-management-of-sport-related-concussions-in-adolescent-athletes
#7
REVIEW
Dilip R Patel, Venu Parachuri, Amrith Shettigar
Sport-related concussions in young athletes are common, generally under reported and often go unrecognized. Concussion in sport may result either from a direct impact to the head or from indirect forces transmitted to the brain from impact elsewhere on the body. Concussions may also result from sudden acceleration, deceleration or rotational forces to the brain. The key features of concussion include confusion, impaired memory and reduced speed of information processing. Recovery may occur from a few days to several weeks or months...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794976/general-and-emotion-specific-alterations-to-cognitive-control-in-women-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#8
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Roselinde H Kaiser, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
BACKGROUND: Although limited, the literature suggests alterations in activation of cognitive control regions in adults and adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. The current study examined whether such alterations are increased in the face of emotionally-distracting as compared to emotionally neutral information, and whether such alterations occur in brain regions that exert cognitive control in a more top-down sustained manner or a more bottom-up transient manner. METHODS: Participants were young adult women (ages 23-30): one group with a history of childhood physical or sexual abuse (N = 15) and one with no trauma exposure (N = 17), as assessed through the Trauma History Questionnaire and a two-stage interview adapted from the National Crime Victims Survey...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793242/frequency-specific-alteration-of-functional-connectivity-density-in-antipsychotic-naive-adolescents-with-early-onset-schizophrenia
#9
Xiao Wang, Yan Zhang, Zhiliang Long, Junjie Zheng, Youxue Zhang, Shaoqiang Han, Yifeng Wang, Xujun Duan, Mi Yang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) is a severe mental illness associated with dysconnectivity that widespread in the brain. However, the functional dysconnectivity in EOS are still mixed. Recently, studies have identified that functional connectivity (FC) arises from a band-limited slow rhythmic mechanism and suggested that the dysconnectivity at specific frequency bands may provide more robust biomarkers for schizophrenia. The frequency-specific changes of FC pattern in EOS remain unclear. To address this issue, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data scans from 39 EOS patients (drug-naive) and 31 healthy controls (HCs) were used to assess the FC density (FCD) across slow-4 (0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791701/electrophysiological-properties-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-identified-by-genetic-and-optogenetic-tagging
#10
Gretchen Y López-Hernández, Mala Ananth, Li Jiang, Elizabeth C Ballinger, David A Talmage, Lorna W Role
Recent developments in the generation of neuronal population-specific, genetically modified mouse lines have allowed precise identification and selective stimulation of cholinergic neurons in vivo. Although considerably less laborious than studies conducted with post hoc identification of cholinergic neurons by immunostaining, it is not known whether the genetically based labeling procedures that permit in vivo identification are electrophysiologically benign. In this study, we use mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that drives expression of a tau-green fluorescent fusion protein specifically in cholinergic neurons...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#11
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783480/cognitive-and-occupational-function-in-survivors-of-adolescent-cancer
#12
Bethany D Nugent, Catherine M Bender, Susan M Sereika, Jean M Tersak, Margaret Rosenzweig
PURPOSE: Adolescents with cancer have unique developmental considerations. These include brain development, particularly in the frontal lobe, and a focus on completing education and entering the workforce. Cancer and treatment at this stage may prove to uniquely affect survivors' experience of cognitive and occupational function. METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional, descriptive comparative study was employed to describe cognitive and occupational function in adult survivors of adolescent cancer (diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 21 years) and explore differences in age- and gender-matched controls...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781917/long-term-recurrence-of-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-clinical-case-report
#13
Daniel A Tonetti, William J Ares, R Mark Richardson, Ronald L Hamilton, Frank S Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are rare, benign brain neoplasms that typically arise in children and adolescents and classically present with intractable, partial complex seizures. DNETs are classically associated with a favorable prognosis after complete surgical resection. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a case of long-term recurrence of a DNET, which initially resected and diagnosed as an oligodendroglioma prior to the recognition of DNETs...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779909/resting-state-functional-under-connectivity-within-and-between-large-scale-cortical-networks-across-three-low-frequency-bands-in-adolescents-with-autism
#14
Xujun Duan, Heng Chen, Changchun He, Zhiliang Long, Xiaonan Guo, Yuanyue Zhou, Lucina Q Uddin, Huafu Chen
Although evidence is accumulating that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disruption of functional connections between and within brain networks, it remains largely unknown whether these abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands. To address this question, network contingency analysis was performed on brain functional connectomes obtained from 213 adolescent participants across nine sites in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) multisite sample, to determine the disrupted connections between and within seven major cortical networks in adolescents with ASD at Slow-5, Slow-4 and Slow-3 frequency bands and further assess whether the aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity varied as a function of ASD symptoms...
August 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777996/neural-connectivity-moderates-the-association-between-sleep-and-impulsivity-in-adolescents
#15
Sarah M Tashjian, Diane Goldenberg, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is characterized by chronic insufficient sleep and extensive brain development, but the relation between adolescent sleep and brain function remains unclear. We report the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate functional connectivity as a moderator between sleep and impulsivity, a problematic behavior during this developmental period. Naturalistic differences in sleep have not yet been explored as treatable contributors to adolescent impulsivity. Although public and scientific attention focuses on sleep duration, we report individual differences in sleep quality, not duration, in fifty-five adolescents (ages 14-18) yielded significant differences in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and default mode network...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777995/beyond-stereotypes-of-adolescent-risk-taking-placing-the-adolescent-brain-in-developmental-context
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Romer, Valerie F Reyna, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk)...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777940/a-little-bit-of-guidance-mini-brains-on-their-route-to-adolescence
#17
Philipp Koch, Julia Ladewig
Cerebral organoids represent a new model in which to study human brain development outside the human body. Recently in Nature Biotechnology, Lancaster et al. (2017) tackled the lack of reproducibility, tissue homogeneity, and complexity of this system by bioengineering organoids to establish the next generation of human mini brains.
August 3, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774477/connecting-brain-responsivity-and-real-world-risk-taking-strengths-and-limitations-of-current-methodological-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Lauren Sherman, Laurence Steinberg, Jason Chein
In line with the goal of limiting health risk behaviors in adolescence, a growing literature investigates whether individual differences in functional brain responses can be related to vulnerability to engage in risky decision-making. We review this body of work, investigate when and in what way findings converge, and provide best practice recommendations. We identified 23 studies that examined individual differences in brain responsivity and adolescent risk taking. Findings varied widely in terms of the neural regions identified as relating to risky behavior...
June 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768158/differential-effects-of-stress-on-fear-learning-and-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-pre-adolescent-and-adult-male-rats
#19
Georgia Barbayannis, Daly Franco, Solange Wong, Josselyn Galdamez, Russell D Romeo, Elizabeth P Bauer
Adolescence is accompanied by the maturation of several stress-responsive areas of the brain including the amygdala, a key region for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. These changes may contribute to the development of stress-related disorders in adolescence, such as anxiety and depression, and increase the susceptibility to these psychopathologies later in life. Here, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on fear learning and amygdala activation in pre-adolescent and adult male rats...
July 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764933/analysis-of-c-fos-induction-in-response-to-social-interaction-in-male-and-female-fisher-344-rats
#20
Amy E Perkins, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Lauren E Chun, Robert L Spencer, Elena Varlinskaya, Terrence Deak
Sex differences in the expression of social behavior are typically apparent in adolescent and adult rats. While the neurobiology underlying juvenile social play behavior has been well characterized, less is known about discrete brain regions involved in adult responsiveness to a same sex peer. Furthermore, whether adult males and females differ in their responsiveness to a social interaction in terms of neuronal activation indexed via immediate early gene (IEG) expression remains to be determined. Thus, the present study was designed to identify key sites relevant to the processing of sensory stimuli (generally) or social stimuli (specifically) after brief exposure to a same-sex social partner by assessing IEG expression...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
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