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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717223/investigation-of-the-changes-in-the-power-distribution-in-resting-state-brain-networks-associated-with-pure-conduct-disorder
#1
Jiang Zhang, Jiansong Zhou, Fengmei Lu, Liangyin Chen, Yunzhi Huang, Huafu Chen, Yutao Xiang, Gang Yang, Zhen Yuan
Conduct disorder (CD) is a psychiatric disorder in children and adolescence. To investigate changes in the power distribution in brain networks between CD and typically developing (TD) groups, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data of thirty-six subjects were first recorded, and then the data were preprocessed using DPARSF and SPM8. Meanwhile, the power of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals of ninety brain regions was acquired using the integral of the Welch power spectral density (PSD)...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716389/biomedical-ethics-and-clinical-oversight-in-multisite-observational-neuroimaging-studies-with-children-and-adolescents-the-abcd-experience
#2
REVIEW
Duncan B Clark, Celia B Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Sandra A Brown, John H Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#3
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715351/interacting-influences-of-gender-and-chronic-pain-status-on-parasympathetically-mediated-heart-rate-variability-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#4
Lynn S Walker, Amanda L Stone, Craig A Smith, Stephen Bruehl, Judy Garber, Martina Puzanovova, André Diedrich
Considerable research links chronic pain to autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, specifically low heart rate variability (HRV) mediated by reduced parasympathetic activity. However, little is known about factors that influence ANS function in chronic pain. The ANS is the primary pathway for brain-gut communication, making it of particular interest in gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, characterized by functional abdominal pain (FAP). We evaluated the relation of sex, pain severity, and psychological stress to ANS function in adolescents/young adults from a database of pediatric FAP and control participants enrolled 8 years earlier in a prospective study of pain...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714184/research-review-what-have-we-learned-about-adolescent-substance-use
#5
REVIEW
Kevin M Gray, Lindsay M Squeglia
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical biological, psychological, and social developmental stage involving heightened risk for substance use and associated adverse consequences. This review, synthesizing emerging findings on this complex topic, is intended to inform research and clinical care focused on adolescents. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, yielding a cross-section of observational and interventional studies focused on adolescent substance use...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713313/the-burden-of-binge-and-heavy-drinking-on-the-brain-effects-on-adolescent-and-young-adult-neural-structure-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Anita Cservenka, Ty Brumback
Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function. Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711986/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-reading-ability-show-connection-to-socio-economic-outcomes
#7
Michelle Luciano, Saskia P Hagenaars, Simon R Cox, William David Hill, Gail Davies, Sarah E Harris, Ian J Deary, David M Evans, Nicholas G Martin, Margaret J Wright, Timothy C Bates
Impairments in reading and in language have negative consequences on life outcomes, but it is not known to what extent genetic effects influence this association. We constructed polygenic scores for difficulties with language and learning to read from genome-wide data in ~6,600 children, adolescents and young adults, and tested their association with health, socioeconomic outcomes and brain structure measures collected in adults (maximal N = 111,749). Polygenic risk of reading difficulties was associated with reduced income, educational attainment, self-rated health and verbal-numerical reasoning (p < 0...
July 15, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711740/early-manifestations-of-epileptic-encephalopathy-brain-atrophy-and-elevation-of-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-in-a-boy-with-beta-propeller-protein-associated-neurodegeneration
#8
Kyoko Takano, Kazuya Goto, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Keiko Wakui, Rie Kawamura, Tomomi Yamaguchi, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Tomoki Kosho
Mutations in WDR45 are responsible for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), which is an X-linked form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. BPAN mainly affects females and is characterized by seizures and developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. However, rare male patients have recently been reported with hemizygous germline mutations in WDR45 and severe clinical manifestations, such as epileptic encephalopathies...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709915/sex-differences-in-somatic-and-sensory-motor-development-after-neonatal-anoxia-in-wistar-rats
#9
Amrita Jha Kumar, Silvia Honda Takada, Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Vitor Yonamine Lee, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Maria Inês Nogueira
Currently, one of the important causes of brain injury in new-borns is the neonatal anoxia which impacts the perinatology services worldwide. Animal models of anoxia have been used to assess its effects at cellular and behavioural levels in all ages, but few studies focus on sex differences. This study aimed to investigate some physical parameters of development, sensorimotor alterations, early neurological reflexes as well as the density of cells in motor and sensorimotor cerebral cortex of adolescent rats submitted to neonatal anoxia...
July 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709112/mens-inversus-in-corpore-inverso-language-lateralization-in-a-boy-with-situs-inversus-totalis
#10
Anna-Lisa Schuler, Gregor Kasprian, Ernst Schwartz, Rainer Seidl, Mariana C Diogo, Christian Mitter, Georg Langs, Daniela Prayer, Lisa Bartha-Doering
Situs inversus totalis is a rare condition where the visceral organs are organized as a mirror image of default organ position. In this study we picture the co-development between brain and visceral organs in a case of situs inversus totalis from a fetal stage to adolescence and compare our findings to an age-, gender-, and education-matched control with normal position of thoracic and abdominal organs. We show that in this case of situs inversus, functional and structural brain lateralization do not coincide with visceral organ situs...
July 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708901/sex-specific-enhancement-of-palatability-driven-feeding-in-adolescent-rats
#11
Andrew T Marshall, Angela T Liu, Niall P Murphy, Nigel T Maidment, Sean B Ostlund
It has been hypothesized that brain development during adolescence perturbs reward processing in a way that may ultimately contribute to the risky decision making associated with this stage of life, particularly in young males. To investigate potential reward dysfunction during adolescence, Experiment 1 examined palatable fluid intake in rats as a function of age and sex. During a series of twice-weekly test sessions, non-food-deprived rats were given the opportunity to voluntarily consume a highly palatable sweetened condensed milk (SCM) solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706186/twins-methods-quantitatively-explore-the-genetic-impact-on-children-and-adolescents-brain-gray-matter-volume
#12
Xiao-Lu Chen, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Xiao Hou, Xiao Li, Xing-Shun Ma, Xiao-Mei Hu, Hua-Qing Meng, Qian He, Lian-Sheng Zhao, Ying-Cheng Wang, Yi-Xiao Fu, Tao Li
The gray matter volumes of 58 pairs of twins ranging in age from 12 to 18 were measured by MRI to explore the genetic and environmental impacts on gray matter volume in twin children and adolescents. By means of A/C/E structural equation modeling, it was found that the gray matter volume in children and adolescents was jointly affected by genetic (A: 0.89) and environmental factors while genetic factors play a greater role. The gray matter volume in frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and lateral temporal lobe was mainly affected by genetics (A: 0...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704424/examining-distinct-working-memory-processes-in-children-and-adolescents-using-fmri-results-and-validation-of-a-modified-brown-peterson-paradigm
#13
Vanessa Siffredi, Pierre Barrouillet, Megan Spencer-Smith, Maarten Vaessen, Vicki Anderson, Patrik Vuilleumier
Verbal working memory (WM) comprises different processes (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) that are often compromised in brain diseases, but their neural correlates have not yet been examined in childhood and adolescence. To probe WM processes and associated neural correlates in developmental samples, and obtain comparable effects across different ages and populations, we designed an adapted Brown-Peterson task (verbal encoding and retrieval combined with verbal and visual concurrent tasks during maintenance) to implement during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702262/hemispheric-asymmetry-of-development-due-to-drug-exposure
#14
Harold W Gordon
BACKGROUND: A previous survey of the literature of fMRI brain activation for two risk factors, impulsivity and craving, for addiction were lateralized to the right and left hemispheres respectively. Most articles reported these findings without consideration of how lateral asymmetries might be relevant to understanding the underlying factors leading to addiction. OBJECTIVE: The current survey is intended to extend these observations by demonstrating hemispheric asymmetry of development due to pre-natal or adolescent/adult exposure to drugs of abuse...
2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697581/altered-gray-matter-volume-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-motor-network-in%C3%A2-young%C3%A2-divers
#15
Xia Liu, Liansheng Liu, Fen Hou, Zhifeng Zhou, Qingying Wu, Hengguo Li
BACKGROUND: Motor learning and professional sports training can induce plastic changes in brain structures that are associated with distinct training demands. OBJECTIVE: To testify the hypothesis of that regional gray matter structures in the motor-related cortex and its functional connectivity (FC) are altered in young divers. METHODS: We undertook T1-voxel-based morphometry (VBM) structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in groups of diving athletes (DAs) and demographically-matched healthy controls...
July 7, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695488/brain-structure-abnormalities-in-young-women-who-presented-conduct-disorder-in-childhood-adolescence
#16
Meenal Budhiraja, Ivanka Savic, Philip Lindner, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
The phenotype and genotype of antisocial behavior among females are different from those among males. Previous studies have documented structural brain alterations in males with antisocial behavior, yet little is known about the neural correlates of female antisocial behavior. The present study examined young women who had presented conduct disorder (CDW) prior to age 15 to determine whether brain abnormalities are present in adulthood and whether the observed abnormalities are associated with comorbid disorders or maltreatment that typically characterize this population...
July 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695417/a-fiber-tractography-study-of-social-emotional-related-fiber-tracts-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Yun Li, Hui Fang, Wenming Zheng, Lu Qian, Yunhua Xiao, Qiaorong Wu, Chen Chang, Chaoyong Xiao, Kangkang Chu, Xiaoyan Ke
The symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been hypothesized to be caused by changes in brain connectivity. From the clinical perspective, the "disconnectivity" hypothesis has been used to explain characteristic impairments in "socio-emotional" function. Therefore, in this study we compared the facial emotional recognition (FER) feature and the integrity of social-emotional-related white-matter tracts between children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD (HFA) and their typically developing (TD) counterparts...
July 10, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692352/responsiveness-and-discriminant-validity-of-the-child-and-adolescent-scale-of-participation-across-three-years-for-children-and-youth-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Anat Golos, Gary Bedell
PURPOSE: To examine responsiveness and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP) across three years. METHODS: Examined longitudinal data on 515 children and youth with TBI and arm injuries. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine CASP scores (pre-injury; 3, 12, 24, 36 months post-injury). RESULTS: Scores decreased from pre-injury to 3 months, but significantly only for moderate and severe TBI groups...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691573/plasticity-in-the-working-memory-system-life-span-changes-and-response-to-injury
#19
Sean Froudist-Walsh, Diana López-Barroso, María José Torres-Prioris, Paula Croxson, Marcelo L Berthier
Working memory acts as a key bridge between perception, long-term memory, and action. The brain regions, connections, and neurotransmitters that underlie working memory undergo dramatic plastic changes during the life span, and in response to injury. Early life reliance on deep gray matter structures fades during adolescence as increasing reliance on prefrontal and parietal cortex accompanies the development of executive aspects of working memory. The rise and fall of working memory capacity and executive functions parallels the development and loss of neurotransmitter function in frontal cortical areas...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691248/adolescent-alcohol-exposure-decreases-frontostriatal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-adulthood
#20
Margaret A Broadwater, Sung-Ho Lee, Yang Yu, Hongtu Zhu, Fulton T Crews, Donita L Robinson, Yen-Yu Ian Shih
Connectivity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) matures through adolescence, coinciding with emergence of adult executive function and top-down inhibitory control over behavior. Alcohol exposure during this critical period of brain maturation may affect development of PFC and frontolimbic connectivity. Adult rats exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5 g/kg ethanol, 25 percent v/v in water, intragastrically, 2-day-on, 2-day-off, postnatal day 25-54) or water control underwent resting-state functional MRI to test the hypothesis that AIE induces persistent changes in frontolimbic functional connectivity under baseline and acute alcohol conditions (2 g/kg ethanol or saline, intraperitoneally administered during scanning)...
July 9, 2017: Addiction Biology
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