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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651071/an-independent-active-contours-segmentation-framework-for-bone-micro-ct-images
#1
Vasileios Ch Korfiatis, Simone Tassani, George K Matsopoulos
Micro-CT is an imaging technique for small tissues and objects that is gaining increased popularity especially as a pre-clinical application. Nevertheless, there is no well-established micro-CT segmentation method, while typical procedures lack sophistication and frequently require a degree of manual intervention, leading to errors and subjective results. To address these issues, a novel segmentation framework, called Independent Active Contours Segmentation (IACS), is proposed in this paper. The proposed IACS is based on two autonomous modules, namely automatic ROI extraction and IAC Evolution, which segments the ROI image using multiple Active Contours that evolve simultaneously and independently of one another...
June 19, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650811/regularized-spectral-log-difference-technique-for-ultrasonic-attenuation-imaging
#2
Andres L Coila, Roberto J Lavarello
The attenuation coefficient slope (ACS) has the potential to be used for tissue characterization and as a diagnostic ultrasound tool, hence complementing B-mode images. The ACS can be valuable for estimation of other ultrasound parameters such as the backscatter coefficient. There is a well-known trade-off between the precision of the estimated ACS values and the data block size used in spectral-based techniques such as the spectral log difference (SLD). This trade-off limits the practical usefulness of spectral-based attenuation imaging techniques...
June 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648408/nhsla-litigation-in-hip-fractures-lessons-learnt-from-nhsla-data
#3
Joseph Ring, Christopher Talbot, Charlotte Cross, Kunal Hinduja
Hip fractures are a major cause of trauma related death, usually occurring in vulnerable elderly patients. There are an estimated 70,000 hip fractures in the UK per year with numbers set to rise. The estimated annual cost to the healthcare economy is in the region of £2 billion. A 17-year review examining litigation related to hip fractures was undertaken. Under a freedom of information request, data was obtained relating to all orthopaedic claims made to the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) between 1995 and 2012...
June 19, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647623/proximal-femoral-osteosarcoma-diagnostic-challenges-translate-into-delayed-and-inappropriate-management
#4
M Dahan, P Anract, A Babinet, F Larousserie, D Biau
BACKGROUND: The proximal femuris an uncommon site of osteosarcoma. The unusual manifestations at this site may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes. We therefore performed a retrospective studyto estimate the proportions of patients with imaging study findings and/or clinical manifestations typical for osteosarcoma and/or inappropriate treatment decisions. HYPOTHESIS: Proximal femoral osteosarcoma often produces atypical clinical and radiological presentations...
June 21, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646585/prognostic-value-of-cell-cycle-arrest-biomarkers-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-acute-kidney-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Hui-Miao Jia, Li-Feng Huang, Yue Zheng, Wen-Xiong Li
AIM: Urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) are G1 cell cycle arrest biomarkers. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] in patients at high risk for AKI. METHODS: The MEDLINE (via PubMed), Ovid, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from inception to December 25, 2016. Original clinical studies which met the eligibility criteria were included in this study...
June 24, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643821/non-invasive-approaches-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-rejection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-part-i-in-vivo-imaging-methods
#6
REVIEW
Oriane Hanssen, Pauline Erpicum, Pierre Lovinfosse, Paul Meunier, Laurent Weekers, Luaba Tshibanda, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, Roland Hustinx, François Jouret
Kidney transplantation (KTx) represents the best available treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Still, full benefits of KTx are undermined by acute rejection (AR). The diagnosis of AR ultimately relies on transplant needle biopsy. However, such an invasive procedure is associated with a significant risk of complications and is limited by sampling error and interobserver variability. In the present review, we summarize the current literature about non-invasive approaches for the diagnosis of AR in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), including in vivo imaging, gene expression profiling and omics analyses of blood and urine samples...
February 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643819/non-invasive-approaches-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-rejection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-part-ii-omics-analyses-of-urine-and-blood-samples
#7
REVIEW
Pauline Erpicum, Oriane Hanssen, Laurent Weekers, Pierre Lovinfosse, Paul Meunier, Luaba Tshibanda, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, Roland Hustinx, François Jouret
Kidney transplantation (KTx) represents the best available treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Still, the full benefits of KTx are undermined by acute rejection (AR). The diagnosis of AR ultimately relies on transplant needle biopsy. However, such an invasive procedure is associated with a significant risk of complications and is limited by sampling error and interobserver variability. In the present review, we summarize the current literature about non-invasive approaches for the diagnosis of AR in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), including in vivo imaging, gene-expression profiling and omics analyses of blood and urine samples...
February 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643748/diagnostic-efficacy-of-free-prostate-specific-antigen-total-prostate-specific-antigen-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-in-low-concentration-%C3%A2-4-ng-ml-and-intermediate-levels-of-total-prostate-specific-antigen-4-01-10-0-ng-ml
#8
Selahattin Caliskan
AIM OF STUDY: Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tumor biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. In this study, I aimed to compare the free/total PSA (fPSA%) with PSA alone for their usefulness in diagnosis for PCa. METHODS: The patients who underwent prostate biopsy between January 2010 and January 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Data were expressed as a mean + standard error and P < 0.05 as considered with statistical significance (Med Calc 14...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641433/why-are-ggas-so-accurate-for-reaction-kinetics-on-surfaces-systematic-comparison-of-hybrid-vs-nonhybrid-dft-for-representative-reactions
#9
Andrew Mahler, Benjamin G Janesko, Salvador Moncho, Edward N Brothers
"Jacob's Ladder" of approximate exchange-correlation (XC) functionals in Kohn-Sham density functional theory are widely accepted to have systematic errors in reaction barriers. The first-rung local spin-density approximation (LDA) typically predicts barriers below generalized gradient approximations, which in turn predict barriers below experiment and below fourth-rung hybrid functionals incorporating a fraction of exact exchange. We show that several reactions from previous literature reports, as well as new simulations of carbon-carbon coupling in the Fischer-Tropsch process, do not follow this conventional picture...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641321/identifying-and-acting-on-potentially-inappropriate-care-inadequacy-of-current-hospital-coding-for-this-task
#10
P David Cooper, David R Smart
INTRODUCTION: Recent Australian attempts to facilitate disinvestment in healthcare, by identifying instances of 'inappropriate' care from large Government datasets, are subject to significant methodological flaws. Amongst other criticisms has been the fact that the Government datasets utilized for this purpose correlate poorly with datasets collected by relevant professional bodies. Government data derive from official hospital coding, collected retrospectively by clerical personnel, whilst professional body data derive from unit-specific databases, collected contemporaneously with care by clinical personnel...
June 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633695/how-should-discordance-between-molecular-and-growth-based-assays-for-rifampicin-resistance-be-investigated
#11
S Hofmann-Thiel, H Hoffmann, D Hillemann, L Rigouts, A Van Deun, K Kranzer
Molecular tests to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and genetic polymorphisms in the rpoB gene conferring resistance to rifampicin (RMP) have become integral parts of tuberculosis diagnostics worldwide. These assays are often performed sequentially or in parallel to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Discordances between molecular and phenotypic tests invariably occur. Root causes range from pre-, post- and analytic errors to co-existence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria, silent mutations, mutations outside the 81 base-pair RMP resistance-determining region, non-canonical mutations conferring increased minimal inhibitory concentrations below the critical concentration in some phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, and heteroresistance...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633460/guidelines-for-composing-and-assessing-a-paper-on-treatment-of-pain
#12
Nikolai Bogduk, David J Kennedy, Yakov Vorobeychik, Andrew Engel
Authors, readers, and editors share a common focus. Authors want to publish their work. Readers want to see high-quality, new information. Referees and editors serve to ensure that authors provide valid conclusions based on the quality of information that readers want. Common to each of these roles are instructions to authors. However, these are typically written in an uninspiring, legalistic style, as if they are a set of rules that authors must obey if they expect to get published. This renders the instructions boring and oppressive, if not forbidding...
June 17, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626952/multivariate-binary-classification-of-imbalanced-datasets-a-case-study-based-on-high-dimensional-multiplex-autoimmune-assay-data
#13
Laura Schlieker, Anna Telaar, Angelika Lueking, Peter Schulz-Knappe, Carmen Theek, Katja Ickstadt
The classification of a population by a specific trait is a major task in medicine, for example when in a diagnostic setting groups of patients with specific diseases are identified, but also when in predictive medicine a group of patients is classified into specific disease severity classes that might profit from different treatments. When the sizes of those subgroups become small, for example in rare diseases, imbalances between the classes are more the rule than the exception and make statistical classification problematic when the error rate of the minority class is high...
June 19, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626224/reference-standards-for-next-generation-sequencing
#14
REVIEW
Simon A Hardwick, Ira W Deveson, Tim R Mercer
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a broad investigation of the genome, and it is being readily applied for the diagnosis of disease-associated genetic features. However, the interpretation of NGS data remains challenging owing to the size and complexity of the genome and the technical errors that are introduced during sample preparation, sequencing and analysis. These errors can be understood and mitigated through the use of reference standards - well-characterized genetic materials or synthetic spike-in controls that help to calibrate NGS measurements and to evaluate diagnostic performance...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624023/enhanced-radiation-damage-caused-by-iodinated-contrast-agents-during-ct-examination
#15
Ling Wang, Qiang Li, Xi-Ming Wang, Guang-Yu Hao, Jie-Bao, Su Hu, Chun-Hong Hu
OBJECTIVE: To access the effect of iodinate contrast agent (ICA) on DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes during computed tomography (CT) examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This present study was approved by the institutional ethics committee; written informed patient consent was obtained from 70 patients. A total of 48 patients underwent computed tomography urography (CTU), in which only one time CT scanning was examined after injecting ICA, and 22 patients received unenhanced whole abdominal CT, among them 10 patients were selected to get ICA injection immediately after irradiation...
July 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622899/a-novel-method-for-estimating-three-dimensional-apical-vertebral-rotation-using-two-dimensional-coronal-cobb-angle-and-thoracic-kyphosis
#16
T Barrett Sullivan, Tracey Bastrom, Fredrick Reighard, Megan Jeffords, Peter O Newton
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. OBJECTIVES: To use a large cohort of three-dimensional (3D) spinal reconstructions to create a simple mathematical formula capable of estimating 3D apical vertebral rotation (AVR) based on the correlation with routinely obtained two-dimensional (2D) measurements of scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Quantification of vertebral rotation in AIS using 2-dimensional (2D) imaging is inherently challenging as the axial plane cannot be directly visualized...
July 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621024/the-validity-of-nasal-endoscopy-in-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis-an-interrater-agreement-study
#17
K L Larsen, B Lange, P Darling, G Jørgensen, A D Kjeldsen
OBJECTIVES: Nasal endoscopy is a cornerstone in diagnosing sinonasal disease but different raters might generate different results using the technique. Our study aims to evaluate the agreement between multiple raters to assess the validity of nasal endoscopy. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: Three independent and blinded raters evaluated 28 patients (56 nasal cavities) diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis according to the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619185/high-prevalence-of-restless-legs-syndrome-willis-ekbom-disease-rls-wed-among-people-living-at-high-altitude-in-the-indian-himalaya
#18
Ravi Gupta, Jan Ulfberg, Richard P Allen, Deepak Goel
BACKGROUND: At high altitude, prevalence of restless legs syndrome has been found to be greater than expected in small population-based studies, which did not use validated tools for identification of RLS. However, it is not known as to whether this increased prevalence is associated with altitude or increased risk factors for RLS in these populations or errors in identification of RLS. METHOD: This population based, door-to-door study was conducted at low altitude (400 m above sea level) and high altitudes (1900-2000 m and 3200 m above sea level) using random stratified sampling in Himalayan and sub-Himalayan region of India...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617213/dermoscopy-in-differentiating-palmar-syphiloderm-from-palmar-papular-psoriasis
#19
Enzo Errichetti, Giuseppe Stinco
Palmar syphiloderm is one of the most common presentations of secondary syphilis and its recognition is of utmost importance in order to promptly identify such a disease and initiate appropriate workup/management. However, the differential diagnosis with palmar papular psoriasis often poses some difficulties, with consequent possible diagnostic errors/delays and prescription of improper therapies. In this report, we underline the role of dermoscopy as a supportive tool to facilitate the non-invasive recognition of palmar syphiloderm and its distinction from palmar papular psoriasis...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617072/evaluation-of-ninepoint-medical-s-nvision-vle-device-for-gastrointestinal-applications
#20
Jeffrey D Mosko, Douglas Pleskow
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased over the last few decades. With a known precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, this remains a target for screening and surveillance with the goal of detecting and providing curative treatment for early neoplasia. Areas covered: Current surveillance techniques rely on white light endoscopy and random tissue sampling which is time consuming, costly and prone to sampling error. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE), a second-generation optical coherence technology, has emerged as an advanced imaging modality with the potential to improve dysplasia detection, surveillance and subsequently prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma...
June 15, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
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