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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346031/2016-new-horizons-lecture-beyond-imaging-radiology-of-tomorrow
#1
Hedvig Hricak
This article is based on the New Horizons lecture delivered at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting. It addresses looming changes for radiology, many of which stem from the disruptive effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This is an emerging era of unprecedented rapid innovation marked by the integration of diverse disciplines and technologies, including data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence-technologies that narrow the gap between man and machine. Technologic advances and the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and bioengineering are creating extraordinary opportunities in diagnostic radiology, image-guided therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy, and radiology informatics, including radiologic image analysis...
January 18, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344985/probing-the-microscopic-environment-of-23-na-ions-in-brain-tissue-by-mri-on-the-accuracy-of-different-sampling-schemes-for-the-determination-of-rapid-biexponential-t2-decay-at-low-signal-to-noise-ratio
#2
Jonathan M Lommen, Sebastian Flassbeck, Nicolas G R Behl, Sebastian Niesporek, Peter Bachert, Mark E Ladd, Armin M Nagel
PURPOSE: To investigate and to reduce influences on the determination of the short and long apparent transverse relaxation times ( T2,s*, T2,l*) of 23 Na in vivo with respect to signal sampling. METHODS: The accuracy of T2* determination was analyzed in simulations for five different sampling schemes. The influence of noise in the parameter fit was investigated for three different models. A dedicated sampling scheme was developed for brain parenchyma by numerically optimizing the parameter estimation...
January 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342070/an-evaluation-of-industry-relationships-among-contributors-to-aaos-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-appropriate-use-criteria
#3
Jake X Checketts, Courtney Cook, Matt Vassar
BACKGROUND: A long-standing relationship between orthopaedic surgeons and industry has made financial conflicts of interest a concerning issue. Research supports that financial conflicts of interest can influence both medical research and clinical practice. Financial conflicts of interest may also influence clinical practice guideline recommendations and their corresponding appropriate use criteria. Because of the influential nature of these guidelines, it is imperative that care be taken to minimize bias during guideline development...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341970/does-the-use-of-indirect-calorimetry-change-outcome-in-the-icu-yes-it-does
#4
Elisabeth De Waele, Patrick M Honoré, Manu L N G Malbrain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent findings on metabolic monitoring and possible beneficial effects of an adequate nutrition therapy, based on indirect calorimetry as the golden standard to predict energy expenditure. RECENT FINDINGS: in the last decades, major steps are taken in the field of metabolism and nutrition, evolving from nutrition as a baseline support to a therapeutic intervention. The aspect of energy expenditure is of cardinal importance, and technical possibilities have impressively improved: from the first 'calorimetre' in 1789 to the new generation, clinical applicable indirect calorimeters and the high accuracy and easy use model reaching high technology readiness level [Oshima et al...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341818/medicine-as-it-should-be-teaching-team-and-teamwork-during-a-palliative-care-clerkship
#5
Barbara A Head, Christian Davis Furman, Andrew M Lally, Kimberly Leake, Mark Pfeifer
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional Education (IPE) is an important component of medical education. Rotations with palliative care interdisciplinary teams (IDTs) provide an optimal environment for IPE and teaching teamwork skills. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the learning of senior medical students during a palliative care rotation. DESIGN: A constant comparison method based on grounded theory was used in this qualitative study. SETTING/SUBJECTS: Senior medical students completed a semi-structured reflective writing exercise after a required one-week palliative care clerkship...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340109/development-of-a-targeted-sequencing-approach-to-identify-prognostic-predictive-and-diagnostic-markers-in-paediatric-solid-tumours
#6
Elisa Izquierdo, Lina Yuan, Sally George, Michael Hubank, Chris Jones, Paula Proszek, Janet Shipley, Susanne A Gatz, Caedyn Stinson, Andrew S Moore, Steven C Clifford, Debbie Hicks, Janet C Lindsey, Rebecca M Hill, Thomas S Jacques, Jane Chalker, Khin Thway, Simon O'Connor, Lynley Marshall, Lucas Moreno, Andrew Pearson, Louis Chesler, Brian A Walker, David Gonzalez De Castro
The implementation of personalised medicine in childhood cancers has been limited by a lack of clinically validated multi-target sequencing approaches specific for paediatric solid tumours. In order to support innovative clinical trials in high-risk patients with unmet need, we have developed a clinically relevant targeted sequencing panel spanning 311 kb and comprising 78 genes involved in childhood cancers. A total of 132 samples were used for the validation of the panel, including Horizon Discovery cell blends (n=4), cell lines (n=15), formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE, n=83) and fresh frozen tissue (FF, n=30) patient samples...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339948/update-on-functional-heartburn
#7
Takahisa Yamasaki, Jessica O'Neil, Ronnie Fass
The definition of functional heartburn has been refined over the years. It is currently described, based upon Rome IV criteria, as typical heartburn symptoms in the presence of normal upper endoscopy findings (including normal biopsies), normal esophageal pH testing, and a negative association between symptoms and reflux events. Functional heartburn is very common, affecting women more than men, and with reflux hypersensitivity makes up the majority of heartburn patients who fail twice-daily proton pump inhibitor therapy...
December 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338028/does-providing-more-services-increase-the-primary-hospitals-revenue-an-assessment-of-national-essential-medicine-policy-based-on-2-675-counties-in-china
#8
Fei Chen, Min Yang, Qian Li, Jay Pan, Xiaosong Li, Qun Meng
OBJECTIVE: To understand whether the increased outpatient service provision (OSP) brings in enough additional income (excluding income from essential medicine) for primary hospitals (INCOME) to compensate for reduced costs of medicine. METHODS: The two outcomes, annual OSP and INCOME for the period of 2008-2012, were collected from 34,506 primary hospitals in 2,675 counties in 31 provinces in China by the national surveillance system. The data had a four-level hierarchical structure; time points were nested within primary hospital, hospitals within county, and counties within province...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337647/compositional-assessment-of-human-tracheal-cartilage-by-infrared-spectroscopy
#9
Gary Linkov, Arash Hanifi, Farzad Yousefi, Derrick Tint, Sudheer Bolla, Nathanial Marchetti, Ahmed M S Soliman, Nancy Pleshko
Objectives To assess the potential of infrared fiber-optic spectroscopy to evaluate the compositional properties of human tracheal cartilage. Study Design Laboratory-based study. Methods Twenty human cadaveric distal tracheas were harvested (age range 20-78 years; 6 females, 14 males) for compositional analysis. Histologic staining, Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy data on collagen and proteoglycan (PG) content, and near-infrared (NIR) fiber-optic probe spectroscopic data that reflect protein and water content were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336994/agreement-between-the-results-of-meta-analyses-from-case-reports-and-from-clinical-studies-regarding-the-efficacy-of-laronidase-therapy-in-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i-who-initiated-enzyme-replacement-therapy-in-adult-age-an-example-of-case-reports
#10
REVIEW
Miguel Sampayo-Cordero, Bernat Miguel-Huguet, Almudena Pardo-Mateos, Marc Moltó-Abad, Cecilia Muñoz-Delgado, Jordi Pérez-López
BACKGROUND: Case reports might have a prominent role in the rare diseases field, due to the small number of patients affected by one such disease. A previous systematic review regarding the efficacy of laronidase therapy in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-I) who initiated enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in adult age has been published. The review included a meta-analysis of 19 clinical studies and the description of eleven case reports. It was of interest to perform a meta-analysis of those case reports to explore the role of such meta-analyses as a tool for evidence-based medicine in rare diseases...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335777/fully-automatic-ct-histogram-based-fat-estimation-in-dead-bodies
#11
Michael Hubig, Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Felix Güttler, Andreas Heinrich, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Post-mortem body cooling is the foundation of temperature-based death time estimations (TDE) in homicide cases. Forensic science generally provides two types of p.m. body cooling models, the phenomenological and the physical models. Since both of them have to implement important individual parameters like the quantity of abdominal fat explicitly or implicitly, a more exact quantification and localization of abdominal fat is a desideratum in TDE. Particularly for the physical models, a better knowledge of the abdominal fat distribution could lead to relevant improvements in TDEs...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334977/ethnoecology-of-the-interchange-of-wild-and-weedy-plants-and-mushrooms-in-phur%C3%A3-pecha-markets-of-mexico-economic-motives-of-biotic-resources-management
#12
Berenice Farfán-Heredia, Alejandro Casas, Ana I Moreno-Calles, Eduardo García-Frapolli, Aída Castilleja
BACKGROUND: Interactions between societies and nature are regulated by complex systems of beliefs, symbolism, customs, and worldviews (kosmos), ecological knowledge (corpus), and management strategies and practices (praxis), which are constructed as product of experiences and communication of people throughout time. These aspects influence social relations, life strategies, and cultural identity, and all of them in turn influence and are influenced by local and regional patterns of interchange...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334625/light-quality-affects-flavonoid-production-and-related-gene-expression-in-cyclocarya-paliurus
#13
Yang Liu, Shengzuo Fang, Wanxia Yang, Xulan Shang, Xiangxiang Fu
Understanding the responses of plant growth and secondary metabolites to differential light conditions is very important to optimize cultivation conditions of medicinal woody plants. As a highly valued and multiple function tree species, Cyclocarya paliurus is planted and managed for timber production and medical use. In this study, LED-based light including white light (WL), blue light (BL), red light (RL), and green light (GL) were used to affect leaf biomass production, flavonoid accumulation and related gene expression of one-year C...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334498/evidence-based-interpretation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-pet-results-a-clinician-s-tool
#14
David Bergeron, Rik Ossenkoppele, Robert Jr Laforce
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) allows for in vivo detection of fibrillar amyloid plaques, a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, amyloid-β PET interpretation is limited by the imperfect correlation between PET and autopsy, and the fact that it is positive in about 20% to 30% of cognitively normal individuals and non-AD dementias, especially when older or carrying the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4). When facing a positive amyloid PET, clinicians have to evaluate the probability of a pathologic false positive as well as the probability of amyloid positivity being age-related, comorbid to a primary non-AD dementia (clinicopathologic false positive)...
January 12, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334128/improved-liver-r2-mapping-by-pixel-wise-curve-fitting-with-adaptive-neighborhood-regularization
#15
Changqing Wang, Xinyuan Zhang, Xiaoyun Liu, Taigang He, Wufan Chen, Qianjin Feng, Yanqiu Feng
PURPOSE: To improve liver R2* mapping by incorporating adaptive neighborhood regularization into pixel-wise curve fitting. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging R2* mapping remains challenging because of the serial images with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we proposed to exploit the neighboring pixels as regularization terms and adaptively determine the regularization parameters according to the interpixel signal similarity. The proposed algorithm, called the pixel-wise curve fitting with adaptive neighborhood regularization (PCANR), was compared with the conventional nonlinear least squares (NLS) and nonlocal means filter-based NLS algorithms on simulated, phantom, and in vivo data...
January 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333563/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-adipose-tissue-isolation-and-gene-expression-profile-of-distinct-sub-population-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#16
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
Thanks to their relative abundance and easier collection, adipose tissue (AT) is considered an alternative source for the isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs have great therapeutic values and are thus under investigations for several clinical indications such as regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In this work, we aimed to identify, isolate and characterize AT-MSCs based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity known to be a classical feature of stem cells. FACS technology allowed to isolate two different populations of AT-MSCs according to their ALDH activity (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH-)...
January 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333042/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-profiling-in-methanolic-and-ethyl-acetate-root-and-stem-extract-of-corbichonia-decumbens-forssk-exell-from-thar-desert-of-rajasthan-india
#17
Sunita Arora, Manju Saini
Background: Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) Exell (Molluginaceae), recently has moved to Lophiocarpaceae as per angiospermic plant group (APG) III system, is an annual or short-lived, dwarf, glabrous subshrub, prefers to grow on rocky places and on sand-stones in dry, hot areas of Rajasthan. This is the potential plant with medicinal properties. Vegetative organs under study show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, and antinociception activity. Objective: This study was carried out to identify the phytoconstituents present in the methanolic and ethyl-acetate extract of root and stem of C...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332820/a-strategy-for-screening-of-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-from-morus-alba-root-bark-based-on-the-ligand-fishing-combined-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometer-and-molecular-docking
#18
Zhen Wang, Xiaoqing Li, Menghan Chen, Feiyan Liu, Chao Han, Lingyi Kong, Jianguang Luo
A new method based on ligand fishing combined with high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer and molecular docking was established to screen α-glucosidase inhibitors from a traditional Chinese medicine Morus alba root bark. α-Glucosidase was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles, used as a solid support to incubate with crude extract. After ligand fishing, the eluates were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer, obtaining eleven ligands (1-4, 6-12) eventually...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332471/fatal-exertional-heat-stroke-and-american-football-players-the-need-for-regional-heat-safety-guidelines
#19
Andrew J Grundstein, Yuri Hosokawa, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:   Weather-based activity modification in athletics is an important way to minimize heat illnesses. However, many commonly used heat-safety guidelines include a uniform set of heat-stress thresholds that do not account for geographic differences in acclimatization. OBJECTIVE:   To determine if heat-related fatalities among American football players occurred on days with unusually stressful weather conditions based on the local climate and to assess the need for regional heat-safety guidelines...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327681/updated-national-comprehensive-cancer-network-guidelines-for-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancers-2010-2017
#20
Małgorzata Wierzbicka, Joanna Napierała
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations have been changing over the years to improve treatment outcomes and quality of life of Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to present currently recommended Head and Neck Cancer treatment guidelines based on the literature review with particular emphasis on novel approaches the NCCN algorithms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The review of literature covering articles published in the last five years and pointing out essential changes in HNC treatment regarding evidence based medicine...
December 30, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
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