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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053067/the-proteome-of-pus-from-human-brain-abscesses-host-derived-neurotoxic-proteins-and-the-cell-type-diversity-of-cns-pus
#1
Bjørnar Hassel, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Jugoslav Ivanovic, Øyvind Voie, Daniel Dahlberg
OBJECTIVE What determines the extent of tissue destruction during brain abscess formation is not known. Pyogenic brain infections cause destruction of brain tissue that greatly exceeds the area occupied by microbes, as seen in experimental studies, pointing to cytotoxic factors other than microbes in pus. This study examined whether brain abscess pus contains cytotoxic proteins that might explain the extent of tissue destruction. METHODS Pus proteins from 20 human brain abscesses and, for comparison, 7 subdural empyemas were analyzed by proteomics mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053025/e-cigarette-use-causes-a-unique-innate-immune-response-in-the-lung-involving-increased-neutrophilic-activation-and-altered-mucin-secretion
#2
Boris Reidel, Giorgia Radicioni, Phillip Clapp, Amina A Ford, Sabri Abdelwahab, Meghan E Rebuli, Prashamsha Haridass, Neil E Alexis, Ilona Jaspers, Mehmet Kesimer
RATIONALE: E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular and little is known about their potential adverse health effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of e-cigarette use on the airways. METHODS: Induced sputum samples from cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and non-smokers, were analyzed by quantitative proteomics, and the total and individual concentrations of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B were determined by light scattering/refractometry and labeled mass spectrometry, respectively...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052820/evaluation-of-different-treatment-protocols-for-combined-injury-induced-lung-injury-in-rabbits
#3
Xiao Bing Li
BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment regimens on combined injury-induced lung injury. METHODS: Rabbits were subjected to non-lethal closed-chest bilateral lung contusion followed by a 30% total body surface area scald burn. The rabbits were randomly assigned to resuscitation groups that maintained a minimum mean arterial blood pressure of 70 mmHg using one of the following three methods: normal saline plus polygeline injection in a ratio of 1:1 (1:1G), normal saline plus polygeline injection in a ratio of 1:2 (1:2G), and normal saline plus polygeline injection in a ratio of 1:3 (1:3G), After injury, lung injury was assessed using lung wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and real-time PCR...
September 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050341/geraniol-alleviates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-via-inhibiting-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#4
Kangfeng Jiang, Tao Zhang, Nannan Yin, Xiaofei Ma, Gan Zhao, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng
Geraniol (GOH), a special type of acyclic monoterpene alcohol, has been widely used to treat many diseases associated with inflammation and apoptosis. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common clinical disease in humans characterized by pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of GOH in a mouse model of ALI induced by the intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms in RAW 264.7 cells. In vivo, GOH treatment markedly ameliorated pathological injury and pulmonary cell apoptosis and reduced the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio of lungs, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049372/therapeutic-effect-of-imiquimod-on-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-ulcerative-colitis-in-mice
#5
Lu Chen, Zhongyin Zhou, Yan Yang, Na Chen, Hongyu Xiang
BACKGROUND: Imiquimod is a Toll-like receptor-7 agonist that regulates immunity and can be used as an immune adjuvant. Ulcerative colitis has a close correlation with immune disorder. AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effect of imiquimod on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: C57BL/6J C57 mice received 3% DSS for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis. Groups of mice were intraperitoneally injected with dexamethasone (DXM, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045980/-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibodies-associated-vasculitis-with-lung-hemorrhage-in-the-patient-on-maintenance-haemodialysis-a-case-report
#6
J X Ding, M Wang
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is usually a multisystem disorder, and pulmonary renal syndrome is a common presentation. Patients with AAV are less likely to experience relapse when they progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We report a rare case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in relapsing AAV after eight years of haemodialysis. A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaints of dyspnea and hemoptysis accompanied by anemia, fever, fatigue, and weight loss...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042269/the-comparison-of-acute-high-intensity-interval-exercise-vs-continuous-moderate-intensity-exercise-on-plasma-calprotectin-and-associated-inflammatory-mediators
#7
Brandon G Fico, Michael Whitehurst, Aaron L Slusher, James T Mock, Arun Maharaj, Katelyn M Dodge, Chun-Jung Huang
PURPOSE: Calprotectin promotes the release of inflammatory mediators (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) during the innate immune response as a mechanism to augment leukocyte chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Although plasma calprotectin is elevated with traditional continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME) as an indicator of the inflammatory response, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has been shown to attenuate systemic inflammation while providing similar improvements in cardiovascular health...
October 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042193/microrna-126-3p-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-cerebral-edema-and-neuronal-injury-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-regulating-pik3r2-and-akt
#8
Tianyang Xi, Feng Jin, Ying Zhu, Jialu Wang, Ling Tang, Yanzhe Wang, David S Liebeskind, Zhiyi He
MiR-126, a microRNA implicated in blood vessel integrity, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation, is markedly decreased in the sera of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The current study aims to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of miR-126-3p on brain injuries in a rat model of collagenase-induced ICH. Intracerebroventricular administration of a miR-126-3p mimic significantly alleviated behavioral defects 24 h after ICH, as examined by paw placement and corner tests. ICH led to increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral edema, both of which were attenuated by miR-126-3p mimic...
October 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042016/bacteria-causing-pyometra-in-bitch-and-queen-induce-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#9
M R Rebordão, G Alexandre-Pires, M Carreira, L Adriano, C Carneiro, T Nunes, L Mateus, G Ferreira-Dias
Neutrophils are capable of releasing their DNA in response to infectious agents to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to destroy pathogens. Even though pyometra in queens and bitches is a common disease, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of NETs in the endometrium of queens and bitches suffering from pyometra. Pyometra and normal uteri were obtained after ovariohysterectomy from adult queens and bitches in diestrus. Uterine contents were evaluated for bacterial isolation and identification and for NETs presence...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041952/the-response-of-muscle-progenitor-cells-to-cutaneous-thermal-injury
#10
Yusef Yousuf, Marc G Jeschke, Ahmed Shah, Ali-Reza Sadri, Andrea-Kaye Datu, Pantea Samei, Saeid Amini-Nik
BACKGROUND: Severe burn results in a systemic response that leads to significant muscle wasting. It is believed that this rapid loss in muscle mass occurs due to increased protein degradation combined with reduced protein synthesis. Alterations in the microenvironment of muscle progenitor cells may partially account for this pathology. The aim of this study was to ascertain the response of muscle progenitor cells following thermal injury in mice and to enlighten the cellular cascades that contribute to the muscle wasting...
October 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#11
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040128/single-dose-preoperative-vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-infection-in-a-mouse-model-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#12
Vishal Hegde, Erik M Dworsky, Alexandra I Stavrakis, Amanda H Loftin, Stephen D Zoller, Howard Y Park, Sherif Richman, Daniel Johansen, Yan Hu, Julie A Taylor, Christopher D Hamad, Rene F Chun, Weixian Xi, John S Adams, Nicholas M Bernthal
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances, infection remains the most common etiology of arthroplasty failure. Recent work suggests that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) deficiency correlates with the frequency of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We endeavored to examine whether 25D3 deficiency leads to increased bacterial burden in vivo in an established mouse model of PJI and, if so, whether this effect can be reversed by preoperative 25D3 supplementation. METHODS: Mice (lys-EGFP) possessing fluorescent neutrophils were fed a vitamin D3-sufficient (n = 20) or deficient (n = 40) diet for 6 weeks...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039441/rivaroxaban-attenuates-thrombosis-by-targeting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-deep-venous-thrombus
#13
Junhao Ma, Xinxi Li, Yang Wang, Zhenwei Yang, Jun Luo
Anticoagulant therapy is commonly used for the prevention and treatment of patients with deep venous thrombus. Evidence has shown that rivaroxaban is a potential oral anticoagulant drug for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, the rivaroxaban-mediated molecular mechanism involved in the progression of deep venous thrombosis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of rivaroxaban and the underlying signaling pathways in the prevention and treatment of rats with deep venous thrombosis...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035880/immunoregulation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-by-endothelial-derived-p33-gc1q-receptor
#14
Ariane Neumann, Praveen Papareddy, Johannes Westman, Ole Hyldegaard, Johanna Snäll, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Heiko Herwald
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a host defence mechanism, known to facilitate the entrapment and growth inhibition of many bacterial pathogens. It has been implicated that the translocation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from neutrophilic granules to the nucleus is crucial to this process. Under disease conditions, however, excessive NET formation can trigger self-destructive complications by releasing pathologic levels of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs). To counteract such devastating immune reactions, the host has to rely on precautions that help circumvent these deleterious effects...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034266/bladder-pain-in-an-ll-37-interstitial-cystitis-and-painful-bladder-syndrome-model
#15
Wanjian Jia, Austin J Schults, Mark Martin Jensen, Xiangyang Ye, Jeremiah A Alt, Glenn D Prestwich, Siam Oottamasathien
Our goal was to evaluate the pain response in an LL-37 induced murine model for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). In particular, we sought to characterize the dose dependence, time-course, and relationship of LL-37 induced bladder inflammation and pain. The IC/PBS model was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by instilling 50 μL of LL-37, an immunomodulatory human cathelicidin (anti-microbial peptide), in the bladder for 1 hr. Pain responses were measured using von Frey filaments (0.04 gm to 4.0 gm) before and after LL-37 instillation...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032823/bortezomib-facilitates-reparative-dentin-formation-after-pulp-access-cavity-preparation-in-mouse-molar
#16
Jae-Kwang Jung, Gi-Jeong Gwon, Sanjiv Neupane, Wern-Joo Sohn, Ki-Rim Kim, Ji-Youn Kim, Seo-Young An, Tae-Yub Kwon, Chang-Hyeon An, Youngkyun Lee, Jae-Young Kim, Jung-Hong Ha
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and ex vivo roles of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor that binds to the active site of the 26S proteasome, in tertiary dentin formation. METHODS: We established pulpal access cavity preparation that was treated with or without bortezomib before direct pulp capping with a calcium hydroxide-based material. We also analyzed bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)- and Wnt-related signaling molecules using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027116/effect-of-intracoronary-and-intravenous-melatonin-on-myocardial-salvage-index-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Sarah Ekeloef, Natalie Halladin, Siv Fonnes, Svend Eggert Jensen, Tomas Zaremba, Jacob Rosenberg, Grete Jonsson, Jens Aarøe, Lærke Smidt Gasbjerg, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Ismail Gögenur
Melatonin has attenuated myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in experimental studies. We hypothesized that the administration of melatonin during acute myocardial reperfusion improves myocardial salvage index in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients (n = 48) were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intracoronary and intravenous melatonin (total 50 mg) or placebo. The myocardial salvage index assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at day 4 (± 1 day) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention was similar in the melatonin group (n = 22) at 55...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021451/otitis-media-with-anca-associated-vasculitis-a-new-concept-and-the-associated-criteria
#18
Yusuke Kobari, Tasuku Nagasawa
A previously healthy 77-year-old Japanese man presented with a 2-week history of daily fevers peaking at 38°C, chills, hearing loss, and almost 10 kg of unintentional weight loss over 2 months. Pure tone audiometry showed mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss: right, 63.6 dB, left, 80.0 dB. Blood tests after admission showed a high myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) level (>300 U/mL), so we suspected ANCA-related vasculitis. The Japanese Otorhinolaryngology Society has recently been advocating the concept of otitis media with ANCA-associated vasculitis (OMAAV)...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019590/schinus-terebinthifolius-raddi-aroeira-leaves-oil-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-in-mice-1
#19
Lígia Reis Moura Estevão, Ricardo Santos Simões, Puebla Cassini-Vieira, Maria Cecilia Campos Canesso, Lucíola da Silva Barcelos, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Cláudio Augusto Gomes da Câmara, Joaquim Evêncio-Neto
PURPOSE: To investigated the inflammatory, angiogenic and fibrogenic activities of the Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi leaves oil (STRO) on wound healing. METHODS: The excisional wound healing model was used to evaluate the effects of STRO. The mice were divided into two groups: Control, subjected to vehicle solution (ointment lanolin/vaseline base), or STRO- treated group, administered topically once a day for 3, 7 and 14 days post-excision. We evaluated the macroscopic wound closure rate; the inflammation was evaluated by leukocytes accumulation and cytokine levels in the wounds...
September 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018453/inulin-type-fructans-modulates-pancreatic-gut-innate-immune-responses-and-gut-barrier-integrity-during-experimental-acute-pancreatitis-in-a-chain-length-dependent-manner
#20
Yue He, Chengfei Wu, Jiahong Li, Hongli Li, Zhenghua Sun, Hao Zhang, Paul de Vos, Li-Long Pan, Jia Sun
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common abdominal inflammatory disorder and one of the leading causes of hospital admission for gastrointestinal disorders. No specific pharmacological or nutritional therapy is available but highly needed. Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are capable of modifying gut immune and barrier homeostasis in a chemistry-dependent manner and hence potentially applicable for managing AP, but their efficacy in AP has not been demonstrated yet. The current study aimed to examine and compare modulatory effects of ITFs with different degrees of fermentability on pancreatic-gut immunity and barrier function during experimentally induced AP in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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