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S K Schmidt, E M S Gendron, K Vincent, A J Solon, P Sommers, Z R Schubert, L Vimercati, D L Porazinska, J L Darcy, P Sowell
Here we describe recent breakthroughs in our understanding of microbial life in dry volcanic tephra ("soil") that covers much of the surface area of the highest elevation volcanoes on Earth. Dry tephra above 6000 m.a.s.l. is perhaps the best Earth analog for the surface of Mars because these "soils" are acidic, extremely oligotrophic, exposed to a thin atmosphere, high UV fluxes, and extreme temperature fluctuations across the freezing point. The simple microbial communities found in these extreme sites have among the lowest alpha diversity of any known earthly ecosystem and contain bacteria and eukaryotes that are uniquely adapted to these extreme conditions...
March 20, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Dong Chen, Tatiana V Loboda, Tao He, Yi Zhang, Shunlin Liang
The Siberian larch forests, taking up about a fifth of the global boreal biome, are different from the North American boreal forests in that they generally do not undergo a secondary succession. While wildfires in the boreal forests in North America have been shown to exert a cooling effect on the climate system through a sharp increase in surface albedo associated with canopy removal and species composition change during succession, the magnitude of the surface forcing resulting from fire-induced albedo change and its longevity in Siberia have not been previously quantified...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christian Grov, H Jonathan Rendina, Viraj V Patel, Elizabeth Kelvin, Kathryn Anastos, Jeffrey T Parsons
PrEP and treatment-as-prevention (TasP) are biomedical strategies to reduce HIV transmission. Some men who have sex with men (MSM) are combining biomedical strategies with HIV serosorting-termed "biomed matching" when both partners are either on PrEP or TasP, or "biomed sorting" when one partner is using PrEP and the other TasP. Nevertheless, there is limited data on the extent of biomed matching/sorting in large geographically diverse samples. In 2016-2017, 5021 MSM from across the US were surveyed about their HIV status and HIV viral load/PrEP use, as well as that of their recent casual male partners...
March 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Tammo Reichgelt, Christopher K West, David R Greenwood
Fossil palms provide qualitative evidence of (sub-) tropical conditions and frost-free winters in the geological past, including modern cold climate regions (e.g., boreal, or polar climates). The freeze intolerance of palms varies across different organs and life stages, with seedlings in particular less tolerant of sub-zero temperatures than adult plants, limiting successful establishment of populations while permitting adult palms to survive in cultivation outside their natural ranges. Quantitatively, palms indicate minimum cold month mean temperature (CMMT) at 2-8 °C in palaeoclimate reconstructions...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah Freitas Magalhães, Sofia Calvo-Rodriguez, Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo, Gerardo Arturo Sánchez Azofeifa
Vegetation indices are useful tools to remotely estimate several important parameters related to ecosystem functioning. However, improving and validating estimations for a wide range of vegetation types are necessary. In this study, we provide a methodology for the estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in a tropical dry forest (TDF) using the light diffusion through the canopy as a function of the successional stage. For this purpose, we estimated the K coefficient, a parameter that relates the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to LAI, based on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Pablo Romero-Morelos, Cindy Bandala, Julián Jiménez-Tenorio, Mariana Valdespino-Zavala, Miriam Rodríguez-Esquivel, Reyna Anaid Gama-Ríos, Artfy Bandera, Mónica Mendoza-Rodríguez, Keiko Taniguchi, Daniel Marrero-Rodríguez, Ricardo López-Romero, Eva Ramón-Gallegos, Mauricio Salcedo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is an important health problem in our country. It is known that there are several risk factors for this neoplasm, and it has been suggested that cervical microbiome alterations could play a role in the development and progress of cancer. Bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis has been suggested as potential risk factor for cervical lesions and cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DNA from 177 cervical scraping samples was studied: 104 belonged to women without cytological or colposcopic alterations and 73 samples from precursor lesions with previous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection history...
March 12, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Charlotte E Teunissen, Markus Otto, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Sylvain Lehmann, Piotr Lewczuk, Alberto Lleó, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Hayrettin Tumani, Martin R Turner, Marcel M Verbeek, Jens Wiltfang, Henrik Zetterberg, Lucilla Parnetti, Kaj Blennow
Body fluid biomarkers have great potential for different clinical purposes, including diagnosis, prognosis, patient stratification and treatment effect monitoring. This is exemplified by current use of several excellent biomarkers, such as the Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, anti-neuromyelitis optica antibodies and blood neurofilament light. We still, however, have a strong need for additional biomarkers and several gaps in their development and implementation should be filled. Examples of such gaps are i) limited knowledge of the causes of neurological diseases, and thus hypotheses about the best biomarkers to detect subclinical stages of these diseases; ii) the limited success translating discoveries obtained by e...
March 15, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Xue-Yan Liu, Keisuke Koba, Lina A Koyama, Sarah E Hobbie, Marissa S Weiss, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Gaius R Shaver, Anne E Giblin, Satoru Hobara, Knute J Nadelhoffer, Martin Sommerkorn, Edward B Rastetter, George W Kling, James A Laundre, Yuriko Yano, Akiko Makabe, Midori Yano, Cong-Qiang Liu
Plant nitrogen (N) use is a key component of the N cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of N to plants affects community species composition and ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis and carbon (C) accumulation. However, the availabilities and relative importance of different N forms to plants are not well understood. While nitrate (NO3 - ) is a major N form used by plants worldwide, it is discounted as a N source for Arctic tundra plants because of extremely low NO3 - concentrations in Arctic tundra soils, undetectable soil nitrification, and plant-tissue NO3 - that is typically below detection limits...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zihan An, Fengying Dai, Chenjie Wei, Yiping Zhao, Li Chen
Membrane surface design is significant for the development and application of synthetic polymer hemodialysis membranes. In this study, the influence of zwitterionic cysteine on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane was investigated. The polydopamine layer was formed through dopamine self-polymerization on PVDF membrane surface, and then cysteine was covalent grafted onto the layer to improve the anti-biofouling property and hemocompatibility. The elementary composition of membrane surfaces was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
M M M Soares, R Ale-Rocha
Syneches from Brazilian biome of Caatinga were studied, two new species are described, Syneches atratus sp. nov. and Syneches limeirai sp. nov., and three species, Syneches annulipes Bezzi, 1909, Syneches moraballi Smith, 1963, and Syneches rafaeli Ale-Rocha & Vieira, 2008, are recorded for the biome. An identification key for the species of Syneches from Caatinga biome is provided.
March 13, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Andrew D Richardson, Koen Hufkens, Tom Milliman, Donald M Aubrecht, Min Chen, Josh M Gray, Miriam R Johnston, Trevor F Keenan, Stephen T Klosterman, Margaret Kosmala, Eli K Melaas, Mark A Friedl, Steve Frolking
Vegetation phenology controls the seasonality of many ecosystem processes, as well as numerous biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. Phenology is also highly sensitive to climate change and variability. Here we present a series of datasets, together consisting of almost 750 years of observations, characterizing vegetation phenology in diverse ecosystems across North America. Our data are derived from conventional, visible-wavelength, automated digital camera imagery collected through the PhenoCam network. For each archived image, we extracted RGB (red, green, blue) colour channel information, with means and other statistics calculated across a region-of-interest (ROI) delineating a specific vegetation type...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Data
Anushree Sanyal, Jonathan Lenoir, Carmel O'Neill, Frederic Dubois, Guillaume Decocq
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Nearly all seed plants rely on stored seed reserves before photosynthesis can commence. Natural selection for seed oil traits must have occurred over 319 million years of evolution since the first seed plant ancestor. Accounting for the biogeographic distribution of seed oil traits is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in seed plants. However, the evolution of seed oils is poorly understood. We provide evidence of the adaptive nature of seed oil traits at the intraspecific and interspecific levels in Brassicaceae-an oilseed-rich and economically important plant family...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Daniel R Garza, Marcel C van Verk, Martijn A Huynen, Bas E Dutilh
The environmental metabolome and metabolic potential of microorganisms are dominant and essential factors shaping microbial community composition. Recent advances in genome annotation and systems biology now allow us to semiautomatically reconstruct genome-scale metabolic models (GSMMs) of microorganisms based on their genome sequence1 . Next, growth of these models in a defined metabolic environment can be predicted in silico, mechanistically linking the metabolic fluxes of individual microbial populations to the community dynamics...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Komal Anjum, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Syed Qamar Abbas, Seema Patel, Ishrat Khan, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Najeeb Akhter, Syed Shams-Ul-Hassan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sahar Safaei, Behzad Baradaran, Majid Farshdousti Hagh, Mohammad Reza Alivand, Mehdi Talebi, Tohid Gharibi, Saeed Solali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chuyun Cui, Yufeng Li, Dongrong Geng, Hui Zhang, Changde Jin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of evidence-based nursing (EBN) on the development of critical thinking for nursing students. DESIGN: A systematic literature review of original studies on randomized controlled trials was conducted. DATA SOURCES: The relevant randomized controlled trials were retrieved from multiple electronic databases including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Chinese BioMed Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang Database...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Zhala Meran, Alexandros Besinis, Tracy De Peralta, Richard D Handy
Patients with facial prostheses suffer from yeast, Candida albicans, infections. This study aimed to determine the biocompatibility and antifungal properties of silicone facial prostheses coated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in vitro. Medical grade silicone discs were coated with 5 and 50 mg L-1 dispersions of either Ag NPs or AgNO3 . Coatings were fully characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The biocompatibility was examined using human dermal fibroblasts (Hs68), whereas antifungal efficacy was tested against C...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Nicholas Dusek, Austin J Hewitt, Kaycie N Schmidt, Peter W Bergholz
E. coli are deposited into soil with feces and exhibit subsequent population decline with concomitant environmental selection. Environmentally persistent strains exhibit longer survival times during this selection process and some strains have adapted to soil and sediments. A georeferenced collection of E. coli isolates was developed comprising 3,329 isolates from 1,428 soil samples that were collected from a landscape spanning the transition from the grasslands to the eastern deciduous forest biomes. The isolate collection and sample database were analyzed together to discover how land cover, site characteristics and soil chemistry influence the prevalence of cultivable E...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ayako Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kajiya, Nana Yamamoto-M, Tsukasa Yanagi, Ayaka Imamura, Koji Okabe, Tadao Fukushima, Hirofumi Kido, Jun Ohno
Scaffolds implanted into bone defect sites must achieve optimal biodegradation rates while appropriately filling the void as new bone formation progresses. We recently developed a unique biomaterial consisting of salmon deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and protamine, which can be used as an osteoconductive scaffold for tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the degradation rate of the scaffold affects bone regeneration. We examined the relationships between the degradation rate of salmon DNA scaffolds and new bone formation using a rat skin flank subcutaneous model and rat calvarial defect model...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Amanda M O Dal Piva, Ronaldo L A Carvalho, Aline L Lima, Marco A Bottino, Renata M Melo, Luiz Felipe Valandro
This study evaluated the influence of silica coating, primer type and its heat treatment on bond strength durability between resin cement and an yttrium-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Eighty (80) Y-TZP blocks were allocated into 16 groups considering four factors: silica coating (without and with); type of primer (RelyX Ceramic Primer, a silane-based primer; Single Bond Universal, a universal MDP-based primer); heat treatment of the primer (without and with); aging (without and with)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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