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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324174/combining-climatic-and-soil-properties-better-predicts-covers-of-brazilian-biomes
#1
Daniel M Arruda, Elpídio I Fernandes-Filho, Ricardo R C Solar, Carlos E G R Schaefer
Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km(2) for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004)...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317109/what-if-plant-functional-types-conceal-species-specific-responses-to-environment-study-on-arctic-shrub-communities
#2
Patrick Saccone, Kristiina Hoikka, Risto Virtanen
Plant functional types (PFT) are increasingly used to outline biome-scale plant-environment relationship and predict global change effects on community structure. However, the potentials and limitations of the PFT approach have to be tested as they can be less sensitive than trait-based or species-level approaches. Here, we compare the responses of deciduous-evergreen shrub PFTs and species to gradual snow-related environmental conditions by also considering effects of aboveground architectural traits and neighboring shrubs...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315877/the-value-of-lncrna-hulc-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-survival-of-cancer-outcome-a-meta-analysis
#3
Xian Chen, Limin Lun, Huabin Hou, Runhua Tian, Haiping Zhang, Yunyuan Zhang
AIMS: Growing evidence from recent studies has shown that lncRNA HULC plays a role in the development of multiple carcinomas. This meta-analysis aimed to analyze available data to identify the prognostic value of HULC in multiple tumors. METHODS: A systematic search was performed by using PubMed (medline), Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Springer, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, Wanfang, Weipu, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) computerized databases from inception to Nov 30, 2016...
March 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315064/first-evidence-of-pezoloma-ericae-in-australia-using-the-biomes-of-australia-soil-environments-base-to-explore-the-australian-phylogeography-of-known-ericoid-mycorrhizal-and-root-associated-fungi
#4
David J Midgley, Paul Greenfield, Andrew Bissett, Nai Tran-Dinh
The prominent ericoid mycorrhizal fungus, Pezoloma ericae, has not been found in Australia to date. In the present study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data from the Biomes of Australia Soil Environments (BASE) was searched for evidence of P. ericae and other known ericoid mycorrhizal and root-associated taxa. ITS sequences with high identity to P. ericae, Meliniomyces bicolor, Meliniomyces variabilis, Cairneyella sp. 2, Cadophora finlandica and Woollsia mycorrhizal fungus VI were identified and their distribution in Australia visualised...
March 17, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306194/electrospun-biodegradable-microfibers-induce-new-collagen-formation-in-a-rat-abdominal-wall-defect-model-a-possible-treatment-for-pelvic-floor-repair
#5
Cecilie Glindtvad, Menglin Chen, Jens Vinge Nygaard, Lise Wogensen, Axel Forman, Carl Christian Danielsen, Mehmet Berat Taskin, Karl-Erik Andersson, Susanne Maigaard Axelsen
Half of the female population over age 50 years will experience pelvic organ prolapse. We suggest a new approach based on tissue engineering principles to functionally reconstruct the anatomical structures of the pelvic floor. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanical performance and effect on collagen and elastin production of a degradable mesh releasing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Implantation of biodegradable mesh with or without bFGF in their core has been conducted in 40 rats in an abdominal wall defect model...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306190/natural-polymeric-hydrogel-evaluation-for-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#6
Beth E Pollot, Christopher R Rathbone, Joseph C Wenke, Teja Guda
Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to repair/regenerate after most types of injuries, there is limited regeneration after volumetric muscle loss (VML). A number of scaffold materials have been used in the development of grafts to treat VML, however, there is still a need to better understand the most appropriate material with regards to its ability to maintain mechanical integrity while also supporting myogenesis. Five commonly used natural polymeric materials (Collagen I, Agarose, Alginate, Fibrin, and Collagen Chitosan) used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering grafts were evaluated for their mechanical properties and myogenic capacity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306184/physical-and-biological-properties-of-a-novel-anti-adhesion-material-made-of-thermally-cross-linked-gelatin-film-investigation-of-the-usefulness-as-anti-adhesion-material
#7
Tsunehito Horii, Hiroyuki Tsujimoto, Hiroe Miyamoto, Koki Yamanaka, Shota Tanaka, Hiroko Torii, Yuki Ozamoto, Hideki Takamori, Eiji Nakamachi, Yoshito Ikada, Akeo Hagiwara
To create more useful, effective and safer anti-adhesion materials, we developed a thermally cross-linked gelatin film. In this study, we examined the physical properties of the film such as the physical strength and the adhesiveness to reveal the handling properties and biological properties, such as the anti-adhesion effect, the influence on cell proliferation, and the cytotoxicity to reveal the anti-adhesion mechanism, especially in comparison with the conventional hyaluronic acid and carboxymethylcellulose film (the conventional film)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296198/mechanical-and-microstructural-analysis-of-a-radially-expandable-vascular-conduit-for-neonatal-and-pediatric-cardiovascular-surgery
#8
Abigail E Loneker, Samuel K Luketich, Doug Bernstein, Arush Kalra, Alan W Nugent, Antonio D'Amore, Denver M Faulk
In pediatric cardiovascular surgery, there is a significant need for vascular prostheses that have the potential to grow with the patient following implantation. Current clinical options consist of nonexpanding conduits, requiring repeat surgeries as the patient outgrows the device. To address this issue, PECA Labs has developed a novel ePTFE vascular conduit with the capability of being radially expanded via balloon catheterization. In the described study, a systematic characterization and comparison of two proprietary ePTFE expandable conduits was conducted...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295840/climatic-changes-can-drive-the-loss-of-genetic-diversity-in-a-neotropical-savanna-tree-species
#9
Jacqueline S Lima, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Rosane G Collevatti
The high rates of future climatic changes, compared with the rates reported for past changes, may hamper species adaptation to new climates or the tracking of suitable conditions, resulting in significant loss of genetic diversity. Trees are dominant species in many biomes and because they are long-lived, they may not be able to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Here, we coupled Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and genetic simulations to forecast the effects of climatic changes on the genetic diversity and the structure of genetic clusters...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291601/molecular-detection-of-hepatozoon-spp-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-mammals-in-southern-pantanal-brazil-with-implications-in-the-transmission-route
#10
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Marina Pugnaghi Fernandes, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, João Bosco Campos, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Barros Battesti, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated...
February 22, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291228/high-resolution-data-on-the-impact-of-warming-on-soil-co2-efflux-from-an-asian-monsoon-forest
#11
Naishen Liang, Munemasa Teramoto, Masahiro Takagi, Jiye Zeng
This paper describes a project for evaluation of global warming's impacts on soil carbon dynamics in Japanese forest ecosystems. We started a soil warming experiment in late 2008 in a 55-year-old evergreen broad-leaved forest at the boundary between the subtropical and warm-temperate biomes in southern Japan. We used infrared carbon-filament heat lamps to increase soil temperature by about 2.5 °C at a depth of 5 cm and continuously recorded CO2 emission from the soil surface using a multichannel automated chamber system...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289774/an-estimated-400-800-million-tons-of-prey-are-annually-killed-by-the-global-spider-community
#12
Martin Nyffeler, Klaus Birkhofer
Spiders have been suspected to be one of the most important groups of natural enemies of insects worldwide. To document the impact of the global spider community as insect predators, we present estimates of the biomass of annually killed insect prey. Our estimates assessed with two different methods suggest that the annual prey kill of the global spider community is in the range of 400-800 million metric tons (fresh weight), with insects and collembolans composing >90% of the captured prey. This equals approximately 1‰ of the global terrestrial net primary production...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284090/ancient-dissolved-methane-in-inland-waters-revealed-by-a-new-collection-method-at-low-field-concentrations-for-radiocarbon-14-c-analysis
#13
Joshua F Dean, Michael F Billett, Callum Murray, Mark H Garnett
Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas that plays a prominent role in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, and is released to the atmosphere from freshwater systems in numerous biomes globally. Radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis can indicate both the age and source of CH4 in natural environments. In contrast to CH4 present in bubbles released from aquatic sediments (ebullition), dissolved CH4 in lakes and streams can be present in low concentrations compared to carbon dioxide (CO2), and therefore obtaining sufficient aquatic CH4 for radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis remains a major technical challenge...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281687/albedo-feedbacks-to-future-climate-via-climate-change-impacts-on-dryland-biocrusts
#14
William A Rutherford, Thomas H Painter, Scott Ferrenberg, Jayne Belnap, Gregory S Okin, Cody Flagg, Sasha C Reed
Drylands represent the planet's largest terrestrial biome and evidence suggests these landscapes have large potential for creating feedbacks to future climate. Recent studies also indicate that dryland ecosystems are responding markedly to climate change. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) ‒ soil surface communities of lichens, mosses, and/or cyanobacteria ‒ comprise up to 70% of dryland cover and help govern fundamental ecosystem functions, including soil stabilization and carbon uptake. Drylands are expected to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation regimes, and such alterations may impact biocrust communities by promoting rapid mortality of foundational species...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281644/prevalence-and-magnitude-of-groundwater-use-by-vegetation-a-global-stable-isotope-meta-analysis
#15
Jaivime Evaristo, Jeffrey J McDonnell
The role of groundwater as a resource in sustaining terrestrial vegetation is widely recognized. But the global prevalence and magnitude of groundwater use by vegetation is unknown. Here we perform a meta-analysis of plant xylem water stable isotope (δ(2)H and δ(18)O, n = 7367) information from 138 published papers - representing 251 genera, and 414 species of angiosperms (n = 376) and gymnosperms (n = 38). We show that the prevalence of groundwater use by vegetation (defined as the number of samples out of a universe of plant samples reported to have groundwater contribution to xylem water) is 37% (95% confidence interval, 28-46%)...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281100/helminth-parasitism-in-two-closely-related-south-african-rodents-abundance-prevalence-species-richness-and-impinging-factors
#16
Andrea Spickett, Kerstin Junker, Boris R Krasnov, Voitto Haukisalmi, Sonja Matthee
We investigated patterns of helminth infection in two closely related rodents (social Rhabdomys pumilio occurring mainly in xeric habitats and solitary R. dilectus occurring mainly in mesic habitats) at 20 localities in different biomes of South Africa and asked if between-species differences were mainly caused by difference in sociality or difference in environmental conditions of their respective habitats. Helminths recovered from the gastrointestinal tract totalled 11 nematode and 5 cestode species from R...
March 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277624/plant-phylogeny-as-a-window-on-the-evolution-of-hyperdiversity-in-the-tropical-rainforest-biome
#17
REVIEW
Wolf L Eiserhardt, Thomas L P Couvreur, William J Baker
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. References SUMMARY: Tropical rainforest (TRF) is the most species-rich terrestrial biome on Earth, harbouring just under half of the world's plant species in c. 7% of the land surface. Phylogenetic trees provide important insights into mechanisms underpinning TRF hyperdiversity that are complementary to those obtained from the fossil record. Phylogenetic studies of TRF plant diversity have mainly focused on whether this biome is an evolutionary 'cradle' or 'museum', emphasizing speciation and extinction rates...
March 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276202/safety-osseointegration-and-bone-ingrowth-analysis-of-pmma-based-porous-cement-on-animal-metaphyseal-bone-defect-model
#18
Bruno Cimatti, Mariana Avelino Dos Santos, Maria Sol Brassesco, Laura Tiemi Okano, Wendell Monteiro Barboza, Marcello Henrique Nogueira-Barbosa, Edgard Eduard Engel
Bone defects created after curettage of benign bone tumors are customarily filled with solid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or other bone substitutes. In this study, we depicted a porous PMMA-based cement (produced by mixing sodium bicarbonate and citric acid) and evaluated the prospect of its clinic application. Cement samples were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry and its cytotoxicity evaluated in fibroblast cultures. Implantation in rabbits allowed the histologic analysis of bone, kidneys, and liver for toxicity and coagulation tests, and MRI images for hemostasis evaluation...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276196/preparation-and-characterization-of-alloys-of-the-ti-15mo-nb-system-for-biomedical-applications
#19
J R S Martins Júnior, A A Matos, R C Oliveira, M A R Buzalaf, I Costa, L A Rocha, C R Grandini
In the development of new metallic biomaterials, the Ti-15Mo alloy has great prominence because of its excellent corrosion resistance and good combination of mechanical properties. In this study, the element niobium was added to the Ti-15Mo alloy, forming the Ti-15Mo-Nb system for the purpose of improving their properties and promoting its application as a biomaterial. These alloys are very promising to use as biomedical implants, because they integrate a new class of titanium alloys without the presence of aluminum and vanadium, which may cause cytotoxic effects...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276193/assessment-of-corrosion-in-retrieved-spine-implants
#20
V C Panagiotopoulou, H S Hothi, H A Anwar, S Molloy, H Noordeen, K Rezajooi, J Sutcliffe, J A Skinner, A J Hart
Recently the use of dissimilar metals in spine instrumentation has increased, especially in the case of adult deformities, where rods made from Cobalt Chrome alloys (CoCr) are used with Titanium (Ti) screws. The use of dissimilar metals increases the risk of galvanic corrosion and patients have required revision spine surgery due to severe metallosis that may have been caused by corrosion. We aimed to assess the presence of corrosion in spine implant retrievals from constructs with two types of material combinations: similar (Ti/Ti) and dissimilar (CoCr/Ti)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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