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Brown adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229360/thyroid-hormone-acting-via-tr%C3%AE-induces-expression-of-browning-genes-in-mouse-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue
#1
Richard C Lindsey, Subburaman Mohan
PURPOSE: Mutant hypothyroid mouse models have recently shown that thyroid hormone is critical for skeletal development during an important prepubertal growth period. Additionally, thyroid hormone negatively regulates total body fat, consistent with the well-established effects of thyroid hormone on energy and fat metabolism. Since bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate into both adipocytes and osteoblasts and a relationship between bone marrow adipogenesis and osteogenesis has been predicted, we hypothesized thyroid hormone deficiency during the postnatal growth period increases marrow adiposity in mice...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223294/the-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-is-dispensable-for-browning-of-adipose-tissues
#2
Jasper M A de Jong, René T F Wouters, Nathalie Boulet, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard, Natasa Petrovic
Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. To maximally utilize their functional potential, further understanding is required about their identities and their functional differences. Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218988/toxicological-effects-during-and-following-persistent-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-healthy-euglycaemic-rats
#3
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Line O Berthelsen, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a "peakless" pharmacokinetic profile have been developed to improve efficacy, safety and convenience for diabetic patients. During non-clinical development, according to regulatory guidelines, these analogues are tested in healthy euglycaemic rats rendering them persistently hypoglycaemic. Little is known about the effect of persistent (24 hr/day) insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) in rats, complicating interpretation of results in pre-clinical studies with new longer-acting insulin analogues...
February 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214707/shortcuts-to-a-functional-adipose-tissue-the-role-of-small-non-coding-rnas
#4
REVIEW
Bruna B Brandão, Beatriz A Guerra, Marcelo A Mori
Metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes are a major public health issue worldwide. These diseases are often linked to a dysfunctional adipose tissue. Fat is a large, heterogenic, pleiotropic and rather complex tissue. It is found in virtually all cavities of the human body, shows unique plasticity among tissues, and harbors many cell types in addition to its main functional unit - the adipocyte. Adipose tissue function varies depending on the localization of the fat depot, the cell composition of the tissue and the energy status of the organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211464/molecular-basis-of-abhd5-lipolysis-activation
#5
Matthew A Sanders, Huamei Zhang, Ljiljana Mladenovic, Yan Yuan Tseng, James G Granneman
Alpha-beta hydrolase domain-containing 5 (ABHD5), the defective gene in human Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, is a highly conserved regulator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipolysis that plays important roles in metabolism, tumor progression, viral replication, and skin barrier formation. The structural determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation, however, are unknown. We performed comparative evolutionary analysis and structural modeling of ABHD5 and ABHD4, a functionally distinct paralog that diverged from ABHD5 ~500 million years ago, to identify determinants of ABHD5 lipolysis activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196906/a-high-throughput-image-based-screen-to-identify-kinases-involved-in-brown-adipocyte-development
#6
Aliki Perdikari, Elisabeth Kulenkampff, Carla Rudigier, Heike Neubauer, Gerd Luippold, Norbert Redemann, Christian Wolfrum
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for thermogenesis that is not associated with shivering through the process of converting chemical energy into heat through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the mitochondria. Thus, expanding or activating BAT could be a potential tool against obesity. To analyze the effect of kinase signaling on brown adipocyte formation, a process that describes the acquisition of the ability to dissipate energy as heat, we performed lentiviral-mediated short hairpin knockdown or used pharmacological inhibitors in a high-content and high-throughput in vitro image-based screen...
February 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191637/mammary-alveolar-epithelial-cells-convert-to-brown-adipocytes-in-post-lactating-mice
#7
Antonio Giordano, Jessica Perugini, David M Kristensen, Loris Sartini, Andrea Frontini, Shingo Kajimura, Karsten Kristiansen, Saverio Cinti
During pregnancy and lactation, subcutaneous white adipocytes in the mouse mammary gland transdifferentiate reversibly to milk-secreting epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that in the post-lactating mammary gland interscapular multilocular adipocytes found close to the mammary alveoli contain milk protein granules. Use of the Cre-loxP recombination system allowed showing that the involuting mammary gland of whey acidic protein-Cre/R26R mice, whose secretory alveolar cells express the lacZ gene during pregnancy, contains some X-Gal-stained and uncoupling protein 1-positive interscapular multilocular adipocytes...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186086/hoxc10-suppresses-browning-of-white-adipose-tissues
#8
Yvonne Ng, Shi-Xiong Tan, Sook Yoong Chia, Hwee Yim Angeline Tan, Sin Yee Gun, Lei Sun, Wanjin Hong, Weiping Han
Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes...
February 10, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181539/dissecting-the-brown-adipogenic-regulatory-network-using-integrative-genomics
#9
Rachana N Pradhan, Johannes J Bues, Vincent Gardeux, Petra C Schwalie, Daniel Alpern, Wanze Chen, Julie Russeil, Sunil K Raghav, Bart Deplancke
Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling, which makes them attractive therapeutic targets to tackle obesity. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying brown adipogenesis are still poorly understood. To address this, we profiled the transcriptome and chromatin state during mouse brown fat cell differentiation, revealing extensive gene expression changes and chromatin remodeling, especially during the first day post-differentiation. To identify putatively causal regulators, we performed transcription factor binding site overrepresentation analyses in active chromatin regions and prioritized factors based on their expression correlation with the bona-fide brown adipogenic marker Ucp1 across multiple mouse and human datasets...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178239/eprs-is-a-critical-mtorc1-s6k1-effector-that-influences-adiposity-in-mice
#10
Abul Arif, Fulvia Terenzi, Alka A Potdar, Jie Jia, Jessica Sacks, Arnab China, Dalia Halawani, Kommireddy Vasu, Xiaoxia Li, J Mark Brown, Jie Chen, Sara C Kozma, George Thomas, Paul L Fox
Metabolic pathways that contribute to adiposity and ageing are activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) axis. However, known mTORC1-S6K1 targets do not account for observed loss-of-function phenotypes, suggesting that there are additional downstream effectors of this pathway. Here we identify glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS) as an mTORC1-S6K1 target that contributes to adiposity and ageing. Phosphorylation of EPRS at Ser999 by mTORC1-S6K1 induces its release from the aminoacyl tRNA multisynthetase complex, which is required for execution of noncanonical functions of EPRS beyond protein synthesis...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164456/a-systems-perspective-on-brown-adipogenesis-and-metabolic-activation
#11
REVIEW
R N Pradhan, M Zachara, B Deplancke
Brown adipocytes regulate energy expenditure via mitochondrial uncoupling. This makes these fat cells attractive therapeutic targets to tackle the burgeoning issue of obesity, which itself is coupled to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and fatty liver disease. Recent research has revealed a complex network underlying brown fat cell differentiation and thermogenic activation, involving secreted factors, signal transduction, metabolic pathways and gene regulatory components. Given that brown fat is now reported to be present in adult humans, it is desirable to harness the knowledge from each network module to design effective therapeutic strategies...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154348/promoting-effect-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-on-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#12
Rieko Tanaka-Yachi, Chie Takahashi-Muto, Kazuya Adachi, Yukina Tanimura, Yoshinori Aoki, Taisuke Koike, Chikako Kiyose
Thermogenic adipocytes that are distinct from classical brown adipocytes (beige adipocytes) were identified in 2012. Beige adipocytes are also called inducible brown adipocytes because their differentiation is induced by a number of physiological stimuli, including adrenaline or myokines. PPARγ is the master regulator of adipogenesis and promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation. A PPARγ agonist also promotes thermogenic adipocyte differentiation in mouse white adipose tissues. The vitamin E analog α-tocopherol promotes PPARγ expression and induces mRNA expression of target genes...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145475/diffuse-optical-spectroscopy-and-imaging-to-detect-and-quantify-adipose-tissue-browning
#13
U S Dinish, Chi Lok Wong, Sandhya Sriram, Wee Kiat Ong, Ghayathri Balasundaram, Shigeki Sugii, Malini Olivo
Adipose (fat) tissue is a complex metabolic organ that is highly active and essential. In contrast to white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) is deemed metabolically beneficial because of its ability to burn calories through heat production. The conversion of WAT-resident adipocytes to "beige" or "brown-like" adipocytes has recently attracted attention. However, it typically takes a few days to analyze and confirm this browning of WAT through conventional molecular, biochemical, or histological methods...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134973/fucosterol-isolated-from-ecklonia-stolonifera-inhibits-adipogenesis-through-modulation-of-foxo1-pathway-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#14
Ji-Hyun Lee, Hyun Ah Jung, Min Jae Kang, Jae Sue Choi, Gun-Do Kim
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fucosterol on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Fucosterol, isolated from brown algae, Ecklonia stolonifera. We investigated the levels of lipid accumulation using Oil Red O staining. We conducted Western blot analysis to investigate regulatory effects of fucosterol on expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), forkhead box protein O 1 (FoxO1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
March 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131896/quercetin-a-functional-compound-of-onion-peel-remodels-white-adipocytes-to-brown-like-adipocytes
#15
Sang Gil Lee, John S Parks, Hye Won Kang
Adipocyte browning is a promising strategy for obesity prevention. Using onion-peel-derived extracts and their bioactive compounds, we demonstrate that onion peel, a by-product of onion, can change the characteristics of white adipocytes to those of brown-like adipocytes in the white adipose tissue of mice and 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of the following brown adipose tissue-specific genes was increased in the retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 0.5% onion-peel-extract-fed mice: PR domain-containing 16, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, uncoupling protein 1, fibroblast growth factor 21 and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128199/a-fabp-mediates-adaptive-thermogenesis-by-promoting-intracellular-activation-of-thyroid-hormones-in-brown-adipocytes
#16
Lingling Shu, Ruby L C Hoo, Xiaoping Wu, Yong Pan, Ida P C Lee, Lai Yee Cheong, Stefan R Bornstein, Xianglu Rong, Jiao Guo, Aimin Xu
The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128075/under-the-surface-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology
#17
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandžić Jakšić, Danijela Grizelj
The global obesity epidemic enhanced contemporary interest in adipose tissue biology. Two structurally and functionally distinct depots, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), are spread throughout the body. Their distribution was recognized to be a major determinant of metabolic risk. Unlike VAT, SAT showed some protective endocrine and inflammatory features that might explain the occurrence of obese but metabolically healthy persons. The unique developmental gene expression signature, angiogenesis, and adipogenic potential of SAT determines its growth ability under the positive energy balance...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125644/srf-and-mkl1-independently-inhibit-brown-adipogenesis
#18
Matthias Rosenwald, Vissarion Efthymiou, Lennart Opitz, Christian Wolfrum
Active brown adipose tissue is responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals which affects energy homeostasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying this activation as well as the formation and activation of brite adipocytes have gained increasing interest in recent years as they might be utilized to regulate systemic metabolism. We show here that the transcriptional regulators SRF and MKL1 both act as repressors of brown adipogenesis. Loss-of-function of these transcription factors leads to a significant induction of brown adipocyte differentiation, increased levels of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes as well as increased respiratory function, while SRF induction exerts the opposite effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123941/conserved-function-of-the-long-noncoding-rna-blnc1-in-brown-adipocyte-differentiation
#19
Lin Mi, Xu-Yun Zhao, Siming Li, Gongshe Yang, Jiandie D Lin
OBJECTIVE: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of diverse biological processes. Recent work has demonstrated that the inducible lncRNA Blnc1 stimulates thermogenic gene expression during brown and beige adipocyte differentiation. However, whether Blnc1 is functionally conserved in humans has not been explored. In addition, the molecular basis of the Blnc1 ribonucleoprotein complex in thermogenic gene induction remains incompletely understood. The aims of the current study were to: i) investigate functional conservation of Blnc1 in mice and humans and ii) elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which Blnc1 controls the thermogenic gene program in brown adipocytes...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123939/global-ip6k1-deletion-enhances-temperature-modulated-energy-expenditure-which-reduces-carbohydrate-and-fat-induced-weight-gain
#20
Qingzhang Zhu, Sarbani Ghoshal, Richa Tyagi, Anutosh Chakraborty
OBJECTIVE: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks) regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO) or adipocyte-specific (AdKO) deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO) at ambient (23 °C) temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE). Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C) temperature, high fat diet (HFD)-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus, it is critical to determine to what extent the lean phenotype of global IP6K1-KO mice depends on environmental temperature...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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