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Brown adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684558/effects-of-exercise-on-brown-and-beige-adipocytes
#1
REVIEW
Revati S Dewal, Kristin I Stanford
Physical exercise leads to beneficial effects in numerous tissues and organ systems and offers protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated the role of exercise on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT), and have indicated marked adaptations to each tissue with exercise. Studies investigating the effects of exercise on BAT have produced conflicting results, with some showing an increase in the thermogenic activity of BAT and some demonstrating a decrease in the thermogenic activity of BAT...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678576/aging-impairs-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-the-reduced-expression-of-sirtuin-1
#2
Vuong Cat Khanh, Amin Firman Zulkifli, Chiho Tokunaga, Toshiharu Yamashita, Yuji Hiramatsu, Osamu Ohneda
In the body, different types of adipose tissue perform different functions, with brown and beige adipose tissues playing unique roles in dissipating energy. Throughout life, adipocytes are regenerated from progenitors, and this process is impaired by aging. One of the progenitors of adipocytes are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have recently become a promising tool for stem cell therapy. However, whether or not aging impairs the brown/beige adipocyte differentiation of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) remains unclear...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675584/brown-adipokines
#3
Francesc Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions. Peptidic and non-peptidic molecules, including miRNAs and lipids, are constituents of brown adipokines. Brown adipose tissue remodeling to meet thermogenic needs is dependent on the secretory properties of brown/beige adipocytes. The association between brown fat activity and a healthy metabolic profile, in relation to energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis, is influenced by the endocrine actions of brown adipokines...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673115/the-nuclear-retinoid-related-orphan-receptor-ror%C3%AE-controls-circadian-thermogenic-programming-in-white-fat-depots
#4
Chloé Monnier, Martine Auclair, Gala Le Cam, Marie-Pauline Garcia, Bénédicte Antoine
The RORα-deficient staggerer (sg/sg) mouse is lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Its thermogenic activity was shown to be increased not only in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) where UCP1 content was enhanced, however, without Prdm16 coexpression. Our observation of partial multilocular lipid morphology of WAT in sg/sg mice both in the inguinal and perigonadal sites led us to focus on the phenotype of both fat depots. Because RORα is a nuclear factor acting in the clock machinery, we looked at the circadian expression profile of genes involved in thermogenesis and browning in WAT and BAT depots of sg/sg and WT mice, through real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669585/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-promotes-destabilization-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-by-regulating-gm-csf-paracrine
#5
Ru Ying, Sheng-Wei Li, Jia-Yuan Chen, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ying Yang, Zhen-Jie Gu, Yang-Xin Chen, Jing-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) accelerates plaque progression and increases cardiovascular risk. We tested the hypothesis that PVAT contributed to plaque vulnerability and investigated whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in PVAT played an important role in vulnerable plaque. METHODS: We transplanted thoracic aortic PVAT or subcutaneous adipose tissue as a control, from donor mice to carotid arteries of recipient apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/- ) mice after removing carotid artery collar placed for 6 weeks...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668464/effects-of-%C3%AE-prazosin-and-yohimbine-and-%C3%AE-receptors-activity-on-camp-generation-and-ucp1-gene-expression-in-brown-adipocytes
#6
Hirendra M Biswas
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. In the literature, the activity of α-adrenoreceptors is less documented, and their functions still remain puzzling. The present investigation has been undertaken to understand α-adrenoreceptors' activity and their relation between uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mRNA expression and cyclic AMP (cAMP) generation in BAT. METHODS: BAT precursor cells from young mice were grown in culture...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667012/bone-marrow-adipocyte-developmental-origin-and-biology
#7
REVIEW
Joanna Bukowska, Trivia Frazier, Stanley Smith, Theodore Brown, Robert Bender, Michelle McCarthy, Xiying Wu, Bruce A Bunnell, Jeffrey M Gimble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots...
April 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663549/ostreolysin-induces-browning-of-adipocytes-and-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis
#8
Lili Nimri, Katerina Staikin, Irena Peri, Einav Yehuda-Shnaidman, Betty Schwartz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with all features of the metabolic syndrome. Deposition of excess triglycerides in liver cells, a hallmark of NAFLD, is associated with loss of insulin sensitivity. Ostreolysin (Oly) is a 15-kDa fungal protein known to interact with cholesterol-enriched raft-like membrane domains. We aim to test whether a recombinant version of Oly (rOly) can induce functional changes in vitro in adipocytes or in vivo in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661693/phosphorylation-of-beta-3-adrenergic-receptor-at-serine-247-by-erk-map-kinase-drives-lipolysis-in-obese-adipocytes
#9
Shangyu Hong, Wei Song, Peter-James H Zushin, Bingyang Liu, Mark P Jedrychowski, Amir I Mina, Zhaoming Deng, Dimitrije Cabarkapa, Jessica A Hall, Colin J Palmer, Hassan Aliakbarian, John Szpyt, Steven P Gygi, Ali Tavakkoli, Lydia Lynch, Norbert Perrimon, Alexander S Banks
OBJECTIVE: The inappropriate release of free fatty acids from obese adipose tissue stores has detrimental effects on metabolism, but key molecular mechanisms controlling FFA release from adipocytes remain undefined. Although obesity promotes systemic inflammation, we find activation of the inflammation-associated Mitogen Activated Protein kinase ERK occurs specifically in adipose tissues of obese mice, and provide evidence that adipocyte ERK activation may explain exaggerated adipose tissue lipolysis observed in obesity...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657031/warming-induces-significant-reprogramming-of-beige-but-not-brown-adipocyte-cellular-identity
#10
Hyun Cheol Roh, Linus T Y Tsai, Mengle Shao, Danielle Tenen, Yachen Shen, Manju Kumari, Anna Lyubetskaya, Christopher Jacobs, Brian Dawes, Rana K Gupta, Evan D Rosen
Beige and brown adipocytes generate heat in response to reductions in ambient temperature. When warmed, both beige and brown adipocytes exhibit morphological "whitening," but it is unknown whether or to what extent this represents a true shift in cellular identity. Using cell-type-specific profiling in vivo, we uncover a unique paradigm of temperature-dependent epigenomic plasticity of beige, but not brown, adipocytes, with conversion from a brown to a white chromatin state. Despite this profound shift in cellular identity, warm whitened beige adipocytes retain an epigenomic memory of prior cold exposure defined by an array of poised enhancers that prime thermogenic genes for rapid response during a second bout of cold exposure...
April 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651293/homeobox-a5-promotes-white-adipose-tissue-browning-through-inhibition-of-the-tenascin-c-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-inflammatory-signaling-in-mice
#11
Weina Cao, Hongtao Huang, Tianyu Xia, Chenlong Liu, Saeed Muhammad, Chao Sun
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid increase in systemic inflammatory factors. As adipose tissue is a key contributor to the inflammatory response to numerous metabolic stimuli, it is important to understand the mechanism behind the LPS-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT). Homeobox a5 (Hoxa5) is an important transcription factor, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and its mRNA expression is increased at cold exposure in mice. So far, the function of Hoxa5 in adipose tissue browning has been poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650773/cannabinoid-type-1-receptors-are-upregulated-during-acute-activation-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#12
Minna Lahesmaa, Olof Eriksson, Thorsten Gnad, Vesa Oikonen, Marco Bucci, Jussi Hirvonen, Kalle Koskensalo, Jarmo Teuho, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Salla Lahdenpohja, Mueez U Din, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Alexander Pfeifer, Kirsi A Virtanen, Pirjo Nuutila
Activating brown adipose tissue (BAT) could provide a potential approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease in humans. Obesity is associated with up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and blocking the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) has been shown to cause weight loss and decrease cardiometabolic risk factors. These effects may partly be mediated via increased BAT metabolism, since there is evidence that CB1R antagonism activates BAT in rodents. To investigate the significance of CB1R in BAT function, we quantified the density of CB1R in human and rodent BAT using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [18 F]FMPEP- d 2 , and in parallel measured BAT activation with the glucose analogue [18 F]FDG...
April 12, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643769/the-role-of-physical-exercise-to-improve-the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-via-pomc-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Kellen C da Cruz Rodrigues, Rodrigo M Pereira, Thaís D P de Campos, Rodrigo F de Moura, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, José R Pauli, Michel B de Araújo, Leandro P de Moura
Obesity is a public health issue that affects more than 600 million adults worldwide. The disease is characterized by fat accumulation, mainly in the abdominal area. The human body is mainly composed of two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT); however, the browning process generates a different type of brown fat-like adipocyte in WAT, which similar to BAT has thermogenic capacity by activating UCP-1. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays an important role in WAT browning via POMC neurons, which are influenced by synergistic insulin and leptin signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629919/hibernoma-mimicking-atypical-lipomatous-tumor-64-cases-of-a-morphologically-distinct-subset
#14
Youssef Al Hmada, Inga-Marie Schaefer, Christopher D M Fletcher
Hibernoma is a benign adipocytic tumor with predilection for subcutaneous tissue of the thigh, upper trunk, and neck of middle-aged adults. 11q13 rearrangement resulting in MEN1/AIP codeletion is characteristic. Hibernomas are composed, in varying proportions, of brown fat cells, mature adipocytes, and microvacuolated lipoblast-like cells. Examples containing predominantly multivacuolated lipoblast-like cells are uncommon and distinction from atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT) is important for clinical management...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626186/de-novo-reconstruction-of-human-adipose-transcriptome-reveals-conserved-lncrnas-as-regulators-of-brown-adipogenesis
#15
Chunming Ding, Yen Ching Lim, Sook Yoong Chia, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Shaohai Xu, Kinyui Alice Lo, Yanling Zhao, Dewen Zhu, Zhihui Shan, Qingfeng Chen, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Dan Xu, Lei Sun
Obesity has emerged as an alarming health crisis due to its association with metabolic risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Recent work has demonstrated the multifaceted roles of lncRNAs in regulating mouse adipose development, but their implication in human adipocytes remains largely unknown. Here we present a catalog of 3149 adipose active lncRNAs, of which 909 are specifically detected in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by performing deep RNA-seq on adult subcutaneous, omental white adipose tissue and fetal BATs...
April 6, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620433/what-activates-thermogenesis-when-lipid-droplet-lipolysis-is-absent-in-brown-adipocytes
#16
Hyunsu Shin, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Liqing Yu
Cold exposure activates the sympathetic nervous system. It is generally thought that this sympathetic activation induces heat production by stimulating lipolysis of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) in brown adipocytes. However, this concept was not examined in vivo due to lack of appropriate animal models. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that LD lipolysis in brown adipocytes is not required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Our studies uncovered an essential role of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis in fueling thermogenesis during fasting...
April 5, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619877/the-estrogen-related-receptors-in-metabolism-and-cancer-newer-insights
#17
Harmit S Ranhotra
The eukaryotic nuclear receptors (NRs) super-family of transcriptional factors include the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) that have diverse roles in control of cellular energy balance, general metabolism, growth and development, immunity etc. Mouse knock-out models of specific ERR isoforms (ERRα, ERRβ and ERRγ) exhibit defects in several phenotypic traits. Newer findings indicate important roles of ERRs in the regulation of brown adipocyte tissue mitochondrial oxidative functions as well as metabolic control in association with hypoxia-inducible factors during cellular hypoxic state...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618935/metabolic-profiling-of-follistatin-overexpression-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-metabolic-diseases
#18
Rajan Singh, Shehla Pervin, Se-Jin Lee, Alan Kuo, Victor Grijalva, John David, Laurent Vergnes, Srinivasa T Reddy
Background: Follistatin (Fst) promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in adipose tissues. Methods: Abdominal fat volume (CT scan), glucose clearance (GTT test), and metabolomics analysis (mass spectrometry) of adipose tissues from Fst transgenic (Fst-Tg) and wild type (WT) control mice were analyzed. Oxygen consumption (Seahorse Analyzer) and lipidomics (gas chromatography) was analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. Results: Fst-Tg mice show significant decrease in abdominal fat content, increased glucose clearance, improved plasma lipid profiles and significant changes in several conventional metabolites compared to the WT mice...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617639/adipose-tissue-flexes-its-muscles
#19
Sven Enerbäck
How brown and beige adipocytes activate UCP1-dependent thermogenesis has been studied in great detail. In Cell Metabolism, Tharp et al. (2018) have recently added another interesting dimension to this by demonstrating that actinomyosin-mediated elasticity regulates the thermogenic capacity of UCP1+ adipocytes, opening up new ways by which UCP1-dependent thermogenesis can be stimulated.
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614883/bergamottin-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-weight-regulation-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#20
Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Dongwoo Nam, Jae-Young Um, Sang Hoon Jung, Kwang Seok Ahn
Obesity is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide, and the inhibition of adipogenesis is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for it. Bergamottin (BGM), a component of grapefruit juice, has been reported to regulate lipolysis. However, the physiological role of BGM in obesity has not been evaluated so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BGM on obesity in 3T3-L1 cells and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). BGM inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells along with a significant decrease in the lipid content by downregulating the expression of two critical adipogenic factors, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP[Formula: see text]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR[Formula: see text])...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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