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Brown adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908367/cell-proliferation-and-anti-apoptosis-essential-processes-for-recruitment-of-the-full-thermogenic-capacity-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Jan Nedergaard, Yanling Wang, Barbara Cannon
In mice living under normal animal house conditions, the brown adipocytes in classical brown adipose tissue depots are already essentially fully differentiated: UCP1 mRNA and UCP1 protein levels are practically saturated. This means that any further recruitment - in response to cold exposure or any other browning agent - does not result in significant augmentation of these parameters. This may easily be construed to indicate that classical brown adipose tissue cannot be further recruited. However, this is far from the case: the capacity for further recruitment instead lies in the ability of the tissue to increase the number of brown-fat cells, a remarkable and highly controlled physiological recruitment process...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902549/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-induced-by-the-%C3%A3-3-agonist-cl-316-243-after-local-and-systemic-treatment-pk-pd-relationship
#2
Wojciech Danysz, Yan Han, Fugang Li, Jim Nicoll, Philipp Buch, Thomas Hengl, Maarten Ruitenberg, Chris Parsons
Transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) to a brown adipose tissue-like (BAT-like) phenotype has emerged as an attractive approach against e.g. using g ß3 adrenergic receptor agonists. These could however, produce side-effects following systemic exposure. The present study explored the possibility of local use of CL-316,243 - a selective ß3 agonist - to circumvent this problem. Rats treated s.c. for 2 weeks (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) showed decreased inguinal fat pad (IFP) weight/volume, increased UCP-1 staining and expressed BAT-like features in H&E stained micrographs...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902456/neuregulin-4-is-an-angiogenic-factor-that-is-critically-involved-in-the-maintenance-of-adipose-tissue-vasculature
#3
Dhite Bayu Nugroho, Koji Ikeda, Agian Jeffilano Barinda, Donytra Arby Wardhana, Keiko Yagi, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Noriaki Emoto
Adipose tissue (AT) contains well-developed vascular networks. Pathological AT expansion often accompany the reduction in AT blood vessels, which further exacerbates adipocyte dysfunction due to hypoxia; however, it remains unclear whether AT vascular rarefaction is simply secondary to adipocyte hypertrophy, or if there is an actively regulated pathway that mediates impaired AT angiogenesis in obesity. We searched for growth factors whose expression in AT is down-regulated in obesity; accordingly, we identified neuregulin-4 (Nrg4), a member of the EGF family of proteins...
June 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898429/cyanidin-3-o-%C3%AE-glucoside-regulates-the-activation-and-the-secretion-of-adipokines-from-brown-adipose-tissue-and-alleviates-diet-induced-fatty-liver
#4
Lei Pei, Ting Wan, Sufan Wang, Mingtong Ye, Yun Qiu, Rui Jiang, Nengzhi Pang, Yuanling Huang, Yujia Zhou, Xuye Jiang, Wenhua Ling, Zhenfeng Zhang, Lili Yang
AIM: Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G) the most abundant monomer of anthocyanins has multiple protective effects on many diseases. To date, whether Cy-3-G could regulate the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is still unclear and whether this regulation could influence the secretion of adipokines from BAT to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) indirectly remains to be explored. In this study we investigated the effect of Cy-3-G on BAT and the potential role of Cy-3-G to prevent fatty liver through regulating the secretion of BAT...
June 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892821/pharmacological-inhibition-of-lysosomal-activity-as-a-method-for-monitoring-thyroid-hormone-induced-autophagic-flux-in-mammalian-cells-in-vitro
#5
Jin Zhou, Rohit A Sinha, Ronny Lesmana, Winifred W Y Yau, Paul M Yen
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic process that is essential for cellular housekeeping and nutrient homeostasis. Recently, we provided evidence that thyroid hormone (TH) is a major inducer of autophagy in mammalian cells. Here, we describe a method for detecting TH-induced autophagic flux in hepatic, muscle, and brown adipocyte cells using lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) and conventional Western blot techniques.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891508/contributions-of-innate-type-2-inflammation-to-adipose-function
#6
W Reid Bolus, Alyssa H Hasty
A critical contributor to health consequences of the obesity epidemic is dysregulated adipose tissue (AT) homeostasis. While white, brown, and beige AT function are all altered in obesity-related disease, white AT is marked by progressive inflammation & adipocyte dysfunction and has been the focus of extensive immunometabolism research in the past decade. The exact triggering events initiating and sustaining AT inflammation are still under study, but it has been shown that reducing inflammation improves insulin action in AT...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890133/hdac6-regulates-thermogenesis-of-brown-adipocytes-through-activating-pka-to-induce-ucp1-expression
#7
Suna Jung, Miae Han, Sovannarith Korm, Se-In Lee, Solhee Noh, Sophors Phorl, Rema Naskar, Kye-Sung Lee, Geon-Hee Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi, Joo Yong Lee
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). UCP1 increases the conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) for protons to make BAT mitochondria generate heat rather than ATP. HDAC6 is a cytosolic deacetylase for non-histone substrates to regulate various cellular processes, including mitochondrial quality control and dynamics. Here, we showed that the body temperature of HDAC6 knockout mice is slightly decreased in normal hosing condition...
June 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884881/enhanced-quantification-of-metabolic-activity-for-individual-adipocytes-by-label-free-flim
#8
Michael Evers, Nunciada Salma, Sam Osseiran, Malte Casper, Reginald Birngruber, Conor L Evans, Dieter Manstein
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of intrinsic fluorophores such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) allows for label-free quantification of metabolic activity of individual cells over time and in response to various stimuli, which is not feasible using traditional methods due to their destructive nature and lack of spatial information. This study uses FLIM to measure pharmacologically induced metabolic changes that occur during the browning of white fat. Adipocyte browning increases energy expenditure, making it a desirable prospect for treating obesity and related disorders...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882687/gender-and-age-related-cell-compositional-differences-in-c57bl-6-murine-adipose-tissue-stromal-vascular-fraction
#9
Trivia Frazier, Stephen Lee, Annie Bowles, Julie Semon, Bruce Bunnell, Xiying Wu, Jeffrey Gimble
Adipose tissue is now recognized as a functional organ that contains cellular heterogeneity and diversity within anatomical depots. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose contains endothelial progenitors, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, pericytes, pre-adipocytes, and stromal/stem cells, among others. In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the influence of age and gender in the field of stem cell biology. Yet few studies have evaluated the influence of biological age or sex on either SVF cell heterogeneity or immunophenotype...
June 8, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878130/the-potential-of-brown-adipogenesis-and-browning-in-porcine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Ying-Chu Chen, Yu-Hsiang Yu
Brown adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation are under complex regulation. Brown adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Whether porcine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) possess the potential to differentiate into brown adipocytes remains unclear. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of porcine BM-MSCs to differentiate into brown adipocytes and browning of differentiated adipocytes. We found that similar to rodent models, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) was able to trigger the commitment of BM-MSCs to the brown adipocyte lineage by elevating expression of marker genes, nrf-1, tfam, zic1 and pgc-1α (P < 0...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876867/stem-cell-and-obesity-current-state-and-future-perspective
#11
Moloud Payab, Parisa Goodarzi, Najmeh Foroughi Heravani, Mahdieh Hadavandkhani, Zeinab Zarei, Khadijeh Falahzadeh, Bagher Larijani, Fakher Rahim, Babak Arjmand
Obesity as a worldwide growing challenge is determined by abnormal fat deposition, which may damage general health. Weight loss and control of related risk factors like type2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome is an important concern in obesity management. Different therapeutic approaches such as lifestyle change, medications, and surgery are introduced for obesity treatment. Despite of gaining partially desirable results, the problem is remained unsolved. Therefore, finding a new approach that can overcome previous limitations is very attractive for both researchers and clinicians...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874595/prediction-of-adipose-browning-capacity-by-systematic-integration-of-transcriptional-profiles
#12
Yiming Cheng, Li Jiang, Susanne Keipert, Shuyue Zhang, Andreas Hauser, Elisabeth Graf, Tim Strom, Matthias Tschöp, Martin Jastroch, Fabiana Perocchi
Activation and recruitment of thermogenic cells in human white adipose tissues ("browning") can counteract obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, quantifying the effects of therapeutic interventions on browning remains enigmatic. Here, we devise a computational tool, named ProFAT (profiling of fat tissue types), for quantifying the thermogenic potential of heterogeneous fat biopsies based on prediction of white and brown adipocyte content from raw gene expression datasets. ProFAT systematically integrates 103 mouse-fat-derived transcriptomes to identify unbiased and robust gene signatures of brown and white adipocytes...
June 5, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867001/commercial-fucoidans-from-fucus-vesiculosus-can-be-grouped-into-antiadipogenic-and-adipogenic-agents
#13
Ruth Medeiros Oliveira, Rafael Barros Gomes Câmara, Jessyka Fernanda Santiago Monte, Rony Lucas Silva Viana, Karoline Rachel Teodosio Melo, Moacir Fernandes Queiroz, Luciana Guimarães Alves Filgueira, Lila Missae Oyama, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
Fucus vesiculosus is a brown seaweed used in the treatment of obesity. This seaweed synthesizes various bioactive molecules, one of them being a sulfated polysaccharide known as fucoidan (FF). This polymer can easily be found commercially, and has antiadipogenic and lipolytic activity. Using differential precipitation with acetone, we obtained four fucoidan-rich fractions (F0.5/F0.9/F1.1/F2.0) from FF. These fractions contain different proportions of fucose:glucuronic acid:galactose:xylose:sulfate, and also showed different electrophoretic mobility and antioxidant activity...
June 4, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861709/expression-of-gpr43-in-brown-adipogenesis-is-enhanced-by-rosiglitazone-and-controlled-by-ppar-%C3%AE-rxr-heterodimerization
#14
Jiamiao Hu, Arong Zhou, Peter C K Cheung, Baodong Zheng, Shaoxiao Zeng, Shaoling Lin
GPR43, a G-protein coupled receptor recognizing short-chain fatty acids, has been reported to participate in many biological functions of white adipocytes, such as adipogenesis and lipolysis. However, the functional role of GPR43 in brown adipocytes is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the PPAR γ agonist rosiglitazone on GPR43 expression in brown adipogenesis. The results demonstrated that GPR43 was expressed during the late phase of brown adipocyte differentiation, which could be further augmented by adipogenic agent rosiglitazone treatment...
2018: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861389/cardiolipin-synthesis-in-brown-and-beige-fat-mitochondria-is-essential-for-systemic-energy-homeostasis
#15
Elahu G Sustarsic, Tao Ma, Matthew D Lynes, Michael Larsen, Iuliia Karavaeva, Jesper F Havelund, Carsten H Nielsen, Mark P Jedrychowski, Marta Moreno-Torres, Morten Lundh, Kaja Plucinska, Naja Z Jespersen, Trisha J Grevengoed, Barbara Kramar, Julia Peics, Jakob B Hansen, Farnaz Shamsi, Isabel Forss, Ditte Neess, Susanne Keipert, Jianing Wang, Katharina Stohlmann, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Marit E Jørgensen, Allan Linneberg, Oluf Pedersen, Michael A Kiebish, Klaus Qvortrup, Xianlin Han, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Martin Jastroch, Susanne Mandrup, Andreas Kjær, Steven P Gygi, Torben Hansen, Matthew P Gillum, Niels Grarup, Brice Emanuelli, Søren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Yu-Hua Tseng, Nils J Færgeman, Zachary Gerhart-Hines
Activation of energy expenditure in thermogenic fat is a promising strategy to improve metabolic health, yet the dynamic processes that evoke this response are poorly understood. Here we show that synthesis of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin is indispensable for stimulating and sustaining thermogenic fat function. Cardiolipin biosynthesis is robustly induced in brown and beige adipose upon cold exposure. Mimicking this response through overexpression of cardiolipin synthase (Crls1) enhances energy consumption in mouse and human adipocytes...
May 18, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860300/retinoid-x-receptor-activation-during-adipogenesis-of-female-mesenchymal-stem-cells-programs-a-dysfunctional-adipocyte
#16
Bassem M Shoucri, Victor T Hung, Raquel Chamorro-García, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is an emerging risk factor for the development of obesity and diabetes later in life. We previously showed that prenatal exposure to the EDC tributyltin (TBT) results in increased adiposity in the offspring. These effects linger into adulthood and are propagated through successive generations. TBT activates two nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its heterodimeric partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), that promote adipogenesis in vivo and in vitro...
May 31, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852279/brown-and-beige-fat-from-molecules-to-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#17
REVIEW
Stefania Carobbio, Anne-Claire Guénantin, Isabella Samuelson, Myriam Bahri, Antonio Vidal-Puig
The adipose organ portrays adipocytes of diverse tones: white, brown and beige, each type with distinct functions. Adipocytes orchestrate their adaptation and expansion to provide storage to excess nutrients, the quick mobilisation of fuel to supply peripheral functional demands, insulation, and, in their thermogenic form, heat generation to maintain core body temperature. Thermogenic adipocytes could be targets for anti-obesity and anti-diabetic therapeutic approaches aiming to restore adipose tissue functionality and increase energy dissipation...
May 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848609/the-role-of-orexin-in-controlling-the-activity-of-the-adipo-pancreatic-axis
#18
Marek Skrzypski, Maria Billert, Krzysztof Wojciech Nowak, Mathias Z Strowski
Orexin A and B are two neuropeptides which regulate a variety of physiological functions by interacting with central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Biological effects of orexins are mediated through two G-protein coupled receptors (OXR1 and OXR2). In addition to their strong influence on the sleep-wake cycle, there is growing evidence that orexins regulate body weight, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, orexins promote energy expenditure and protect against obesity by interacting with brown adipocytes...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844467/mitophagy-is-required-for-brown-adipose-tissue-mitochondrial-homeostasis-during-cold-challenge
#19
Yuan Lu, Hisashi Fujioka, Dinesh Joshi, Qiaoyuan Li, Panjamaporn Sangwung, Paishiun Hsieh, Jiyun Zhu, Jose Torio, David Sweet, Lan Wang, Shing Yan Chiu, Colleen Croniger, Xudong Liao, Mukesh K Jain
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermogenic organ in mammals. The ability of BAT mitochondria to generate heat in response to cold-challenge to maintain core body temperature is essential for organismal survival. While cold activated BAT mitochondrial biogenesis is recognized as critical for thermogenic adaptation, the contribution of mitochondrial quality control to this process remains unclear. Here, we show mitophagy is required for brown adipocyte mitochondrial homeostasis during thermogenic adaptation...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806089/fish-analysis-of-selected-soft-tissue-tumors-diagnostic-experience-in-a-tertiary-center
#20
Ana Cristina Vargas, Christina Selinger, Laveniya Satgunaseelan, Wendy A Cooper, Ruta Gupta, Paul Stalley, Wendy Brown, Judy Soper, Julie Schatz, Richard Boyle, David M Thomas, Martin H N Tattersall, Vivek Bhadri, Fiona Maclean, Sally Fiona Bonar, Richard A Scolyer, Rooshdiya Z Karim, Stanley W McCarthy, Annabelle Mahar, Sandra A O'Toole
AIM: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important ancillary tool for the classification of bone/soft tissue (BST) tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of FISH to the final classification of common BST entities in the molecular pathology department of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH), which is one of the most important referral centers for the management of sarcomas in Australia. METHODS: All routine diagnostic FISH tests performed on BST formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens at the RPAH in a 5-year period (February, 2010-November, 2015) were reviewed...
May 28, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
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