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Brown adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821457/spontaneous-mutation-of-dock7-results-in-lower-trabecular-bone-mass-and-impaired-periosteal-expansion-in-aged-female-misty-mice
#1
Phuong T Le, Kathleen A Bishop, David E Maridas, Katherine J Motyl, Daniel J Brooks, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Clifford J Rosen
Misty mice (m/m) have a loss of function mutation in Dock7 gene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, resulting in low bone mineral density, uncoupled bone remodeling and reduced bone formation. Dock7 has been identified as a modulator of osteoblast number and in vitro osteogenic differentiation in calvarial osteoblast culture. In addition, m/m exhibit reduced preformed brown adipose tissue innervation and temperature as well as compensatory increase in beige adipocyte markers. While the low bone mineral density phenotype is in part due to higher sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive in young mice, it is unclear what effect aging would have in mice homozygous for the mutation in the Dock7 gene...
August 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817670/synthesis-radiosynthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-18f-bodipy-c16-triglyceride-as-a-dual-modal-imaging-agent-for-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Andreas Paulus, Marco Maenen, Natascha Drude, Emmani B M Nascimento, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt, Felix M Mottaghy, Matthias Bauwens
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue research is in the focus in the field of endocrinology. We designed a dual-modal fluorescent/PET fatty acid based tracer on commercially available Bodipy-C16, which can be synthesized to its corresponding triglyceride and which combines the benefits of fluorescent and PET imaging. METHODS: Bodipy-C16 was coupled to 1,3-diolein resulting in Bodipy-triglyceride. Bodipy-C16 and Bodipy-triglyceride compounds were radiolabeled with 18F using an 18F/19F exchange reaction to yield a dual-modal imaging molecule...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814640/agpat4-lpaat%C3%AE-deficiency-highlights-the-molecular-heterogeneity-of-epididymal-and-perirenal-white-adipose-depots
#3
Emily B Mardian, Ryan M Bradley, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Phillip M Marvyn, Katherine A Moes, Eric Bombardier, A Russell Tupling, Ken D Stark, Robin E Duncan
Acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4)/lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase delta (LPAATδ) catalyzes the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor of triacylglycerol (TAG). We investigated the effect of Agpat4 gene ablation on white adipose tissue (WAT), after finding consistent expression across depots. Epididymal WAT mass was 40% larger in male Agpat4-/- mice than wildtype littermates, but unchanged in perirenal, retroperitoneal, and inguinal WAT and subscapular brown adipose tissue. Metabolic changes were identified in epididymal WAT that were not evident in perirenal WAT, which was analyzed for comparison...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814390/the-physiological-and-metabolic-differences-between-visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#4
Ya-Wen Wang, Ji-Lei Zhang, Jian-Gang Jiao, Xiao-Xia Du, Samwel Mchele Limbu, Fang Qiao, Mei-Ling Zhang, Dong-Liang Li, Zhen-Yu Du
BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) have different structures and metabolic functions, and play different roles in the regulation of mammal systemic endocrine. However, little is known about morphology and physiological and metabolic functions between VAT and SCAT in fish. METHODS: We compared the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of VAT and SCAT in Nile Tilapia and measured their functions in energy intake flux, lipolytic ability, and gene expression patterns...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812581/nfia-co-localizes-with-ppar%C3%AE-and-transcriptionally-controls-the-brown-fat-gene-program
#5
Yuta Hiraike, Hironori Waki, Jing Yu, Masahiro Nakamura, Kana Miyake, Gaku Nagano, Ryo Nakaki, Ken Suzuki, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Shogo Yamamoto, Wei Sun, Tomohisa Aoyama, Yusuke Hirota, Haruya Ohno, Kenji Oki, Masayasu Yoneda, Andrew P White, Yu-Hua Tseng, Aaron M Cypess, Therese J Larsen, Naja Z Jespersen, Camilla Scheele, Shuichi Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Takashi Kadowaki
Brown fat dissipates energy as heat and protects against obesity. Here, we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a transcriptional regulator of brown fat by a genome-wide open chromatin analysis of murine brown and white fat followed by motif analysis of brown-fat-specific open chromatin regions. NFIA and the master transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis, PPARγ, co-localize at the brown-fat-specific enhancers. Moreover, the binding of NFIA precedes and facilitates the binding of PPARγ, leading to increased chromatin accessibility and active transcription...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811612/coenzyme-q10-improves-lipid-metabolism-and-ameliorates-obesity-by-regulating-camkii-mediated-pde4-inhibition
#6
Zhe Xu, Jia Huo, Xin Ding, Mu Yang, Lin Li, Jian Dai, Kazunori Hosoe, Hiroshi Kubo, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Jinko Sawashita
Our recent studies revealed that supplementation with the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) inhibits oxidative stress and slows the process of aging in senescence-accelerated mice. CoQ10H2 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid metabolism. In the present study, we show that dietary supplementation with CoQ10H2 significantly reduced white adipose tissue content and improved the function of brown adipose tissue by regulating expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in KKAy mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807877/cryptotanshinone-promotes-commitment-to-the-brown-adipocyte-lineage-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-ampk-and-p38-mapk-signaling
#7
Khan Mohammad Imran, Naimur Rahman, Dahyeon Yoon, Miso Jeon, Byong-Taek Lee, Yong-Sik Kim
Although white adipose tissue (WAT) stores triglycerides and contributes to obesity, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat. Therefore, browning of WAT is regarded as an attractive way to counteract obesity. Our previous studies have revealed that treatment with cryptotanshinone (CT) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells inhibits their differentiation. Here, we found that pretreatment of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with CT before exposure to adipogenic hormonal stimuli promotes the commitment of these mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocyte lineage as confirmed by increased triglyceride accumulation...
August 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801784/prior-repeated-stress-attenuates-cold-induced-immunomodulation-associated-with-browning-in-mesenteric-fat-of-rats
#8
P Vargovic, M Laukova, J Ukropec, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Continuous exposure to cold leads to activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue but also to induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate whether prior exposure to immobilization (IMO) stress may affect immune response associated with adipocyte "browning" in mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT). In the first experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acute (3 h) or prolonged (7 days) cold exposure (4 ± 1 °C). 7-day cold stimulated gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other "browning"-associated factors...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801552/gene-location-expression-and-function-of-fndc5-in-meishan-pigs
#9
Chunbo Cai, Gaojun Xiao, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Ting Gao, Xiaorong An, Wentao Cui, Kui Li
Irisin is a new muscular regulatory factor that is generated by the cleavage of its precursor protein fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). Irisin promotes fat consumption due to its stimulatory role in the browning of the adipocytes in mice. Currently, there is no report on FNDC5 functions in pigs as model animals. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns and functions of FNDC5 in Meishan pigs. Our results showed that FNDC5 gene in Meishan pigs contains five transcripts, all of which can be translated into functional intact irisin proteins...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793320/microsomal-triglyceride-transfer-protein-contributes-to-lipid-droplet-maturation-in-adipocytes
#10
Larry L Swift, Joseph D Love, Carla M Harris, Benny H Chang, W Gray Jerome
Previous studies in our laboratory have established the presence of MTP in both white and brown adipose tissue in mice as well as in 3T3-L1 cells. Additional studies demonstrated an increase in MTP levels as 3T3-L1 cells differentiate into adipocytes concurrent with the movement of MTP from the juxtanuclear region of the cell to the surface of lipid droplets. This suggested a role for MTP in lipid droplet biogenesis and/or maturation. To probe the role of MTP in adipocytes, we used a Cre-Lox approach with aP2-Cre and Adipoq-Cre recombinase transgenic mice to knock down MTP expression in brown and white fat of mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780350/effect-of-elovl3-expression-on-bovine-skeletal-muscle-derived-satellite-cell-differentiation
#11
Dan Liu, Jia-Hui Xu, Hui-Li Tong, Shu-Feng Li, Yun-Qin Yan
ELOVL3 is involved in elongating saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, and is a critical enzyme for lipid accumulation in brown adipocytes during the early phase of tissue recruitment. In addition, ELOVL3 is related to increased fatty acid oxidation in brown adipocytes. However, the potential functions of ELOVL3 in bovine cells remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the effect of the ELOVL3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs). Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses were used for elucidating ELOVL3 expression pattern in bovine MDSCs during differentiation in vitro...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774822/browning-deficiency-and-low-mobilization-of-fatty-acids-in-gonadal-white-adipose-tissue-leads-to-decreased-cold-tolerance-of-transglutaminase-2-knock-out-mice
#12
András Mádi, Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Kinga Lénárt, Attila Pap, Zoltán András Mezei, Endre Kristóf, Anna Oláh, György Vámosi, Zsolt Bacsó, Péter Bai, László Fésüs
During cold-exposure 'beige' adipocytes with increased mitochondrial content are activated in white adipose tissue (WAT). These cells, similarly to brown adipocytes (BAT), dissipate stored chemical energy in the form of heat with the help of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We investigated the effect of TG2 ablation on the function of ATs in mice. Although TG2(+/+) and TG2(-/-) mice had the same amount of WAT and BAT, we found that TG2(+/+) animals could tolerate acute cold exposure for 4h, whereas TG2(-/-) mice only for 3h...
July 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769076/connexin-43-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-mitochondrial-integrity-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#13
Sang-Nam Kim, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Seo-Woo Im, Yeon-Ho Son, Seun Akindehin, Young-Suk Jung, Se Jeong Lee, Im Joo Rhyu, Il Yong Kim, Je-Kyoung Seong, Jinu Lee, Hee-Chan Yoo, James G Granneman, Yun-Hee Lee
We investigated the role of connexin 43 (Cx43) in maintaining the integrity of mitochondria in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The functional effects of Cx43 were evaluated using inducible, adipocyte-specific Cx43 knockout in mice (Gja1 (adipoq) KO) and by overexpression and knockdown of Cx43 in cultured adipocytes. Mitochondrial morphology was evaluated by electron microscopy and mitochondrial function and autophagy were assessed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and qPCR. The metabolic effects of adipocyte-specific knockout of Cx43 were assessed during cold stress and following high fat diet feeding...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768190/bmp4-gene-therapy-in-mature-mice-reduces-bat-activation-but-protects-from-obesity-by-browning-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#14
Jenny M Hoffmann, John R Grünberg, Christopher Church, Ivet Elias, Vilborg Palsdottir, John-Olov Jansson, Fatima Bosch, Ann Hammarstedt, Shahram Hedjazifar, Ulf Smith
We examined the effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) on energy expenditure in adult mature mice by targeting the liver with adeno-associated viral (AAV) BMP4 vectors to increase circulating levels. We verified the direct effect of BMP4 in inducing a brown oxidative phenotype in differentiating preadipocytes in vitro. AAV-BMP4-treated mice display marked browning of subcutaneous adipocytes, with increased mitochondria and Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1). These mice are protected from obesity on a high-fat diet and have increased whole-body energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver fat, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768176/a-hypothalamic-phosphatase-switch-coordinates-energy-expenditure-with-feeding
#15
Garron T Dodd, Zane B Andrews, Stephanie E Simonds, Natalie J Michael, Michael DeVeer, Jens C Brüning, David Spanswick, Michael A Cowley, Tony Tiganis
Beige adipocytes can interconvert between white and brown-like states and switch between energy storage versus expenditure. Here we report that beige adipocyte plasticity is important for feeding-associated changes in energy expenditure and is coordinated by the hypothalamus and the phosphatase TCPTP. A fasting-induced and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of TCPTP, inhibited insulin signaling in AgRP/NPY neurons, repressed the browning of white fat and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely feeding reduced hypothalamic TCPTP, to increase AgRP/NPY neuronal insulin signaling, white adipose tissue browning and energy expenditure...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765264/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-training-in-adipose-tissue-do-not-require-fgf21
#16
Jay Wayne Porter, Joe Lee Rowles, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, Victoria Vieira-Potter
Exercise enhances insulin sensitivity; it also improves adipocyte metabolism and reduces adipose tissue inflammation through poorly-defined mechanisms. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a pleiotropic hormone-like protein whose insulin-sensitizing properties are predominantly mediated via receptor signaling in adipose tissue (AT). Recently, FGF21 has also been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. Meanwhile, an association between exercise and increased circulating FGF21 levels has been reported in some, but not all studies...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759310/ultrastructure-and-pathology-of-prion-protein-amyloid-accumulation-and-cellular-damage-in-extraneural-tissues-of-scrapie-infected-transgenic-mice-expressing-anchorless-prion-protein
#17
Brent Race, Martin Jeffrey, Gillian McGovern, David Dorward, Bruce Chesebro
In most human and animal prion diseases the abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) is deposited as non-amyloid aggregates in CNS, spleen and lymphoid organs. In contrast, in humans and transgenic mice with PrP mutations which cause expression of PrP lacking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor, most PrPSc is in the amyloid form. In transgenic mice expressing only anchorless PrP (tg anchorless), PrPSc is deposited not only in CNS and lymphoid tissues, but also in extraneural tissues including heart, brown fat, white fat, and colon...
July 4, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754711/10-oxo-12-z-octadecenoic-acid-a-linoleic-acid-metabolite-produced-by-gut-lactic-acid-bacteria-enhances-energy-metabolism-by-activation-of-trpv1
#18
Minji Kim, Tomoya Furuzono, Kanae Yamakuni, Yongjia Li, Young-Il Kim, Haruya Takahashi, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Huei-Fen Jheng, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Yuriko Kano, Rina Yu, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Kunitoshi Uchida, Jun Yamazaki, Makoto Tominaga, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Gut microbiota can regulate the host energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanisms that could involve gut microbiota-derived compounds remain to be understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of KetoA [10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid]-a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria-on whole-body energy metabolism and found that dietary intake of KetoA could enhance energy expenditure in mice, thereby protecting mice from diet-induced obesity. By using Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, KetoA was noted to potently activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and enhance noradrenalin turnover in adipose tissues...
July 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752044/ca-2-associated-triphasic-ph-changes-in-mitochondria-during-brown-adipocyte-activation
#19
Yanyan Hou, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Rókus Kriszt, Yu-Hua Tseng, Michael Raghunath, Madoka Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipocytes (BAs) are endowed with a high metabolic capacity for energy expenditure due to their high mitochondria content. While mitochondrial pH is dynamically regulated in response to stimulation and, in return, affects various metabolic processes, how mitochondrial pH is regulated during adrenergic stimulation-induced thermogenesis is unknown. We aimed to reveal the spatial and temporal dynamics of mitochondrial pH in stimulated BAs and the mechanisms behind the dynamic pH changes...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752043/adipocyte-lipid-synthesis-coupled-to-neuronal-control-of-thermogenic-programming
#20
Adilson Guilherme, David J Pedersen, Elizabeth Henchey, Felipe S Henriques, Laura V Danai, Yuefei Shen, Batuhan Yenilmez, DaeYoung Jung, Jason K Kim, Irfan J Lodhi, Clay F Semenkovich, Michael P Czech
BACKGROUND: The de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids (DNL) through fatty acid synthase (FASN) in adipocytes is exquisitely regulated by nutrients, hormones, fasting, and obesity in mice and humans. However, the functions of DNL in adipocyte biology and in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis are not fully understood. METHODS & RESULTS: Here we show adipocyte DNL controls crosstalk to localized sympathetic neurons that mediate expansion of beige/brite adipocytes within inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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