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Brown adipocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454047/renal-perivascular-adipose-tissue-form-and-function
#1
Carolina Baraldi A Restini, Alex Ismail, Ramya K Kumar, Robert Burnett, Hannah Garver, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Renal sympathetic activity affects blood pressure in part by increasing renovascular resistance via release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves onto renal arteries. Here we test the idea that adipose tissue adjacent to renal blood vessels, i.e. renal perivascular adipose tissue (RPVAT), contains a pool of NE which can be released to alter renal vascular function. RPVAT was obtained from around the main renal artery/vein of the male Sprague Dawley rats. Thoracic aortic PVAT and mesenteric PVAT also were studied as brown-like and white fat comparators respectively...
February 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453764/comparative-analysis-of-human-ucb-and-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-their-differentiation-potential-into-brown-and-white-adipocytes
#2
Afrooz Rashnonejad, Gulinnaz Ercan, Cumhur Gunduz, Ali Akdemir, Yigit Ozer Tiftikcioglu
The differentiation potential of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) into brown and white adipocytes in comparison to Adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) were investigated in order to characterize their potency for future cell therapies. MSCs were isolated from ten UCB samples and six liposuction materials. MSCs were differentiated into white and brown adipocytes after characterization by flow cytometry. Differentiated adipocytes were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin/eosin...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449935/pleomorphic-liposarcoma-of-bone-a-rare-primary-malignant-bone-tumour
#3
G L Tiemeier, J M Brown, S E Pratap, C McCarthy, A Kastrenopoulou, K Bradley, S Wilson, Z Orosz, C L M H Gibbons, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
Background: Liposarcoma is an extremely rare primary bone sarcoma. Case presentation: We report a case of primary pleomorphic liposarcoma that arose in an 18 year old male in the metaphysis of the left tibia. Plain radiographs showed a partly sclerotic lesion and MR imaging a heterogeneous tumour predominantly isointense on T1- and high-signal on T2-weighted sequences with focal areas of increased T1 signal that suppressed with fat saturation. PET/CT showed marked FDG uptake (SUV = 17...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444854/bet-bromodomain-proteins-regulate-enhancer-function-during-adipogenesis
#4
Jonathan D Brown, Zachary B Feldman, Sean P Doherty, Jaime M Reyes, Peter B Rahl, Charles Y Lin, Quanhu Sheng, Qiong Duan, Alexander J Federation, Andrew L Kung, Saptarsi M Haldar, Richard A Young, Jorge Plutzky, James E Bradner
Developmental transitions are guided by master regulatory transcription factors. During adipogenesis, a transcriptional cascade culminates in the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which orchestrate activation of the adipocyte gene expression program. However, the coactivators controlling PPARγ and C/EBPα expression are less well characterized. Here, we show the bromodomain-containing protein, BRD4, regulates transcription of PPARγ and C/EBPα. Analysis of BRD4 chromatin occupancy reveals that induction of adipogenesis in 3T3L1 fibroblasts provokes dynamic redistribution of BRD4 to de novo super-enhancers proximal to genes controlling adipocyte differentiation...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442325/zic-family-proteins-in-emerging-biomedical-studies
#5
Jun Aruga
Zic family proteins have been investigated in various biomedical studies. Here we summarize the contact points between Zic proteins and recent medical research. The topics cover a wide range, reflecting the pleiotropic roles of these proteins in early embryogenesis and organogenesis. Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 proteins play important roles in the development of axial and limb bones, and of muscles, among the derivatives of the notochord and somites. Zic1 is involved in bone's response to mechanical stress, and it also serves as a marker specific for brown adipocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433059/resveratrol-liposomes-and-lipid-nanocarriers-comparison-of-characteristics-and-inducing-browning-of-white-adipocytes
#6
Yujiao Zu, Haley Overby, Guofeng Ren, Zhaoyang Fan, Ling Zhao, Shu Wang
Trans-resveratrol (R) has a potential to increase energy expenditure via inducing browning in white adipose tissue. However, its low levels of aqueous solubility, stability, and poor bioavailability limit its application. We have successfully synthesized biocompatible, and biodegradable R encapsulated lipid nanocarriers (R-nano), and R encapsulated liposomes (R-lipo). The mean particle size of R-nano and R-lipo were 140 nm and 110 nm, respectively, and their polydispersity index values were less than 0...
December 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428596/small-molecule-pgc-1%C3%AE-1-protein-stabilizers-induce-adipocyte-ucp1-expression-and-uncoupled-mitochondrial-respiration
#7
A T Pettersson-Klein, M Izadi, D M S Ferreira, I Cervenka, J C Correia, V Martinez-Redondo, M Southern, M Cameron, T Kamenecka, L Z Agudelo, M Porsmyr-Palmertz, U Martens, B Lundgren, M Otrocka, A Jenmalm-Jensen, P R Griffin, J L Ruas
OBJECTIVE: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α1 (PGC-1α1) regulates genes involved in energy metabolism. Increasing adipose tissue energy expenditure through PGC-1α1 activation is potentially beneficial for systemic metabolism. Pharmacological PGC-1α1 activators could be valuable tools in the fight against obesity and metabolic disease. Finding such compounds has been challenging partly because PGC-1α1 is a transcriptional coactivator with no known ligand-binding properties...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425108/neck-adipose-tissue-tying-ties-in-metabolic-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandzic Jaksic, Danijela Grizelj, Ana Livun, Drago Boscic, Marko Ajduk, Rajko Kusec, Ozren Jaksic
Upper body adipose tissue accumulation has been associated with clustering of metabolic disorders and increased cardiovascular risk. Neck circumference (NC) indicated that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in that region is an independent pathogenic depot that might account for the additional risk missed by visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Neck adipose tissue (NAT) is not only one more ectopic depot but has several particular features that might modulate its metabolic role. Besides a controversial impact on obstructive apnea syndrome, neck fat encompasses carotid arteries as an important perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) depot...
February 9, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424439/divergent-response-of-murine-and-porcine-adipocytes-to-stimulation-of-browning-genes-by-18-carbon-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-beta-receptor-agonists
#9
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are known to activate brown and beige adipocytes. However, very little is known about the effects of the number and the position of double bonds in LCFA with the same length on brown fat-specific gene expression. To determine the specificity of LCFA in the regulation of these genes in different adipocyte models, fully differentiated 10T1/2, 3T3-L1, murine, or porcine primary adipocytes (obtained from the subcutaneous fat pad of C57BL/6 mice or Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc crossbred piglets) were treated with 50 μM of the following 18-carbon fatty acids: stearic acid (STA; 18:0), oleic acid (OLA; 18:1, Δ9), linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2, Δ9,12), α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3, Δ9,12,15), γ-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3, Δ6,9,12), or pinolenic acid (PLA; 18:3, Δ5,9,12) for 24 h with or without 4-h norepinephrine (NE) treatment...
February 9, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421645/feeding-of-tobacco-blend-or-nicotine-induced-weight-loss-associated-with-decreased-adipocyte-size-and-increased-physical-activity-in-male-mice
#10
Mingxia Liu, Chia-Chi Chuang Key, Allison Weckerle, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Abraham K Gebre, Wayne Spoo, Om Makwana, John S Parks
Although epidemiological data and results from rodent studies support an inverse relationship between nicotine consumption and body weight, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. CD-1 mice were fed a basal diet or a basal diet containing low or high dose smokeless tobacco blend or high dose nicotine tartrate for 14 weeks. High dose tobacco blend and nicotine tartrate diets vs. basal diet reduced mouse body weight (16.3% and 19.7%, respectively), epididymal (67.6% and 72.5%, respectively) and brown adipose weight (42% and 38%, respectively), epididymal adipocyte size (46...
February 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421190/identification-of-a-high-affinity-binding-site-for-abscisic-acid-on-human-lanthionine-synthetase-component-c-like-protein-2
#11
Elena Cichero, Chiara Fresia, Lucrezia Guida, Valeria Booz, Enrico Millo, Claudia Scotti, Luisa Iamele, Hugo de Jonge, Denise Galante, Antonio De Flora, Laura Sturla, Tiziana Vigliarolo, Elena Zocchi, Paola Fossa
Lanthionine synthetase component C-like protein 2 (LANCL2) has been identified as the mammalian receptor mediating the functional effects of the universal stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in mammals. ABA stimulates insulin independent glucose uptake in myocytes and adipocytes via LANCL2 binding in vitro, improves glucose tolerance in vivo and induces brown fat activity in vitro and in vivo. The emerging role of the ABA/LANCL2 system in glucose and lipid metabolism makes it an attractive target for pharmacological interventions in diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414686/kynurenic-acid-and-gpr35-regulate-adipose-tissue-energy-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#12
Leandro Z Agudelo, Duarte M S Ferreira, Igor Cervenka, Galyna Bryzgalova, Shamim Dadvar, Paulo R Jannig, Amanda T Pettersson-Klein, Tadepally Lakshmikanth, Elahu G Sustarsic, Margareta Porsmyr-Palmertz, Jorge C Correia, Manizheh Izadi, Vicente Martínez-Redondo, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Zachary Gerhart-Hines, Petter Brodin, Teresa Pereira, Per-Olof Berggren, Jorge L Ruas
The role of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism in psychiatric disease is well established, but remains less explored in peripheral tissues. Exercise training activates kynurenine biotransformation in skeletal muscle, which protects from neuroinflammation and leads to peripheral kynurenic acid accumulation. Here we show that kynurenic acid increases energy utilization by activating G protein-coupled receptor Gpr35, which stimulates lipid metabolism, thermogenic, and anti-inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue...
February 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414510/adiponectin-as-lncrna-inhibits-adipogenesis-by-transferring-from-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-and-attenuating-adiponectin-mrna-translation
#13
Rui Cai, Yunmei Sun, Naren Qimuge, Guoqiang Wang, Yingqian Wang, Guiyan Chu, Taiyong Yu, Gongshe Yang, Weijun Pang
Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is an adipocyte-derived hormone with positive function on systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is emerging as a vital regulator of adipogenesis. However, AdipoQ-related lncRNAs in lipid metabolism have not been explored. Here, AdipoQ antisense (AS) lncRNA was first identified, and we further found that it inhibited adipogenesis. The half-life of AdipoQ AS lncRNA was 10 h, whereas that of AdipoQ mRNA was 4 h. During adipogenic differentiation, AdipoQ AS lncRNA translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm...
January 29, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409985/transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-biology-in-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Mi-Jeong Lee
Accumulation of dysfunctional white adipose tissues increases risks for cardiometabolic diseases in obesity. In addition to white, brown or brite adipose tissues are also present in adult humans and increasing their amount may be protective. Therefore, understanding factors regulating the amount and function of each adipose depot is crucial for developing therapeutic targets for obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily, which consists of TGFβ, BMPs, GDFs, and activins, controls multiple aspects of adipose biology...
January 30, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405636/dietary-curcumin-intervention-targets-mouse-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-brown-adipose-tissue-ucp1-expression
#15
Zhuolun Song, Xavier Revelo, Weijuan Shao, Lili Tian, Kejing Zeng, Helena Lei, Hong-Shuo Sun, Minna Woo, Daniel Winer, Tianru Jin
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether dietary curcumin intervention targets both white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated energy expenditure. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a low-fat diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD plus curcumin. In addition to assessing the effect of curcumin intervention on metabolic profiles, this study assessed WAT macrophage infiltration and composition and inflammatory cytokine production...
February 6, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400713/brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenic-adaptation-requires-nrf1-mediated-proteasomal-activity
#16
Alexander Bartelt, Scott B Widenmaier, Christian Schlein, Kornelia Johann, Renata L S Goncalves, Kosei Eguchi, Alexander W Fischer, Günes Parlakgül, Nicole A Snyder, Truc B Nguyen, Oliver T Bruns, Daniel Franke, Moungi G Bawendi, Matthew D Lynes, Luiz O Leiria, Yu-Hua Tseng, Karen E Inouye, Ana Paula Arruda, Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Adipocytes possess remarkable adaptive capacity to respond to nutrient excess, fasting or cold exposure, and they are thus an important cell type for the maintenance of proper metabolic health. Although the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle for cellular homeostasis, the mechanisms that mediate adaptation of the ER to metabolic challenges in adipocytes are unclear. Here we show that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic function requires an adaptive increase in proteasomal activity to secure cellular protein quality control, and we identify the ER-localized transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 1 (Nfe2l1, also known as Nrf1) as a critical driver of this process...
February 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399988/uncoupling-protein-1-expression-in-adipocytes-derived-from-skeletal-muscle-fibro-adipogenic-progenitors-is-under-genetic-and-hormonal-control
#17
Tatiane Gorski, Sebastian Mathes, Jan Krützfeldt
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fatty infiltration is generally associated with the accumulation of white adipocytes in skeletal muscle and unfavourable metabolic outcomes. It is, however, still unclear whether intramuscular adipocytes could also acquire a brown-like phenotype. Here, we detected intramuscular expression of brown adipocyte markers during fatty infiltration in an obesity-resistant mouse strain and extensively compared the potential of two different stem cell populations residing in skeletal muscle to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396370/distinct-adipocyte-progenitor-cells-are-associated-with-regional-phenotypes-of-perivascular-aortic-fat-in-mice
#18
Khanh-Van Tran, Timothy Fitzgibbons, So Yun Min, Tiffany DeSouza, Silvia Corvera
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue depots around the aorta are regionally distinct and have specific functional properties. Thoracic aorta perivascular adipose tissue (tPVAT) expresses higher levels of thermogenic genes and lower levels of inflammatory genes than abdominal aorta perivascular adipose tissue (aPVAT). It is not known whether this distinction is due to the in-vivo functional environment or to cell-autonomous traits that persist outside the in-vivo setting. In this study, we asked whether the progenitor cells in tPVAT and aPVAT have cell-autonomous traits that lead to formation of regionally distinct PVAT...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396369/cardiac-natriuretic-peptides-promote-adipose-browning-through-mtor-complex-1
#19
Dianxin Liu, Ryan P Ceddia, Sheila Collins
OBJECTIVE: Activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the ability to increase uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels and mitochondrial biogenesis in white fat (termed 'browning'), has great therapeutic potential to treat obesity and its comorbidities because of the net increase in energy expenditure. β-adrenergic-cAMP-PKA signaling has long been known to regulate these processes. Recently PKA-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was shown to be necessary for adipose 'browning' as well as proper development of the interscapular BAT...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384242/circulating-molecules-that-control-brown-beige-adipocyte-differentiation-and-thermogenic-capacity
#20
REVIEW
Raissa G Ludwig, Andréa L Rocha, Marcelo A Mori
Obesity may be counteracted by increased energy expenditure. Circulating molecules act in the adipose tissue to influence brown and beige adipocyte function, differentiation, and thermogenic capacity, which in turn affects substrate utilization and impacts energy balance at the organismal level. These molecules have been envisioned as biomarkers and potential candidates for pharmacological interventions to treat obesity. Here we summarize studies that demonstrate the roles of endogenous circulating molecules of a wide variety in regulating the thermogenic potential of brown and beige fat cells...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
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