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Lipid emulsion

Farzad Khademi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Ramezan Ali Taheri
A promising strategy for preventing illness and death caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is vaccination. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the capacity of a multicomponent vaccine comprising HspX/EsxS-fused protein, PLGA (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)) and DOTAP (1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane) in eliciting immune responses against Mtb in BALB/c mice. A preparation of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) containing fused protein and DOTAP adjuvant was made using double emulsion solvent evaporation (w/o/w) and lipid film hydration methods, respectively...
June 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Ying Chen, Jian Zhang, Zhe Chen, Quanguang Wang, Bing Li, Rujing Lai, Xuzhong Xu, Zhifang Cao, Lizhen Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although intravenous lipid emulsion has been proved a powerful antidote for local anesthetic toxicity, there are few pharmacokinetic data on using lipid infusion as a pretreatment for other clinical applications. We assessed the influence of lipid pretreatment on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of levobupivacaine. METHODS: Altogether, 12 patients undergoing below-knee surgery for a fracture were randomly assigned to 2 groups (6 patients per group): pretreatment with 1...
June 19, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Dejuan Yang, Yunhai Li, Lei Xing, Yiqing Tan, Jiazheng Sun, Beilei Zeng, Tingxiu Xiang, Jinxiang Tan, Guosheng Ren, Yuanyuan Wang
BACKGROUND: To determine whether adipocyte-derived lipids could be transferred into breast cancer cells and investigate the underlying mechanisms of subsequent lipolysis and fatty acid trafficking in breast cancer cells. METHODS: A Transwell co-culture system was used in which human breast cancer cells were cultured in the absence or presence of differentiated murine 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Migration/invasion and proliferation abilities were compared between breast cancer cells that were cultivated alone and those co-cultivated with mature adipocytes...
June 18, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Wei Cai, Phillip C Calder, Maria F Cury-Boaventura, Elisabeth De Waele, Julie Jakubowski, Gary Zaloga
Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) have been an integral component of parenteral nutrition for more than 50 years. Numerous formulations are available and are based on vegetable (soybean, olive, coconut) and animal (fish) oils. Therefore, each of these formulations has a unique fatty acid composition that offers both benefits and limitations. As clinical experience and our understanding of the effects of fatty acids on various physiological processes has grown, there is evidence to suggest that some ILEs may have benefits compared with others...
June 15, 2018: Nutrients
Marie-Claude Gagnon, Michèle Auger, Jean-François Paquin
The synthesis and biophysical studies of fluorinated phospholipids have attracted a lot of interest over the past 40 years. Mono- and polyfluorinated phospholipids, containing 1-4 fluorine atoms, are designed mostly with the goal of developing new model membranes. The fluorine atoms are herein used as probes, mainly in 19F-NMR spectroscopy, to study biomolecule complexes. In this case, the spectroscopic features of the fluorine atom and the preservation of the parent lipid properties are of primary importance...
June 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Seong-Ho Ok, Jeong-Min Hong, Soo Hee Lee, Ju-Tae Sohn
Lipid emulsion has been shown to be an effective treatment for systemic toxicity induced by local anesthetics, which is reflected in case reports. A systemic review and meta-analysis confirm the efficacy of this treatment. Investigators have suggested mechanisms associated with the lipid emulsion-mediated recovery of cardiovascular collapse caused by local anesthetic systemic toxicity; these mechanisms include lipid sink, a widely accepted theory in which highly soluble local anesthetics (particularly bupivacaine) are absorbed into the lipid phase of plasma from tissues (e...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Sylwia Osowska, Marek Kunecki, Jacek Sobocki, Joanna Tokarczyk, Krystyna Majewska, Mohamed Omidi, Marek Radkowski, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND: The effect of different lipid emulsions (LEs) within the parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen of adult home PN (HPN) patients is not clear. This study investigated the effect of changing adult HPN patients from a soybean oil based LE (Intralipid) to either a fish oil containing LE (providing n-3 fatty acids) (SMOFLipid) or an olive oil based LE (ClinOleic). METHODS: Thirty two adults receiving long-term HPN with Intralipid as the LE were transferred to receive either SMOFLipid (n = 13) or ClinOleic (n = 19) for 60 days...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Vishal Khatri, Nikhil Chauhan, Kanchan Vishnoi, Agneta von Gegerfelt, Courtney Gittens, Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) affects 120 million people around the world and another 856 million people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Mass Drug Administration (MDA) spearheaded by the World Health Organization is the only current strategy to control this infection. Recent reports suggest that despite several rounds of MDA, elimination has not been achieved and there is a need for more stringent control strategies for control of LF. An effective prophylactic vaccine combined with MDA has significant potential...
June 6, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Rushit N Lodaya, Luis A Brito, Tom Y H Wu, Andrew T Miller, Gillis R Otten, Manmohan Singh, Derek T O'Hagan
Adjuvants are required to enhance immune responses to typically poorly immunogenic recombinant antigens. Toll like receptor agonists (TLRa) have been widely evaluated as adjuvants, since they activate the innate immune system. Currently, licensed vaccines adjuvanted with TLRa include the TLR4 agonist Monophosphoryl Lipid (MPL), while additional TLRa are in clinical development. Unfortunately, naturally derived TLRa are often complex and heterogeneous entities, which brings formulation challenges. Consequently, the use of synthetic small molecule TLRa has significant advantages, since they are well-defined discreet molecules, which can be chemically modified to modulate their physicochemical properties...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S Yeniocak, A Kalkan, D D Metin, A Demirel, R Sut, I Akkoc
Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug used in psychiatric diseases. At high doses it exhibits cardiovascular and neurological sideeffects in particular. Lipid emulsion therapy for the removal of medication from plasma in high-dose lipophilic drug use has recently become very widespread. In the light of current literature, this report discusses the successful treatment of a patient within 4 hrs of olanzapine overdose as an attempted suicide, who presented with agitation and clouded consciousness.
2018: Acute Medicine
Jianan Wu, Qin Shu, Yongwu Niu, Yingchun Jiao, Qihe Chen
Several chitosan TPP nanoparticles embedded with Torreya grandis aril essential oils (TEOs) were synthesized using emulsion-ionic gelation technique. Mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A), a type of biosurfactants, was selected as the emulsifier. Especially, to replace the acetic acid, ionic liquid (IL) was employed for chitosan dissolving. The physical properties, diameters, morphology, embedding rate and antibacterial effects of those essential oils loaded chitosan nanoparticles were characterized. The results demonstrated that chitosan nanoparticles can be successfully prepared in ionic liquid containing system and the diameters for nanoparticles in acetic acid and ionic liquid solutions are 144...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jane Maria Gervasio
Soybean oil-based lipid injectable emulsion (SO-based ILE) is an 18-carbon, ω-6 macronutrient providing a concentrated source of calories, which can be administered in or with parenteral nutrition to patients unable to tolerate or consume adequate enteral nutrition. Beyond the provision of energy, SO-based ILE provides linoleic and linolenic acid, 2 essential fatty acids necessary for the prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. However, SO-based ILE with its high levels of ω-6 fatty acids, long-chain triglycerides, phospholipid emulsifiers, and glycerin has been associated with worsening clinical outcomes, including increase of infections, lengthier intensive care and hospital stay, and prolonged mechanical ventilation...
June 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Anna Jaromin, Robert Zarnowski, Magdalena Piętka-Ottlik, David R Andes, Jerzy Gubernator
AIM: Ebselen (Eb) is an example of a repurposed drug with poor aqueous solubility which requires sophisticated delivery system such as nanoencapsulation in nanocapsules for topical application. MATERIALS & METHODS: Eb-nanocapsules were examined for morphology, activity against Candida spp., cytotoxicity and skin permeation. RESULTS: Eb-nanocapsules were active against skin-infecting Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis yeasts (minimal inhibitory concentration values were about 4-, 2- and 1...
June 6, 2018: Nanomedicine
Saylav Bora, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Gürkan Yiğittürk, Oytun Erbaş, İsmet Parlak
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoprolol, lipid emulsion and MgSO4 which can be recommended for prevention of long QT that is one of the lethal consequences of amitriptyline intoxication. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were included. Five groups respectively received the following: saline intraperitoneally (i.p.); amitriptyline (AMT) 100 mg/kg per os (p.o.) and saline i.p.; AMT 100 mg/kg p.o. and 5 mg/kg metoprolol i.p.; AMT 100 mg/kg p.o. and 20 ml/kg lipid emulsion i.p.; AMT 100 mg/kg p...
June 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Ercan Kara, İnci Çilesiz, Murat Gülsoy
Knowledge about the changes in optical properties is needed for planning safer and more accurate laser treatments. A monitoring system was developed to study how the optical properties of a lipid emulsion are affected by temperature changes. A double-integrating-sphere system is modified with a controlled heating apparatus to measure the temperature-dependent diffuse reflectance and total transmittance values. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were estimated from the reflectance and transmittance values using an inverse adding-doubling method...
June 2, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Christian Stoppe, Ekaterina Nesterova, Gunnar Elke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) including venovenous and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and ventricular assist devices (VAD) provide mechanical pulmonary and circulatory support, respectively, in patients with acute pulmonary or cardiovascular failure. This review discusses recently published data regarding specific topics of nutritional support in patients with ECLS and VAD. RECENT FINDINGS: ECLS may aggravate loss of endogenous and exogenous micronutrients and macronutrients...
May 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Alexandra N Carey, Coral Rudie, Paul D Mitchell, Bram P Raphael, Kathleen M Gura, Mark Puder
Infants requiring prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) may receive intravenous (IV) lipid in the form of soybean oil, fish oil, or a composite lipid emulsion (CLE) (i.e., SMOFlipid®). Soybean oil lipid-dose restriction is a popular method of treating and reducing the risk of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that may influence dosing strategies of other IV fat emulsions. Here we present 4 infants receiving PN with SMOFlipid® as their IV lipid source and examine trends in essential fatty-acid status, triglycerides, and dosing strategy...
May 30, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Seong-Ho Ok, Ju-Tae Sohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
M J Rodríguez-Castaño, B Iglesias, L Arruza
BACKGROUND: Complications of intravenous lipid administration are relatively uncommon. However, inadvertent rapid infusion of intravenous fat emulsion (IVFE) is an inherent risk when fats are infused separately from the dextrose-amino acid solution. CASE REPORT: Extremely preterm infant, born at 25 weeks and 6 days of gestational age weighing 920 g, who inadvertently received a massive overdose of IVFE due to a device failure. He developed lethargy, apnea, metabolic acidosis and hemodynamic instability requiring mechanical ventilation and inotropic support...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Jing Chang, Xu Kang, Jiang-Lan Yuan
Mulberry seed oil (MSO) is a kind of potential health-care lipids. This study, we investigated unsaturated fatty acids profiles of freshly squeezed MSO by GC-MS and modulated an oil-in-water emulsion system stabilized by acid hydrolyzed egg albumin (AHEA) to protect MSO from oxidation. The results showed that the content of total unsaturated fatty acids in MSO was almost 80%, of which 9, 12- and 10, 13-linoleic acid was over 60% and 10% respectively. In the case of the MSO-in-AHEA emulsions, it was observed that acid hydrolysis improved emulsifying effect, emulsifying stability and antioxidant activity of egg albumin (EA)...
July 2018: Food Research International
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