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Lipid emulsion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648824/impact-of-interfacial-composition-on-lipid-and-protein-co-oxidation-in-oil-in-water-emulsions-containing-mixed-emulisifers
#1
Zhenbao Zhu, Cui Zhao, Jianhua Yi, Ning Liu, Yungang Cao, Eric A Decker, David Julian McClements
The impact of interfacial composition on lipid and protein co-oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions containing a mixture of proteins and surfactants was investigated. The emulsions consisted of 5% v/v walnut oil, 0.5% w/v whey protein isolate (WPI), and 0 to 0.4% w/v Tween 20 (pH 3 and 7). The protein surface load, magnitude of the ξ-potential, and mean particle diameter of the emulsions decreased as the Tween 20 concentration was increased, indicating the whey proteins were displaced by this non-ionic surfactant...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629560/impact-of-phospholipids-and-tocopherols-on-the-oxidative-stability-of-soybean-oil-in-water-emulsions
#2
Gautam K Samdani, D Julian McClements, Eric A Decker
Phospholipids have been shown to act synergistically with tocopherols and delay lipid oxidation in bulk oil. The synergistic activity between phospholipids and tocopherols is due to the ability of amino-group-containing phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) to convert oxidized tocopherol back into tocopherols. This study shows the effect of PE and PS on the antioxidant activity of different tocopherol homologues in oil-in-water emulsions. Effect of emulsifier type on the interaction between tocopherols and phospholipids was also studied...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628442/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-effects-of-cpap-on-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-metabolism
#3
Luciano F Drager, Thauany M Tavoni, Vanessa M Silva, Raul D Santos, Rodrigo P Pedrosa, Luiz A Bortolotto, Carmen G C Vinagre, Vsevolod Y Polotsky, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Raul C Maranhao
This study aimed to explore lipoprotein metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We studied 15 men with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI ≥30 events/hour) and 12 age, body mass index and waist circumference-matched volunteers without OSA (AHI <5 events/hour). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was determined by a blind examiner. After 12 hours fasting, a triglyceride-rich chylomicron-like emulsion, labeled with [14C]-cholesterol ester and [3H]-triolein was injected intravenously followed by blood samples collection at pre-established time...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620570/free-fatty-acid-receptor-g-protein-coupled-receptor-40-mediates-lipid-emulsion-induced-cardioprotection
#4
Soban Umar, Jingyuan Li, Kyle Hannabass, Mylene Vaillancourt, Christine M Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Aman Mahajan, Mansoureh Eghbali
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that intralipid (lipid emulsion) protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury and bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the precise underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we explored the hypothesis that free fatty acid receptor-1 or G-protein-coupled receptor 40 is expressed in the heart and that cardioprotective effects of lipid emulsion are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor 40 in two animal models of ischemia/reperfusion injury and bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity...
April 4, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619252/lepvax-a-defined-subunit-vaccine-that-provides-effective-pre-exposure-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-m-leprae-infection
#5
Malcolm S Duthie, Maria T Pena, Gigi J Ebenezer, Thomas P Gillis, Rahul Sharma, Kelly Cunningham, Michael Polydefkis, Yumi Maeda, Masahiko Makino, Richard W Truman, Steven G Reed
Sustained elimination of leprosy as a global health concern likely requires a vaccine. The current standard, BCG, confers only partial protection and precipitates paucibacillary (PB) disease in some instances. When injected into mice with the T helper 1 (Th1)-biasing adjuvant formulation Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant in stable emulsion (GLA-SE), a cocktail of three prioritized antigens (ML2055, ML2380 and ML2028) reduced M. leprae infection levels. Recognition and protective efficacy of a single chimeric fusion protein incorporating these antigens, LEP-F1, was confirmed in similar experiments...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616820/effect-of-oil-hydrophobicity-on-adsorption-and-rheology-of-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-at-oil-water-interfaces
#6
Jotam Bergfreund, Pascal Bertsch, Simon Kuster, Peter Fischer
The adsorption of protein layers at oil-water interfaces is critical to the formation and stability of various emulsions in e.g. technical applications as well as in biological lipid storage. Effects of ionic strength, pH, temperature, and pre-treatments of the proteins are well-known. However, the oil phase has been regarded as exchangeable and its role in protein adsorption has been widely ignored. Herein the influence of systematically selected oil interfaces of high purity on the formation and properties of β-lactoglobulin adsorption layers was evaluated...
April 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607165/a-quality-improvement-program-with-nutrition-therapy-restriction-of-lipid-emulsions-in-cardiac-surgical-patients
#7
Jian Gao, Guo-Wei Tu, Chun-Sheng Wang, Du-Ming Zhu, Lan Liu, Hua Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Zhe Luo
Background: To evaluate the effect of restriction of soybean-based intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs) in clinical outcomes in cardiac surgical patients. Methods: This was a before-and-after interventional study comparing the clinical outcomes regarding the intervention of IVFEs restriction. Before August 2015, parenteral nutrition (PN) using a soy-based lipid emulsion was routinely implemented if patients failed to meet >60% of energy requirements in 48 h post cardiac surgery (Period A)...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606144/in-vitro-evaluation-of-chloroquine-loaded-and-heparin-surface-functionalized-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#8
Joseph O Muga, Jeremiah W Gathirwa, Matshawandile Tukulula, Walter G Z O Jura
BACKGROUND: Use of chloroquine, an otherwise safe and relatively affordable anti-malarial drug, was discontinued due to widespread prevalence of resistant parasites. Many entrant anti-malarial drugs for treatment of chloroquine resistant malaria raises the concerns of cost and safety among other challenges. Innovative ways of circumventing chloroquine resistance is of paramount importance. Such may include nanoparticulate delivery strategies and targeting. This study evaluated physicochemical properties and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of chloroquine encapsulated heparin functionalized solid lipid nanoparticles (CQ-Hep-SLNs) and non-heparin functionalized SLNs (CQ-SLN) against Plasmodium falciparum...
April 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605318/intravenous-lipid-infusion-affects-dry-matter-intake-methane-yield-and-rumen-bacteria-structure-in-late-lactating-holstein-cows
#9
Ole Lamp, Henry Reyer, Winfried Otten, Gerd Nürnberg, Michael Derno, Klaus Wimmers, Cornelia C Metges, Björn Kuhla
Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH4 production and DMI for 48 h...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599442/on-chip-microfluidic-production-of-cell-sized-liposomes
#10
Siddharth Deshpande, Cees Dekker
In this protocol, we describe a recently developed on-chip microfluidic method to form monodisperse, cell-sized, unilamellar, and biocompatible liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Termed octanol-assisted liposome assembly (OLA), it resembles bubble-blowing on a microscopic scale. Hydrodynamic flow focusing of two immiscible fluid streams (an aqueous phase and a lipid-containing 1-octanol phase) by orthogonal outer aqueous streams gives rise to double-emulsion droplets. As the lipid bilayer assembles along the interface, each emulsion droplet quickly evolves into a liposome and a 1-octanol droplet...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579976/in-vitro-lipolysis-of-dairy-and-soy-based-infant-formula
#11
Thao T P Nguyen, Bhesh Bhandari, Julie Cichero, Sangeeta Prakash
Hydrolysed and non-hydrolysed dairy and soy proteins with vegetable oils are commonly used in infant formulations. Lipid digestion of these infant formula emulsions was studied under an in vitro gastrointestinal condition for 60 min in the stomach and 120 min in the small intestine (with and without the presence of enzyme proteases). The distribution of oil droplets, the released free fatty acids, and micro-structure changes of the digesta were monitored over the digestion period. Oil droplet coalescence was observed during gastric phase but not in the intestinal phase for most of formulations...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567034/squalene-containing-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-a-promising-adjuvant-system-for-yeast-vaccines
#12
Johannes J Stelzner, Martina Behrens, Sven-Erik Behrens, Karsten Mäder
Potent adjuvant systems are required for subunit and single antigen based vaccines to provide sufficient immunogenicity. Furthermore, adjuvants can reduce the required number of immunisations and the antigen amount. Squalene nanoemulsions, like MF59® and AddaVax™, are potent, safe and well characterised adjuvant systems and approved for use in humans. Here, we developed squalene containing solid lipid nanoparticles, which can be sterilised by steam sterilisation and stored as freeze-dried power together with a yeast-based vaccine...
March 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565143/the-presence-of-inorganic-calcium-in-pediatric-parenteral-admixtures
#13
Dorota Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Agnieszka Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Ronan MacLoughlin
INTRODUCTION: Newborn infants and small children require large amounts of calcium and phosphate in a low volume of solution which can increase the risk of precipitation of calcium phosphate. Calcium gluconate is the predominant calcium salt form employed in parenteral nutrition (PN) compounding due to its solubility profile with phosphate. Unfortunately, calcium gluconate contains higher levels of aluminum contamination than calcium chloride, resulting in an increased potential for aluminum toxicity in patients receiving traditional PN...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563912/lipid-based-particles-versatile-delivery-systems-for-mucosal-vaccination-against-infection
#14
REVIEW
Blaise Corthésy, Gilles Bioley
Vaccination is the process of administering immunogenic formulations in order to induce or harness antigen (Ag)-specific antibody and T cell responses in order to protect against infections. Important successes have been obtained in protecting individuals against many deleterious pathological situations after parenteral vaccination. However, one of the major limitations of the current vaccination strategies is the administration route that may not be optimal for the induction of immunity at the site of pathogen entry, i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561253/novosphingobium-lubricantis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-coolant-lubricant-emulsion
#15
Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Stefanie P Glaeser
A yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain KSS165-70T ) was isolated from a coolant lubricant emulsion. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain KSS165-70T showed high sequence similarity to the type strains of Novosphingobium subterraneum (98.1 %), Novosphingobium lentum (97.9 %) and Novosphingobium taihuense (97.8 %). Sequence similarities to type strains of all other Novosphingobium species were below 97.5 %. Ubiquinone Q-10 was detected as the major respiratory quinone...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559402/synergistic-effect-of-plga-nanoparticles-and-submicron-triglyceride-droplets-in-enhancing-the-intestinal-solubilisation-of-a-lipophilic-weak-base
#16
Paul Joyce, Clive A Prestidge
A novel hybrid microparticulate system composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles and submicron medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) droplets was fabricated to overcome the pH-dependent solubility and precipitation challenges associated with a model poorly water-soluble weak base, cinnarizine (CIN). Molecular CIN was confined within both the lipid and polymer phase of PLGA-lipid hybrid (PLH) and PLGA-lipid-mannitol hybrid (PLMH) particles, which offered significant biopharmaceutical advantages in comparison to the unformulated drug, submicron MCT droplets and PLGA nanoparticles...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558494/ursolic-acid-rich-ocimum-sanctum-l-leaf-extract-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-ameliorate-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-by-inhibition-of-cox-1-cox-2-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-1-pharmacological-and-docking-studies
#17
Aftab Ahmad, Mohammed F Abuzinadah, Huda M Alkreathy, Babajan Banaganapalli, Mohd Mujeeb
BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid (UA) is a promising molecule with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and potential anti-arthritic activity. METHODS: This study was undertaken to make formulation and evaluation of Ocimum sanctum L. leaf extract (OLE) loaded nano-structured lipid carriers (OLE-NLCs) for improved transdermal delivery of UA. Different surfactants, solid lipids and liquid lipids were used for the preparation of NLCs. The NLCs were developed using emulsion solvent diffusion and evaporation method...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556886/intravenous-lipid-emulsion-overdose-in-infancy-a-case-report-and-overview-of-opportunities-challenges-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Wasim Khasawneh, Salar Bani Hani
Medication errors remain among the major problems seen in hospitals. Such errors can relate to the prescription, dispensation, or administration of drugs. Human factors account for most of these mistakes, but other factors such as infusion pump programming defects should always be considered. Worldwide, medication errors have been reported to affect 2-30% of patients, depending on the institution. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) infusion is frequently used as part of total parenteral nutrition in patients of all ages with feeding and gastrointestinal issues...
March 19, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555318/blood-gas-sample-spiking-with-total-parenteral-nutrition-lipid-emulsion-and-concentrated-dextrose-solutions-as-a-model-for-predicting-sample-contamination-based-on-glucose-result
#19
Jose C Jara-Aguirre, Steven W Smeets, Amy M Wockenfus, Brad S Karon
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. DESIGN AND METHODS: Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541075/overcoming-the-neonatal-limitations-of-inducing-germinal-centers-through-liposome-based-adjuvants-including-c-type-lectin-agonists-trehalose-dibehenate-or-curdlan
#20
Maria Vono, Christiane Sigrid Eberhardt, Elodie Mohr, Floriane Auderset, Dennis Christensen, Mirco Schmolke, Rhea Coler, Andreas Meinke, Peter Andersen, Paul-Henri Lambert, Beatris Mastelic-Gavillet, Claire-Anne Siegrist
Neonates and infants are more vulnerable to infections and show reduced responses to vaccination. Consequently, repeated immunizations are required to induce protection and early life vaccines against major pathogens such as influenza are yet unavailable. Formulating antigens with potent adjuvants, including immunostimulators and delivery systems, is a demonstrated approach to enhance vaccine efficacy. Yet, adjuvants effective in adults may not meet the specific requirements for activating the early life immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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