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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775986/effects-of-two-training-programs-on-transcriptional-levels-of-neurotrophins-and-glial-cells-population-in-hippocampus-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Maryam Naghibzadeh, Rouhollah Ranjbar, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Abdolhamid Habibi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus low-intensity continuous training (LICT) on transcriptional levels of neurotrophic factors and oligodendrocyte/microglia cell loss in a cuprizone (CP) induced animal model of demyelination. Male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to six groups: control (C), cuprizone-induced demyelination (CP), interval training (IT), continuous training (CT), IT plus CP (ITCP), and CT plus CP (CTCP). Training programs on the treadmill were performed for four weeks, and then demyelination was induced by feeding mice a diet containing 0...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775591/disease-associated-microglia-a-universal-immune-sensor-of-neurodegeneration
#2
REVIEW
Aleksandra Deczkowska, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Assaf Weiner, Marco Colonna, Michal Schwartz, Ido Amit
A major challenge in the field of neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging is to identify the body's intrinsic mechanism that could sense the central nervous system (CNS) damage early and protect the brain from neurodegeneration. Accumulating evidence suggests that disease-associated microglia (DAM), a recently identified subset of CNS resident macrophages found at sites of neurodegeneration, might play such a protective role. Here, we propose that microglia are endowed with a dedicated sensory mechanism, which includes the Trem2 signaling pathway, to detect damage within the CNS in the form of neurodegeneration-associated molecular patterns (NAMPs)...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775216/neuroimmflammation-and-microglia-in-glaucoma-time-for-a-paradigm-shift
#3
REVIEW
Xin Wei, Kin-Sang Cho, Eric F Thee, Martine J Jager, Dong Feng Chen
Glaucoma is a complex neurodegenerative disease with many clinical subtypes. Some of its rare forms include pigmentary glaucoma, uveitic glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. While they all share common features of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve damage and corresponding visual field loss, the exact mechanisms underlying glaucomatous neuron loss are not clear. This has largely hindered the development of a real cure for this disease. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a known major risk factor of glaucoma; however, progressive degeneration of RGCs and axons can also be found in patients with a normal IOP, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#4
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772389/hippocampal-microglia-modifications-in-c57bl-6-pah-enu2-and-btbr-pah-enu2-phenylketonuria-pku-mice-depend-on-the-genetic-background-irrespective-of-disturbed-sleep-patterns
#5
Els van der Goot, Vibeke M Bruinenberg, Femke M Hormann, Ulrich L M Eisel, Francjan J van Spronsen, Eddy A Van der Zee
Toxic levels of phenylalanine in blood and brain is a characteristic of (untreated) phenylketonuria (PKU), leading to cognitive deficits in PKU mice. In addition, our recent findings showed that PKU mice (as well as PKU patients) have a disturbed sleep/wake cycle. As a consequence, sleep loss may contribute to cognitive deficits in PKU. Sleep loss has been linked to increased activation of microglia in the hippocampus. In this study, we set out to examine morphological features of the microglia population in the hippocampus of the mouse PKU model, using both the C57Bl/6 and the BTBR strain and their wild-type controls (age 5...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772234/effects-of-n-3pufas-on-autophagy-and-inflammation-of-hypothalamus-and-body-weight-in-mice
#6
Xin Fang, Keli Ge, Chao Song, Yin Lin-Ge, Jin Yu-Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Fat-1 transgenic mice were used as a model to study the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) on the body weight, inflammatory factors and autophagy proteins in hypothalamus to explore the mechanism of n-3PUFAs inhibiting obesity. METHOD: The mice were divided into two groups after genotype identification: fat-1 transgenic mice and wild-type mice. The body weight and body length of mice were measured at 14th week, and calculated the Lee 's index...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771310/fingolimod-phosphate-inhibits-astrocyte-inflammatory-activity-in-mucolipidosis-iv
#7
Laura Weinstock, Amanda M Furness, Shawn Herron, Sierra S Smith, Sitara Sankar, Samantha G DeRosa, Dadi Gao, Molly E Mepyans, Anna Scotto Rosato, Diego L Medina, Ayelet Vardi, Natalia S Ferreira, Soo Min Cho, Anthony H Futerman, Susan A Slaugenhaupt, Levi B Wood, Yulia Grishchuk
Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an orphan neurodevelopmental disease that causes severe neurologic dysfunction and loss of vision. Currently there is no therapy for MLIV. It is caused by loss of function of the lysosomal channel mucolipin-1, also known as TRPML1. Knockout of the Mcoln1 gene in a mouse model mirrors clinical and neuropathological signs in humans. Using this model, we previously observed robust activation of microglia and astrocytes in early symptomatic stages of disease. Here we investigate the consequence of mucolipin-1 loss on astrocyte inflammatory activation in vivo and in vitro and apply a pharmacological approach to restore Mcoln1-/- astrocyte homeostasis using a clinically approved immunomodulator, fingolimod...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769580/kv1-3-activity-perturbs-the-homeostatic-properties-of-astrocytes-in-glioma
#8
Alfonso Grimaldi, Giuseppina D'Alessandro, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Clotilde Lauro, Vikrant Singh, Francesca Pagani, Luigi Sforna, Francesca Grassi, Silvia Di Angelantonio, Luigi Catacuzzeno, Heike Wulff, Cristina Limatola, Myriam Catalano
Glial cells actively maintain the homeostasis of brain parenchyma, regulating neuronal excitability and preserving the physiological composition of the extracellular milieu. Under pathological conditions, some functions of glial cells could be compromised, exacerbating the neurotoxic processes. We investigated if the homeostatic activities of astrocytes and microglia could be modulated by the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3. To this end we used in vitro and in vivo systems to model cell-to-cell interactions in tumoral conditions, using a specific inhibitor of Kv1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769333/microglia-are-critical-in-host-defense-against-prion-disease
#9
James A Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Williams, James Striebel, Bruce Chesebro
Microglial cells in the central nervous system play important roles in neurodevelopment and resistance to infection, yet microglia can become neurotoxic under some conditions. An early event during prion infection is the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the brain prior to damage or death of neurons. Previous prion disease studies using two different strategies to manipulate signaling through the microglial receptor CSF-1R reported contrary effects on survival from prion disease. However, in these studies, reduction of microglial numbers and function were variable, thus confounding interpretation of the results...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768172/trained-microglia-trigger-memory-loss
#10
Iva Lelios, Melanie Greter
Innate immune training is a recently described mechanism that allows innate cells to recollect a previous inflammatory episode. In a recent issue of Nature, Wendeln et al. (2018) show that peripheral inflammation can alter long-term microglia function, influencing neuropathology later in life.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766810/mst1-function-and-mechanism-in-brain-and-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Di Li, Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
Mammalian STE20-like kinase-1 (Mst1) is a generally expressed apoptosis-promoting kinase and a key bridgebuilder of apoptotic signaling in the etiology of tissue injury. Despite the fact that the biological function of Mst1 and its role in the cell's signalling network have yet to be determined, however, there is a lot of evidence that Mst1 plays an important role in cell death which result from tissue injury. Previous studies have shown that Mst1 is not only a target for some apoptosis-related molecules such as caspase 3 and P53,but aslo act as an activator of these proteinases to magnify apoptosis signal pathways...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766045/post-stroke-intranasal-naloxone-delivery-reduces-microglial-activation-and-improves-behavioral-recovery-from-ischemic-injury
#12
Jenni E Anttila, Katrina Albert, Emily S Wires, Kert Mätlik, Lisa C Loram, Linda R Watkins, Kenner C Rice, Yun Wang, Brandon K Harvey, Mikko Airavaara
Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, and effective therapeutic strategies are needed to promote complete recovery. Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in stroke pathophysiology, and there is limited understanding of how it affects recovery. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatiotemporal expression profile of microglial activation and whether dampening microglial/macrophage activation post-stroke facilitates the recovery. For dampening microglial/macrophage activation, we chose intranasal administration of naloxone, a drug that is already in clinical use for opioid overdose and is known to decrease microglia/macrophage activation...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764475/a-potential-gliovascular-mechanism-for-microglial-activation-differential-phenotypic-switching-of-microglia-by-endothelium-versus-astrocytes
#13
Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning, Eng H Lo
BACKGROUND: Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that after injury, astrocytes and endothelium may contribute to a gliovascular switch for microglial activation. METHODS: Astrocytes or cerebral endothelial cells were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation, then conditioned media were transferred to microglia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763588/glycyrrhizin-ameliorates-inflammatory-pain-by-inhibiting-microglial-activation-mediated-inflammatory-response-via-blockage-of-the-hmgb1-tlr4-nf-kb-pathway
#14
Xiaojuan Sun, Hongyou Zeng, Qingsong Wang, Qingwen Yu, Jianxiong Wu, You Feng, Peng Deng, Hongxing Zhang
Chronic inflammatory pain is a severe clinical problem that greatly affects patients' quality of life and causes huge economic burden. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation exerts critical roles in the pathogenic progression of inflammatory pain. Recent evidence corroborates the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective efficacy of glycyrrhizin; however, its function in inflammatory pain remains poorly elucidated. In the present study, glycyrrhizin suppressed LPS-induced activation of microglial cell BV2 by inhibiting NO production and expression of microglial marker IBA-1...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761389/isolation-and-phenotyping-of-adult-mouse-microglial-cells
#15
Kathleen Grabert, Barry W McColl
Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma and fulfill crucial roles in brain development, homeostasis, and inflammation. The isolation of a pure microglia population from brain tissue enables the examination of microglial phenotypes without the interference of other cell populations. Microglial extractions from the neonatal brain have been described in various protocols, yet the more established and complex adult mouse brain poses a greater challenge. Here we describe a refined protocol including enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of adult mouse brain tissue and removal of myelin by Percoll density gradient...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761014/strain-specific-differential-expression-of-astrocytes-and-microglia-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#16
Jong Whi Kim, Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Yeo Sung Yoon
Introduction: Genetic background influences neurotransmitter expression and function of the hippocampus. Genetic background influences the phenotype of the hippocampus, but expression of neuroglia in hippocampus has not been well established dependent on various mouse strains. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effects of genetic background on cell population of astrocytes and microglia in eight widely used inbred strains (C57BL/6J, A/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, FVB, 129/SvJ, DBA/1, and DBA/2) and one outbred strain (ICR)...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760073/regulation-of-myeloid-cell-phagocytosis-by-lrrk2-via-wave2-complex-stabilization-is-altered-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Kwang Soo Kim, Paul C Marcogliese, Jungwoo Yang, Steve M Callaghan, Virginia Resende, Elizabeth Abdel-Messih, Connie Marras, Naomi P Visanji, Jana Huang, Michael G Schlossmacher, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Ruth S Slack, Anthony E Lang, David S Park
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2 ) has been implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its pathogenic role remains unclear. A previous screen in Drosophila identified Scar/WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verproline) proteins as potential genetic interactors of LRRK2 Here, we provide evidence that LRRK2 modulates the phagocytic response of myeloid cells via specific modulation of the actin-cytoskeletal regulator, WAVE2. We demonstrate that macrophages and microglia from LRRK2-G2019S PD patients and mice display a WAVE2-mediated increase in phagocytic response, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759138/impact-of-imipramine-on-proteome-of-rat-primary-glial-cells
#18
Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Bianka Swiderska, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Gabriela Prus, Bozena Skupien-Rabian, Urszula Jankowska, Ewa Obuchowicz
Microglia and astrocytes, two types of glial cells are known to be important targets for antidepressant drugs. Here we used a comprehensive proteomic analysis to examine the effect of imipramine on rat primary mixed glial culture. The two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis method allowed us to identify 62 proteins that were altered by imipramine. Functional analysis revealed that imipramine influenced the level of proteins involved in oxidative stress; in particular, it elevated the level of glutathione transferases...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759134/behavioural-alterations-and-morphological-changes-are-attenuated-by-the-lack-of-trpa1-receptors-in-the-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-model-in-mice
#19
Kata Bölcskei, Gábor Kriszta, Éva Sághy, Maja Payrits, Éva Sipos, Anett Vranesics, Zoltán Berente, Hajnalka Ábrahám, Péter Ács, Sámuel Komoly, Erika Pintér
We have recently reported that the Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptor deficiency significantly attenuated cuprizone-induced demyelination by reducing the apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes. The aim of the present study was to gather additional data on the role of TRPA1 by investigating the time course of behavioural alterations and morphological changes in cuprizone-treated TRPA1 receptor gene-deficient mice. Demyelination was induced by feeding male wild-type (WT) and TRPA1 gene-deleted (TRPA1 KO) mice with 0...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758340/traditional-mongolian-medicine-eerdun-wurile-improves-stroke-recovery-through-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-rat-brain
#20
Saren Gaowa, Narisi Bao, Man Da, Qiburi Qiburi, Tsogzolmaa Ganbold, Lu Chen, Altanzul Altangerel, Temuqile Temuqile, Huricha Baigude
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eerdun Wurile (EW) is one of the key Mongolian medicines for treatment of neurological and cardiological disorders. EW is ranked most regularly used Mongolian medicine in clinic. Components of EW which mainly originate from natural products are well defined and are unique to Mongolian medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: Although the recipe of EW contains known neuroactive chemicals originated from plants, its mechanism of action has never been elucidated at molecular level...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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