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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806466/medicolegal-death-investigation-of-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths
#1
Roger A Mitchell, Constance DiAngelo, Daniel Morgan
This review article describes the role of the medicolegal death investigator and medical examiner or coroner (MEC) in the investigations of a sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) beginning with an introduction into the case types that should be investigated and how infant deaths fit into that legal framework. The article also provides an overview of the history of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SUID investigation guidelines and process. The article concludes with a description of how the MEC correlates the scene investigation with autopsy findings, as well as the role of the MEC in cause of death determinations...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806463/the-evolving-understanding-of-sudden-unexpected-infant-death
#2
Christine G McIntosh, Edwin A Mitchell
Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) is the leading cause for post-neonatal mortality in industrialized nations. Case-control studies have identified risk factors for SUID that have shaped research into studies of causation. Most current hypotheses for the mechanisms for SUID contribute to the "SUID sequence"-hypoxia and/or hypercarbia in sleep to which a vulnerable infant fails to respond adequately and that results in death. Reducing vulnerability in infants and promoting safe sleep for infants is important for prevention and requires knowledge of the prevalence of risk factors within the target population and a culturally sensitive approach...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806460/sids-or-suid-the-emphasis-on-risk-reduction
#3
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759406/variations-in-cause-of-death-determination-for-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths
#4
Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Sharyn E Parks, Jennifer Brustrom, Tom Andrew, Lena Camperlengo, John Fudenberg, Betsy Payn, Dale Rhoda
OBJECTIVES: To quantify and describe variation in cause-of-death certification of sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) among US medical examiners and coroners. METHODS: From January to November 2014, we conducted a nationally representative survey of US medical examiners and coroners who certify infant deaths. Two-stage unequal probability sampling with replacement was used. Medical examiners and coroners were asked to classify SUIDs based on hypothetical scenarios and to describe the evidence considered and investigative procedures used for cause-of-death determination...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759397/prematurity-and-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths-in-the-united-states
#5
Barbara M Ostfeld, Ofira Schwartz-Soicher, Nancy E Reichman, Julien O Teitler, Thomas Hegyi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prematurity, a strong risk factor for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID), was addressed in recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2011 for safe sleep education in NICUs. We documented associations between gestational age (GA) and SUID subsequent to these guidelines. METHODS: Using the 2012-2013 US linked infant birth and death certificate period files, we documented rates per live births of sudden infant death syndrome, ill-defined and unspecified causes, accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, and overall SUID by GA in postneonatal, out-of-hospital, and autopsied cases; compared survivors and cases; and estimated logistic regression models of associations between GA and SUID...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758619/sus-scrofa-papillomavirus-2-genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-suid-papillomavirus-from-wild-boar-in-germany
#6
Ellen Kathrin Link, Marc Hoferer, Birte Strobel, Kerstin Rigbers, Martin Christoph Langenmayer, Gerd Sutter, Robert Fux
We identified a novel papillomavirus, Sus scrofa papillomavirus 2 (SsPV2), which is the first papillomavirus associated with papillomas in pigs. In skin alterations of a German wild boar, showing typical gross and histological appearance of papillomas, papillomavirus-like particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy. Degenerate papillomavirus-specific primers were used to amplify and sequence parts of the viral DNA. Subsequently, the complete genomic DNA was cloned and sequenced. The SsPV2 genome had a length of 8218 bp, encoded the early proteins E6, E7, E1 and E2, the late proteins L1 and L2 and contained an upstream regulatory region...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751613/research-priorities-in-sudden-unexpected-infant-death-an-international-consensus
#7
Fern R Hauck, Betty L McEntire, Leanne K Raven, Francine L Bates, Lucy A Lyus, Alexis M Willett, Peter S Blair
Despite the success of safe sleep campaigns and the progress in understanding risk factors, the rate of reduction in the cases of sudden infant death syndrome has now slowed and it remains a leading cause of postneonatal mortality in many developed countries. Strategic action is needed to tackle this problem and it is now vital to identify how the sudden infant death research community may best target its efforts. The Global Action and Prioritization of Sudden Infant Death Project was an international consensus process that aimed to define and direct future research by investigating the priorities of expert and lay members of the sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) community across countries...
July 27, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728766/assessment-of-safe-sleep-validation-of-the-parent-newborn-sleep-safety-survey
#8
Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Rosemary Nabaweesi, Alison Rose Caballero, Samantha Hope Mullins, Beverly Kaye Miller, Mary Elizabeth Aitken
PURPOSE: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and suffocation account for more than half of all Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID). The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations describe the safest environments to protect infants. This study compared parent responses on the Newborn Sleep Safety Survey and observational assessments (N=72) of infant sleep environments in families thought to be at high-risk for non-compliance with AAP recommendations. DESIGN AND METHODS: A naturalistic study of participants enrolled in two home visitation support programs was used...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663329/long-qt-syndrome-and-sudden-unexpected-infant-death
#9
EDITORIAL
Chantal Van Niekerk, Barbara Ströh Van Deventer, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inheritable primary electric disease of the heart characterised by abnormally long QT intervals and a propensity to develop atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. It is caused by an inherited channelopathy responsible for sudden cardiac death in individuals with structurally normal hearts. Long QT syndrome can present early in life, and some studies suggest that it may be associated with up to 20% of sudden unexplained infant death (SUID), particularly when associated with external stressors such as asphyxia, which is commonly seen in many infant death scenes...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562272/racial-and-ethnic-trends-in-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths-united-states-1995-2013
#10
Sharyn E Parks, Alexa B Erck Lambert, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Immediately after the 1994 Back-to-Sleep campaign, sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) rates decreased dramatically, but they have remained relatively stable (93.4 per 100 000 live births) since 2000. In this study, we examined trends in SUID rates and disparities by race/ethnicity since the Back-to-Sleep campaign. METHODS: We used 1995-2013 US period-linked birth-infant death data to evaluate SUID rates per 100 000 live births by non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB), Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander racial/ethnic groupings...
May 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499698/dental-microwear-and-pliocene-paleocommunity-ecology-of-bovids-primates-rodents-and-suids-at-kanapoi
#11
Peter S Ungar, Elicia F Abella, Jenny H E Burgman, Ignacio A Lazagabaster, Jessica R Scott, Lucas K Delezene, Fredrick K Manthi, J Michael Plavcan, Carol V Ward
Reconstructions of habitat at sites like Kanapoi are key to understanding the environmental circumstances in which hominins evolved during the early Pliocene. While Australopithecus anamensis shows evidence of terrestrial bipedality traditionally associated with a more open setting, its enamel has low δ(13)C values consistent with consumption of C3 foods, which predominate in wooded areas of tropical Africa. Habitat proxies, ranging from paleosols and their carbonates to associated herbivore fauna and their carbon isotope ratios, suggest a heterogeneous setting with both grass and woody plant components, though the proportions of each have been difficult to pin down...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490705/-spatial-distribution-and-clustering-in-birth-defects-from-2010-to-2013-in-shaanxi-province
#12
Ruhai Bai, Lingling Wang, Qi Zhang, Shaonong Dang, Baibing Mi, Hong Yan
To explore the spatial distribution and clustering in birth defects from 2010 to 2013 in Shaanxi Province.
 Methods: Spatial distribution was used to describe the birth defects, while ordinary Kriging method was used to predict the status of birth defects in Shaanxi province. The spatial characteristics for the birth defects at the county/district level were analyzed by spatial autocorrelation.
 Results: The overall incidence of birth defects was 219.196/10 000; Birth defect did not appear to be a random distribution but show a significant spatial aggregation...
April 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489063/african-swine-fever-virus-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Inmaculada Galindo, Covadonga Alonso
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine which causes high mortality, approaching 100%, in domestic pigs. ASF is caused by a large, double stranded DNA virus, ASF virus (ASFV), which replicates predominantly in the cytoplasm of macrophages and is the only member of the Asfarviridae family, genus Asfivirus. The natural hosts of this virus include wild suids and arthropod vectors of the Ornithodoros genus. The infection of ASFV in its reservoir hosts is usually asymptomatic and develops a persistent infection...
May 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477233/deletion-of-the-us7-and-us8-genes-of-pseudorabies-virus-exerts-a-differential-effect-on-the-expression-of-early-and-late-viral-genes
#14
Nándor Póka, Zsolt Csabai, Emese Pásti, Dóra Tombácz, Zsolt Boldogkői
The pseudorabies virus (PRV; also known as Suid herpesvirus-1) is a neurotropic herpesvirus of swine. The us7 and us8 genes of this virus encode the glycoprotein I and E membrane proteins that form a heterodimer that is known to control cell-to-cell spread in tissue culture and in animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of the deletion of the PRV us7 and us8 genes on the genome-wide transcription and DNA replication using a multi-time-point quantitative reverse transcriptase-based real-time PCR technique...
August 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300151/insights-into-early-pig-domestication-provided-by-ancient-dna-analysis
#15
Amke Caliebe, Almut Nebel, Cheryl Makarewicz, Michael Krawczak, Ben Krause-Kyora
Pigs (Sus scrofa) were first domesticated between 8,500 and 8,000 cal BC in the Near East, from where they were subsequently brought into Europe by agriculturalists. Soon after the arrival of the first domestic pigs in northern Europe (~4500 BC), farmers are thought to have started to incorporate local wild boars into their swine herds. This husbandry strategy ultimately resulted in the domestication of European wild boars. Here, we set out to provide a more precise geographic and temporal framework of the early management of suid populations in northern Europe, drawing upon mitochondrial DNA haplotype data from 116 Neolithic Sus specimens...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061875/regional-level-risk-factors-associated-with-the-occurrence-of-african-swine-fever-in-west-and-east-africa
#16
Zheng Y X Huang, Frank van Langevelde, Karanina J Honer, Marc Naguib, Willem F de Boer
BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) causes severe socio-economic impacts due to high mortality and trade restrictions. Many risk factors of ASF have been identified at farm level. However, understanding the risk factors, especially wild suid hosts, determining ASF transmission at regional level remains limited. METHODS: Based on ASF outbreak data in domestic pigs during 2006-2014, we here tested, separately for West and East Africa, which risk factors were linked to ASF presence at a regional level, using generalized linear mixed models...
January 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056966/pseudorabies-virus-infection-aujeszky-s-disease-in-an-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus-in-spain-a-case-report
#17
A Javier Masot, María Gil, David Risco, Olga M Jiménez, José I Núñez, Eloy Redondo
BACKGROUND: The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typically causes serious neurologic disease. The endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild feline endemic to south-western Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The Iberian lynx was found to be the world's most endangered felid species in 2002. In wild felines, PRV infection has only been previously reported once in a Florida panther in 1994...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995620/inner-ear-development-in-cetaceans
#18
Tara Thean, Nikolay Kardjilov, Robert J Asher
Cetaceans face the challenge of maintaining equilibrium underwater and obtaining sensory input within a dense, low-visibility medium. The cetacean ear represents a key innovation that marked their evolution from terrestrial artiodactyls to among the most fully aquatic mammals in existence. Using micro-CT and histological data, we document shape and size changes in the cetacean inner ear during ontogeny, and demonstrate that, as a proportion of gestation time, the cetacean inner ear is precocial in its growth compared with that of suid artiodactyls...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908993/whole-genome-sequence-of-a-suid-herpesvirus-1-strain-isolated-from-the-brain-of-a-hunting-dog-in-italy
#19
Federica Pizzurro, Iolanda Mangone, Guendalina Zaccaria, Eliana De Luca, Daniela Malatesta, Marco Innocenti, Irene Carmine, Francesca Cito, Maurilia Marcacci, Daria Di Sabatino, Alessio Lorusso
Suid herpesvirus-1 (SHV-1), a DNA virus of the family Herpesviridae, causes a severe and fatal disease in a wide range of mammals. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of an SHV-1 isolated in Italy in 2014 from the brain of a hunting dog that suffered from an acute and severe disease.
December 1, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899604/ipd-mhc-2-0-an-improved-inter-species-database-for-the-study-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex
#20
Giuseppe Maccari, James Robinson, Keith Ballingall, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Unni Grimholt, Jim Kaufman, Chak-Sum Ho, Natasja G de Groot, Paul Flicek, Ronald E Bontrop, John A Hammond, Steven G E Marsh
The IPD-MHC Database project (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/) collects and expertly curates sequences of the major histocompatibility complex from non-human species and provides the infrastructure and tools to enable accurate analysis. Since the first release of the database in 2003, IPD-MHC has grown and currently hosts a number of specific sections, with more than 7000 alleles from 70 species, including non-human primates, canines, felines, equids, ovids, suids, bovins, salmonids and murids. These sequences are expertly curated and made publicly available through an open access website...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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