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Maruška Budič, Blaž Cigić, Maja Šoštarič, Jerica Sabotič, Vladimir Meglič, Janko Kos, Marjetka Kidrič
Aminopeptidases, together with other proteases, execute and regulate the total and specifically limited protein breakdown involved in plant physiology, raising the possibility of their involvement in response to drought. We have identified, in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L., five aminopeptidases (E.C.3.4.11) whose levels of activity changed when three week old plants were subjected to drought. First, second and third trifoliate leaves were investigated separately. The aminopeptidases were first identified then isolated using ion exchange chromatography of leaf extracts...
October 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Aster H Juan, Stan Wang, Kyung Dae Ko, Hossein Zare, Pei-Fang Tsai, Xuesong Feng, Karinna O Vivanco, Anthony M Ascoli, Gustavo Gutierrez-Cruz, Jordan Krebs, Simone Sidoli, Adam L Knight, Roger A Pedersen, Benjamin A Garcia, Rafael Casellas, Jizhong Zou, Vittorio Sartorelli
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) methylates lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) through its catalytic subunit Ezh2. PRC2-mediated di- and tri-methylation (H3K27me2/H3K27me3) have been interchangeably associated with gene repression. However, it remains unclear whether these two degrees of H3K27 methylation have different functions. In this study, we have generated isogenic mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with a modified H3K27me2/H3K27me3 ratio. Our findings document dynamic developmental control in the genomic distribution of H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 at regulatory regions in ESCs...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Dara M Shearer, W Murray Thomson, Jonathan M Broadbent, Jim Mann, Richie Poulton
AIM: To examine associations between periodontitis and developmental trajectories of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) during the third and fourth decades in an initially healthy sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HbA1c data collected at ages 26, 32 and 38 in the prospective Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study were used to assign study members (n=893) to trajectories applying group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM). The model allowed the statistical linking of baseline demographic, smoking and waist-height ratio covariates to group membership probability; and added a time-varying covariate (periodontitis) to the trajectories themselves to examine whether events that occurred during the course of the trajectory altered its course...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Decio Brunoni, Silvana Maria Blascovi-Assis, Ana Alexandra Caldas Osório, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera Amato, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira, Marina Monzani da Rocha, Luiz Renato Rodrigues Carreiro
The present study aimed to present an overview of recent national and international research on the Zika virus (ZIKV), as well as to explore possible action plans focused on children, their families and the health teams involved.Therefore, the study proposes the implementation of tracking systems in order to identify, describe and characterize the potential correlates of prenatal exposure to ZIKV, divided into three lines of action: 1. Diagnostic and etiological evaluation as well as screening of developmental problems in children confirmed or suspected of prenatal ZIKV infection...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Yukihide Koyama, Tomio Andoh, Yoshinori Kamiya, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Koichi Maruyama, Takayuki Kariya, Takahisa Goto
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to induce excitation on immature neurons due to increased expression of Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter isoform 1 (NKCC1), and the transition of GABAergic signaling from excitatory to inhibitory occurs before birth in the rat spinal cord and spreads rostrally according to the developmental changes in cation-chloride co-transporter expression. We previously showed that midazolam activates the hippocampal CA3 area and induces less sedation in neonatal rats compared with adolescent rats in an NKCC1-dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
Heather L Kirkorian, Daniel R Anderson
Eye movements were recorded as 12-month-olds (n = 15), 4-year-olds (n = 17), and adults (n = 19) watched a 15-min video with sequences of shots conveying continuous motion. The central question was whether, and at what age, viewers anticipate the reappearance of objects following cuts to new shots. Adults were more likely than younger viewers to make anticipatory eye movements. Four-year-olds responded to transitions more slowly and tended to fixate the center of the screen. Infants' eye movement patterns reflected a tendency to react rather than anticipate...
October 26, 2016: Child Development
Anita Balázs, Zoltán Mészár, Krisztina Hegedűs, Annamária Kenyeres, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Miklós Antal
The superficial spinal dorsal horn is the first relay station of pain processing. It is also widely accepted that spinal synaptic processing to control the modality and intensity of pain signals transmitted to higher brain centers is primarily defined by inhibitory neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Earlier studies suggest that the construction of pain processing spinal neural circuits including the GABAergic components should be completed by birth, although major chemical refinements may occur postnatally...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Michael J Boivin, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez
There is growing concern that although the more severe forms of HIV-associated neurologic deficits are reduced following highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), mild to moderate cognitive disorders may persist for years after HAART initiation and this may occur despite complete plasma viral suppression. According to the UNAIDS 2014 report, there were 3.2 million children living with HIV around the world at the end of 2013 and 91 % of these resided in sub-Saharan Africa. In the same year, only 24 % of children who needed antiretroviral treatment (ART) received it and 190,000 children died of AIDS-related illnesses...
October 25, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Masaki Takao, Takashi Nishii, Takashi Sakai, Nobuhiko Sugano
PURPOSE: Rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) is used to treat developmental hip dysplasia (DDH). It requires detailed anatomical knowledge of the pelvic anatomy and three-dimensional cognitive skills. We addressed whether a computer navigation system combined with a preoperative computed tomography-based plan enabled surgeons to perform RAO safely and reliably through a mini-incision regardless of their level of experience with performing osteotomies. METHODS: We enrolled 24 patients (25 hips) with DDH (radiographic grade 0 or 1 osteoarthritic changes: Tönnis classification)...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Mohammad Abass Ahanger, R M Agarwal
Pot experiments were conducted to find out the effectivity of K on Triticum aestivum L cultivars. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as an osmoticum to induce osmotic stress under sand culture setting up the water potential of external solution at -3 and -5 bars. In pots, plants were raised under restricted and normal irrigation and K was applied in varying doses (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha(-1)) and estimation of different physiological and biochemical parameters was done at two developmental stages, i...
October 25, 2016: Protoplasma
Oscar Marín
There is a growing understanding that pathological genetic variation and environmental insults during sensitive periods in brain development have long-term consequences on brain function, which range from learning disabilities to complex psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Furthermore, recent experiments in animal models suggest that therapeutic interventions during sensitive periods, typically before the onset of clear neurological and behavioral symptoms, might prevent or ameliorate the development of specific pathologies...
October 26, 2016: Nature Medicine
Julio Jiménez, Jute Richter, Taro Nagatomo, Thomas Salaets, Rozenn Quarck, Allard Wagennar, Hongmei Wang, Jeroen Vanoirbeek, Jan Deprest, Jaan Toelen
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is caused by preterm neonatal lung injury and results in oxygen dependency and pulmonary hypertension. Current clinical management fails to reduce the incidence of BPD, which calls for novel therapies. Fetal rabbits have a lung development that mimics humans and can be used as a translational model to test novel treatment options. In preterm rabbits, exposure to hyperoxia leads to parenchymal changes, yet vascular damage has not been studied in this model. In this study we document the early functional and structural changes of the lung vasculature in preterm rabbits that are induced by hyperoxia after birth...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael S Hu, Michael T Longaker
Scarring and fibrosis are an enormous public health concern, resulting in excessive morbidity and mortality in addition to countless lost health care dollars. Recent advances in cell and developmental biology promise a better understanding of scarring and fibrosis and may translate to new clinical therapies.
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Michelle M Fleig-Palmer, Cheryl Rathert, Tracy H Porter
BACKGROUND: In health care organizations, trust is critical for effective workplace relationships that ensure patient-centered outcomes. Although research has focused on trust in the relationship between patients and clinicians, less is known about what influences workers to trust their managers. An understanding is needed of the specific behaviors that influence health care workers' evaluations of their managers' trustworthiness. Mentoring research focuses on the developmental assistance that a more experienced worker provides to a less experienced worker...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Zhiliang Yang, Guilian Sun
BACKGROUND: Sixth (abducens) nerve palsy (ANP) is far less frequent in children and has not been reported as a sign of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). We present an infant case of ADEM with bilateral abducens nerve palsy (BANP). CASE PRESENTATION: We report one case of BANP in a 15-month-old boy of fulminant ADEM. The patient underwent physical examinations and brain MRI scan three times during about six months follow-up. The patient had BANP and developmental regression when he regained consciousness from a coma, and the signs had persisted for 6-months...
October 26, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Alberto Bertolini, Elisa Petrussa, Sonia Patui, Marco Zancani, Carlo Peresson, Valentino Casolo, Angelo Vianello, Enrico Braidot
BACKGROUND: Senescence is a key developmental process occurring during the life cycle of plants that can be induced also by environmental conditions, such as starvation and/or darkness. During senescence, strict control of genes regulates ordered degradation and dismantling events, the most remarkable of which are genetically programmed cell death (PCD) and, in most cases, an upregulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in the presence of light. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play multiple essential roles in development, reproduction and defence of plants, partly due to their well-known antioxidant properties, which could affect also the same cell death machinery...
October 26, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Ying-Ying Gao, Li Chen, Tao Wang, Zheng-Wen Nie, Xia Zhang, Yi-Liang Miao
DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating many physiological behaviors; however, few studies were focused on the changes of DNA methylation during oocyte aging. Early studies showed that some imprinted genes' DNA methylation had been changed in aged mouse oocytes. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that oocyte aging would alter DNA methylation pattern of genes and disturb their expression in age oocytes, which affected the developmental potential of oocytes. We compared several different types of genes and found that the expression and DNA methylation of Neuronatin (NNAT) were disturbed in aged oocytes significantly...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Keir M Balla, Robert J Luallen, Malina A Bakowski, Emily R Troemel
The growth of pathogens is dictated by their interactions with the host environment(1). Obligate intracellular pathogens undergo several cellular decisions as they progress through their life cycles inside host cells(2). We have studied this process for microsporidian species in the genus Nematocida as they grew and developed inside their co-evolved animal host, Caenorhabditis elegans(3-5). We found that microsporidia can restructure multicellular host tissues into a single contiguous multinucleate cell. In particular, we found that all three Nematocida species we studied were able to spread across the cells of C...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Changlin Liu, Fazhen Zhao, Jingping Yan, Chunsheng Liu, Siwei Liu, Siqing Chen
Golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle is an economically important cephalopod species. However, artificial hatching is currently challenged by low survival rate of larvae due to abnormal embryonic development. Dissecting the genetic foundation and regulatory mechanisms in embryonic development requires genomic background knowledge. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome sequencing on Sepia embryos and larvae via mRNA-Seq. 32,597,241 raw reads were filtered and assembled into 98,615 unigenes (N50 length at 911 bp) which were annotated in NR database, GO and KEGG databases respectively...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carrie S Shemanko, Yingying Cong, Amanda Forsyth
The normal developmental program that prolactin generates in the mammary gland is usurped in the cancerous process and can be used out of its normal cellular context at a site of secondary metastasis. Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone and cytokine that is secreted from the pituitary gland, as well as from normal and cancerous breast cells. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that prolactin is associated with mammary gland development, and also the increased risk of breast tumors and metastatic disease in postmenopausal women...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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