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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923152/hydronephrosis-in-the-wnt5a-ablated-kidney-is-caused-by-an-abnormal-ureter-bladder-connection
#1
Kangsun Yun, Alan O Perantoni
The Wnt5a null mouse is a complex developmental model which, among its several posterior-localized axis defects, exhibits multiple kidney phenotypes, including duplex kidney and loss of the medullary zone. We previously reported that ablation of Wnt5a in nascent mesoderm causes duplex kidney formation as a result of aberrant development of the nephric duct and abnormal extension of intermediate mesoderm. However, these mice also display a loss of the medullary region late in gestation. We have now genetically isolated duplex kidney formation from the medullary defect by specifically targeting the progenitors for both the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme...
December 3, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923119/interphase-positioning-of-centromeres-sets-up-spindle-assembly
#2
Hironori Funabiki
It has been known for many years that centromeres cluster at the spindle pole body in fission yeast. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Fernández-Álvarez et al. (2016) reveal that the functional significance of clustering is to promote spindle assembly by modulating nuclear envelope integrity at the onset of mitosis.
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923118/cutting-out-the-middle-man-in-light-hormone-interactions
#3
Anna N Stepanova, Jose M Alonso
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Shi et al. (2016a) show that red-light-activated phytochrome B interacts with transcriptional regulators of ethylene signaling, EIN3/EIL1, triggering their degradation by bringing the F-box proteins EBF1 and 2 to the complex. These findings provide a paradigm for crosstalk between light and hormone signaling pathways.
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923117/examining-topological-domain-influence-on-enhancer-function
#4
Robert A Beagrie, Ana Pombo
Enhancers regulate the expression of target genes across large genomic distances, but it is unclear how recently discovered topological domains affect this regulation. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Symmons et al. (2016) show that the endogenous Shh topological domain promotes functional interactions between Shh and its remote enhancer.
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923089/correlations-between-ratings-on-the-resident-annual-evaluation-summary-and-the-internal-medicine-milestones-and-association-with-abim-certification-examination-scores-among-us-internal-medicine-residents-2013-2014
#5
Karen E Hauer, Jonathan Vandergrift, Brian Hess, Rebecca S Lipner, Eric S Holmboe, Sarah Hood, William Iobst, Stanley J Hamstra, Furman S McDonald
Importance: US internal medicine residency programs are now required to rate residents using milestones. Evidence of validity of milestone ratings is needed. Objective: To compare ratings of internal medicine residents using the pre-2015 resident annual evaluation summary (RAES), a nondevelopmental rating scale, with developmental milestone ratings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of US internal medicine residency programs in the 2013-2014 academic year, including 21 284 internal medicine residents (7048 postgraduate-year 1 [PGY-1], 7233 PGY-2, and 7003 PGY-3)...
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922856/health-profiles-and-associated-service-use-among-adults-with-hiv-and-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#6
Yona Lunsky, Anna Durbin, Hilary K Brown, Symron Bansal, Marina Heifetz, Tony Antoniou
OBJECTIVE (S): Due to the commonly held notion that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have low risk of HIV acquisition, we compared the prevalence of HIV infection among people with and without IDD. We also examined health status and health service use among the HIV-infected group. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using linked administrative health and social services databases. METHODS: We compared HIV prevalence between Ontario adults with IDD (n=64,008) and a 20% random sample of Ontario adults without IDD...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922669/upregulation-of-smad4-by-mzf1-inhibits-migration-of-human-gastric-cancer-cells
#7
Jin-Hee Lee, Sung-Su Kim, Hun Seok Lee, Sungyoul Hong, Nirmal Rajasekaran, Li-Hui Wang, Joon-Seok Choi, Young Kee Shin
SMAD4 is a tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated in many types of cancer. The role of abnormal expression of SMAD4 has been reported in developmental processes and the progression of various human cancers. The expression level of SMAD4 has been related to the survival rate in gastric cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional regulation of SMAD4 remains largely unknown. In the present study, we characterized the promoter region of SMAD4 and identified myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1), as a putative transcription factor...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922536/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-attention-in-primary-school-children-short-term-association
#8
Jordi Sunyer, Elisabet Suades-González, Raquel García-Esteban, Ioar Rivas, Jesús Pujol, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Joan Forns, Xavier Querol, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution's short-term effects are well understood to be marked and preventable, its acute neuropsychological effects have, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. We aim to examine the association between daily variation in traffic-related air pollution and attention. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study from January 2012 to March 2013 in 2,687 school children from 265 classrooms in 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed four domains of children's attention processes every 3 months over four repeated visits providing a total of 10,002 computerized tests on 177 different days using the child Attention Network test (ANT)...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922529/prevention-of-developmental-neurotoxicity
#9
Philippe Grandjean, Reiko Kishi, Manolis Kogevinas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922501/an-overview-of-congenital-myopathies
#10
Jean K Mah, Jeffrey T Joseph
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article uses a case-based approach to highlight the clinical features as well as recent advances in molecular genetics, muscle imaging, and pathophysiology of the congenital myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Congenital myopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of genetic neuromuscular disorders characterized by early-onset muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Congenital myopathies are further classified into core myopathies, centronuclear myopathies, nemaline myopathies, and congenital fiber-type disproportion based on the key pathologic features found in muscle biopsies...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922245/a-novel-mutation-in-a-case-of-pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-ia
#11
Birgül Kırel, Meliha Demiral, Özkan Bozdağ, Kadri Karaer
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia is characterized by multiple hormone resistance; primarily parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) which involves skeletal and developmental defects. The AHO phenotype alone without hormone resistance is defined as pseudoPHP. A boy was first diagnosed as having both rickets and primary hypothyroidism at 2.5 months of age. His calcium level remained within normal levels after vitamin D treatment, but, elevated PTH and ALP levels and normal-high phosphate levels persisted during his follow-up by age of 2...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922203/vulnerability-to-alcohol-related-problems-a-policy-brief-with-implications-for-the-regulation-of-alcohol-marketing
#12
Thomas F Babor, Katherine Robaina, Jonathan K Noel, E Bruce Ritson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. METHOD: We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status...
December 6, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922056/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-long-intergenic-noncoding-rna-genes-in-porcine-pre-implantation-embryonic-development
#13
Jingyu Li, Zhengling Gao, Xingyu Wang, Hongbo Liu, Yan Zhang, Zhonghua Liu
Genome-wide transcriptome studies have identified thousands of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), some of which play important roles in pre-implantation embryonic development (PED). Pig is an ideal model for reproduction, however, porcine lincRNAs are still poorly characterized and it is unknown if they are associated with porcine PED. Here we reconstructed 195,531 transcripts in 122,007 loci, and identified 7,618 novel lincRNAs from 4,776 loci based on published RNA-seq data. These lincRNAs show low exon number, short length, low expression level, tissue-specific expression and cis-acting, which is consistent with previous reports in other species...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921519/different-responses-of-drosophila-subobscura-isofemale-lines-to-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-50%C3%A2-hz-0-5%C3%A2-mt-fitness-components-and-locomotor-activity
#14
Danica Zmejkoski, Branka Petković, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zlatko Prolić, Marko Anđelković, Tatjana Savić
PURPOSE: Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields as essential ecological factor may induce specific responses in genetically different lines. The subject of this study was to investigate the impact of ELF magnetic field on fitness components and locomotor activity of five Drosophila subobscura isofemale (IF) lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each D. subobscura IF line, arbitrarily named: B16/1, B24/4, B39/1, B57/2 and B69/5, was maintained in five full-sib inbreeding generations...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921445/risk-of-neonatal-and-childhood-morbidity-among-preterm-infants-exposed-to-marijuana
#15
Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Marcela C Smid, Tracy A Manuck, Torri D Metz
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants exposed to marijuana (MJ) in-utero, particularly among preterm infants. We hypothesized that MJ-exposed preterm infants would have worse neonatal and childhood developmental outcomes compared to MJ-unexposed infants. METHODS: Secondary analysis of multicenter randomized-controlled trial of antenatal magnesium sulfate for prevention of cerebral palsy was conducted. Singleton non-anomalous infants delivered <35 weeks exposed to MJ in-utero were compared to MJ-unexposed...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921363/morphomechanics-and-developmental-constraints-in-the-evolution-of-ammonites-shell-form
#16
Alexander Erlich, Derek E Moulton, Alain Goriely, Regis Chirat
The idea that physical processes involved in biological development underlie morphogenetic rules and channel morphological evolution has been central to the rise of evolutionary developmental biology. Here, we explore this idea in the context of seashell morphogenesis. We show that a morphomechanical model predicts the effects of variations in shell shape on the ornamental pattern in ammonites, a now extinct group of cephalopods with external chambered shell. Our model shows that several seemingly unrelated characteristics of synchronous, ontogenetic, intraspecific, and evolutionary variations in ornamental patterns among various ammonite species may all be understood from the fact that the mechanical forces underlying the oscillatory behavior of the shell secreting system scale with the cross-sectional curvature of the shell aperture...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921339/perceptual-narrowing-towards-adult-faces-is-a-cross-cultural-phenomenon-in-infancy-a-behavioral-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-with-japanese-infants
#17
Megumi Kobayashi, Viola Macchi Cassia, So Kanazawa, Masami K Yamaguchi, Ryusuke Kakigi
Recent data showed that, in Caucasian infants, perceptual narrowing occurs for own-race adult faces between 3 and 9 months of age, possibly as a consequence of the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals of the same race of the caregiver. The neural correlates of this developmental process remain unexplored, and it is currently unknown whether perceptual tuning towards adult faces can be extended to other cultures. To this end, in the current study we tested the ability of 3- and 9-month-old Japanese infants to discriminate among adult and infant Asian faces in a visual familiarization task (Experiment 1), and compared 9-month-olds' cerebral hemodynamic responses to adult and infant faces as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (Experiment 2)...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921306/applying-a-family-resilience-framework-in-training-practice-and-research-mastering-the-art-of-the-possible
#18
Froma Walsh
With growing interest in systemic views of human resilience, this article updates and clarifies our understanding of the concept of resilience as involving multilevel dynamic processes over time. Family resilience refers to the functioning of the family system in dealing with adversity: Assessment and intervention focus on the family impact of stressful life challenges and the family processes that foster positive adaptation for the family unit and all members. The application of a family resilience framework is discussed and illustrated in clinical and community-based training and practice...
December 2016: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921294/temporal-dissociation-of-developmental-events-in-the-chick-eye-under-low-temperature-conditions
#19
Hideaki Iida, Tiantian Yang, Sadao Yasugi, Yasuo Ishii
The chick embryonic eye is an excellent model for the study of vertebrate organogenesis. Key events in eye development involve thickening, invagination and cytodifferentiation of the lens primordium. While these events occur successively at different developmental stages, the extent to which these events are temporally related is largely unknown. Here we show that the lens invagination is highly sensitive to temperature. Lowering of incubation temperature to 29°C at embryonic day 2 delayed the onset of invagination of the lens, but not thickening and cytodifferentiation, leading to abnormal protrusion of the eye...
December 6, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921292/cranial-joint-histology-in-the-mallard-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-new-insights-on-avian-cranial-kinesis
#20
Alida M Bailleul, Lawrence M Witmer, Casey M Holliday
The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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