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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666189/single-cell-rna-seq-reveals-cell-heterogeneity-and-hierarchy-within-mouse-mammary-epithelia
#1
Heng Sun, Zhengqiang Miao, Xin Zhang, Un In Chan, Sek Man Su, Sen Guo, Chris Koon Ho Wong, Xiaoling Xu, Chu-Xia Deng
The mammary gland is very intricately and well organized into distinct tissues, including epithelia, endothelia, adipocytes, and stromal and immune cells. Many mammary gland diseases, such as breast cancer arise from abnormalities in the mammary epithelium, which is mainly composed of two distinct lineages, the basal and luminal cells. Because of the limitation of traditional transcriptome analysis of bulk mammary cells, the hierarchy and heterogeneity of mammary cells within these two lineages remain unclear...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663940/ezh2-expression-in-naturally-occurring-canine-tumors
#2
Hyun-Ji Choi, Han-Byul Lee, Hyun-Kyu Park, Sung-Min Cho, Hyo-Jeong Han, Sang-Joon Lee, Ji-Young Lee, Su-Jeong Nam, Eun-Ho Cho, Woo-Chan Son
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) shows upregulated expression in tumors and is an important driver of tumor development and progression. However, the mechanism underlying the mediation of tumor aggressiveness by EZH2 remains unclear. We here investigated the levels of EZH2 in various normal and tumorous dog tissues and compared these patterns with those of the corresponding human tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive staining for EZH2 in 76 of 82 cases of canine tumors, whereas low or negligible staining occurred in normal tissues and other canine tumors, including hepatocellular adenoma and lipoma...
April 2, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662197/mekk2-and-mekk3-suppress-hedgehog-pathway-dependent-medulloblastoma-by-inhibiting-gli1-function
#3
Jinqiu Lu, Liansheng Liu, Mingjie Zheng, Xiaoling Li, Ailing Wu, Qingzhe Wu, Cheng Liao, Jian Zou, Hai Song
Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays a pivotal role in diverse aspects of development and postnatal physiology. Perturbation of Hh signaling and activation of GLI1 (glioma-associated oncogene 1), a dedicated transcription factor for Hh pathway, are highly associated with several cancers, such as medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. Dynamic and precise control of GLI1 activity is thus important to ensure proper homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Here we show that MEKK2 (MAP3K2) and MEKK3 (MAP3K3) inhibit GLI1 transcriptional activity and oncogenic function through phosphorylation on multiple Ser/Thr sites of GLI1, which reduces GLI1 protein stability, DNA-binding ability, and increases the association of GLI1 with SUFU...
April 17, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662189/akt-as-a-key-target-for-growth-promoting-functions-of-neutral-ceramidase-in-colon-cancer-cells
#4
Nicolas Coant, Mónica García-Barros, Qifeng Zhang, Lina M Obeid, Yusuf A Hannun
Despite advances in the field, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Research into bioactive sphingolipids over the past two decades has played an important role in increasing our understanding of the pathogenesis and therapeutics of CRC. In the complex metabolic network of sphingolipids, ceramidases (CDases) have a key function. These enzymes hydrolyze ceramides into sphingosine (SPH) which in turn is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinases (SK) 1 and 2 to generate sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P)...
April 17, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661336/cutaneous-head-and-neck-malignancies-in-the-elderly
#5
REVIEW
Brian B Hughley, Cecelia E Schmalbach
Cutaneous malignancy of the head and neck affects a large proportion of elderly patients. The severity ranges from small, easily treatable lesions to large, invasive, potentially metastatic tumors. Surgical treatment is the primary treatment of most skin cancers; however, geriatric patients are more likely to have multiple comorbidities that increase the risk of surgery. Multiple treatment modalities exist, including surgical, radiation, and medical therapy. Recommendations and treatment options for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma are outlined and reviewed...
May 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658109/pge-2-ep-4-antagonism-enhances-tumor-chemosensitivity-by-inducing-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-clearance-of-cancer-stem-cells
#6
Meng-Chieh Lin, Shih-Yin Chen, Pei- Lin He, Harvey Herschman, Hua-Jung Li
Cells expressing mesenchymal/basal phenotypes in tumors have been associated with stem cell properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We explored overcoming mesenchymal CSC resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Our goal was to reduce CSC numbers in vivo, in conjunction with chemotherapy, to reduce tumor burden. Analysis of clinical samples demonstrated that COX-2/PGE2 /EP4 signaling is elevated in basal-like and chemoresistant breast carcinoma and is correlated with survival and relapse of breast cancer...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651733/interaction-of-zn-with-losartan-activation-of-intrinsic-apoptotic-signaling-pathway-in-lung-cancer-cells-and-effects-on-alkaline-and-acid-phosphatases
#7
Valeria R Martínez, María V Aguirre, Juan S Todaro, Oscar E Piro, Gustavo A Echeverría, Luciana G Naso, Evelina G Ferrer, Patricia A M Williams
A new losartan [2-butyl-5-chloro-3-[[4-[2-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]phenyl]methyl]imidazol-4-yl]methanol zinc(II) complex [Zn(Los)Cl], was synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure was determined by x-ray diffraction methods. When aqueous solutions of the ligand and the metal were mixed, the known and more soluble powder [Zn(Los)2 ].3H2 O (ZnLos) complex has been obtained. The interactions with phosphatases showed a concerted mechanism displayed by the Zn ions and ZnLos up to 500 μM concentration: a decrease of the acid phosphatase (AcP) associated with an increase in the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities...
April 12, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651173/in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-staphyloxanthin-pigment-extracted-from-staphylococcus-gallinarum-kx912244-a-gut-microbe-of-bombyx-mori
#8
Delicia Avilla Barretto, Shyam Kumar Vootla
The present study reports the in vitro biological nature of the pigment produced by Staphylococcus gallinarum KX912244, isolated as the gut microflora bacterium of the insect Bombyx mori . The purified pigment was characterized as Staphyloxanthin based on bio-physical characterization techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR), Liquid chromatography-Mass spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643987/proteomic-analysis-defines-kinase-taxonomies-specific-for-subtypes-of-breast-cancer
#9
Kyla A L Collins, Timothy J Stuhlmiller, Jon S Zawistowski, Michael P East, Trang T Pham, Claire R Hall, Daniel R Goulet, Samantha M Bevill, Steven P Angus, Sara H Velarde, Noah Sciaky, Tudor I Oprea, Lee M Graves, Gary L Johnson, Shawn M Gomez
Multiplexed small molecule inhibitors covalently bound to Sepharose beads (MIBs) were used to capture functional kinases in luminal, HER2-enriched and triple negative (basal-like and claudin-low) breast cancer cell lines and tumors. Kinase MIB-binding profiles at baseline without perturbation proteomically distinguished the four breast cancer subtypes. Understudied kinases, whose disease associations and pharmacology are generally unexplored, were highly represented in MIB-binding taxonomies and are integrated into signaling subnetworks with kinases that have been previously well characterized in breast cancer...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628980/berberine-suppresses-fibronectin-expression-through-inhibition-of-c-jun-phosphorylation-in-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Yisun Jeong, Daeun You, Hyun-Gu Kang, Jonghan Yu, Seok Won Kim, Seok Jin Nam, Jeong Eon Lee, Sangmin Kim
Purpose: The exact mechanism regulating fibronectin (FN) expression in breast cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological mechanism of berberine (BBR) with respect to FN expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Methods: The clinical significance of FN mRNA expression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier plotter database (http://kmplot.com/breast). FN mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively...
March 2018: Journal of Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625565/sall1-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-breast-cancer-by-regulating-cancer-cell-senescence-and-metastasis-through-the-nurd-complex
#11
Chunling Ma, Fang Wang, Bing Han, Xiaoli Zhong, Fusheng Si, Jian Ye, Eddy C Hsueh, Lynn Robbins, Susan M Kiefer, Yanping Zhang, Pamela Hunborg, Mark A Varvares, Michael Rauchman, Guangyong Peng
BACKGROUND: SALL1 is a multi-zinc finger transcription factor that regulates organogenesis and stem cell development, but the role of SALL1 in tumor biology and tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. METHODS: We analyzed SALL1 expression levels in human and murine breast cancer cells as well as cancer tissues from different types of breast cancer patients. Using both in vitro co-culture system and in vivo breast tumor models, we investigated how SALL1 expression in breast cancer cells affects tumor cell growth and proliferation, metastasis, and cell fate...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624782/a-molecular-pathological-study-of-four-cases-of-ciliated-muconodular-papillary-tumors-of-the-lung
#12
Toshiaki Kataoka, Koji Okudela, Mai Matsumura, Hideaki Mitsui, Takehisa Suzuki, Chihiro Koike, Tomoe Sawazumi, Shigeaki Umeda, Yoko Tateishi, Shoji Yamanaka, Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Hiromasa Arai, Michihiko Tajiri, Kenichi Ohashi
Ciliated muconodular papillary tumors (CMPTs) are a recently categorized benign or low-grade malignant neoplasm that develops in the peripheral lung. Only about 40 cases have been reported to date, and the clinicopathological characteristics have yet to be defined in detail. Here, we present four cases of CMPTs with a focus on their immunohistochemical profiles and driver gene mutations. These tumors were a papillary proliferation of a mixture of ciliated, mucous, and basal cells located in the peripheral lung...
April 6, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623068/nuclear-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-as-a-biomarker-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-xenograft-tumors-effect-of-targeted-therapy-and-comparison-with-chemotherapy
#13
Sohel M Julovi, Janet L Martin, Robert C Baxter
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) typically has a worse outcome than other breast cancer subtypes, in part owing to a lack of approved therapeutic targets or prognostic markers. We have previously described an oncogenic pathway in basal-like TNBC cells, initiated by insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), in which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is transactivated by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) resulting from sphingosine kinase (SphK)-1 activation. Oncogenic IGFBP-3 signaling can be targeted by combination treatment with the S1P receptor modulator and SphK inhibitor, fingolimod, and the EGFR kinase inhibitor, gefitinib (F + G)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621649/the-stat3-target-gene-tnfrsf1a-modulates-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Susana P Egusquiaguirre, Jennifer E Yeh, Sarah R Walker, Suhu Liu, David A Frank
The transcription factor STAT3 is activated inappropriately in 70% of breast cancers, most commonly in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Although the transcriptional function of STAT3 is essential for tumorigenesis, the key target genes regulated by STAT3 in driving tumor pathogenesis have remained unclear. To identify critical STAT3 target genes, we treated TNBC cell lines with two different compounds that block STAT3 transcriptional function, pyrimethamine and PMPTP. We then performed gene expression analysis to identify genes whose expression is strongly down-regulated by both STAT3 inhibitors...
April 2, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619990/do-cancer-registries-play-a-role-in-determining-the-incidence-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancers
#15
Carlos Anselmo Lima, Marcela Sampaio Lima, Angela Maria Da Silva, Marco Antonio Prado Nunes, Marcia Maria Macedo Lima, Marceli Oliveira Santos, Divaldo Lyra, Carlos Kleber Alves
Non-melanoma skin cancers have the highest incidence of all malignancies worldwide. However, cancer registries rarely include data on non-melanoma skin cancers because they tend to be under-reported. To determine incidence rates and changes over time for non-melanoma skin cancers in a mid-sized Brazilian population. We calculated age-standardized rates, adjusted to the world population using the direct method, from 1996-2012 in the Aracaju Cancer Registry and then calculated incidence trends using the Joinpoint Regression Program...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619343/alterations-of-the-human-skin-n-and-o-glycome-in-basal-cell-carcinoma-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Uwe Möginger, Sonja Grunewald, René Hennig, Chu-Wei Kuo, Falko Schirmeister, Harald Voth, Erdmann Rapp, Kay-Hooi Khoo, Peter H Seeberger, Jan C Simon, Daniel Kolarich
The glycome of one of the largest and most exposed human organs, the skin, as well as glycan changes associated with non-melanoma skin cancers have not been studied in detail to date. Skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are among the most frequent types of cancers with rising incidence rates in the aging population. We investigated the healthy human skin N - and O -glycome and its changes associated with BCC and SCC. Matched patient samples were obtained from frozen biopsy and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples for glycomics analyses using two complementary glycomics approaches: porous graphitized carbon nano-liquid chromatography electro spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and capillary gel electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616377/male-secretory-breast-cancer-case-in-a-6-year-old-boy-with-a-peculiar-gene-duplication-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
M Ghilli, M D Mariniello, C Scatena, L Dosa, G Traficante, A Tamburini, C Caporalini, A M Buccoliero, F Facchini, L Colizzi, A Quattrini Li, E Landucci, G Manca, A G Naccarato, D Caramella, C Favre, M Roncella
PURPOSE: Secretory breast cancer (SBC) is one of the rarest breast cancer (BC), representing the majority of BC in childhood. Nevertheless, it elicits a lot of interest both for the peculiar morphology and the characteristic genetic features. Currently, there is no consensus on optimal treatment strategy. Therefore, it is useful to report every case in order to establish treatment algorithms. METHODS: We describe the case of a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with a SBC, with peculiar genomic and immunohistochemical features...
April 3, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615789/metabolic-enzyme-pfkfb4-activates-transcriptional-coactivator-src-3-to-drive-breast-cancer
#18
Subhamoy Dasgupta, Kimal Rajapakshe, Bokai Zhu, Bryan C Nikolai, Ping Yi, Nagireddy Putluri, Jong Min Choi, Sung Y Jung, Cristian Coarfa, Thomas F Westbrook, Xiang H-F Zhang, Charles E Foulds, Sophia Y Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai, Bert W O'Malley
Alterations in both cell metabolism and transcriptional programs are hallmarks of cancer that sustain rapid proliferation and metastasis1 . However, the mechanisms that control the interaction between metabolic reprogramming and transcriptional regulation remain unclear. Here we show that the metabolic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4) regulates transcriptional reprogramming by activating the oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3). We used a kinome-wide RNA interference-based screening method to identify potential kinases that modulate the intrinsic SRC-3 transcriptional response...
April 3, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615568/roles-of-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-epidermal-and-hair-follicle-development-homeostasis-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Yoshinori Abe, Nobuyuki Tanaka
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and provides a protective barrier against environmental insults. It is a rapidly-renewing tissue undergoing constant regeneration, maintained by several types of stem cells. The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is one of the fundamental signaling pathways that contributes to epidermal development, homeostasis, and repair, as well as to hair follicle development and follicle bulge stem cell maintenance. The HH pathway interacts with other signal transduction pathways, including those activated by Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, platelet-derived growth factor, Notch, and ectodysplasin...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611723/activation-of-tumor-cell-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-by-radiation-and-reversal-of-activation-by-chemically-modified-tetraiodothyroacetic-acid-tetrac
#20
John T Leith, Aleck Hercbergs, Susan Kenney, Shaker A Mousa, Paul J Davis
PURPOSE: Integrin αvβ3 is an important structural and signaling protein of the plasma membrane of cancer cells and dividing blood vessel cells. The plastic extracellular domain of the protein binds to extracellular matrix proteins and plasma membrane proteins, changing cell-cell interactions and generating intracellular signals that influence cell behavior. αvβ3 also contains a receptor for thyroid hormone and derivatives, including tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human prostate cancer (PC3) cells were engrafted in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model...
April 3, 2018: Endocrine Research
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