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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457484/cryosurgery-5-5-fluorouracil-for-treatment-of-superficial-basal-cell-carcinoma-and-bowen-s-disease
#1
Laura C Soong, Christopher P Keeling
BACKGROUND: Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCis) are 2 types of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) that are amenable to treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil, cryosurgery, or topical imiquimod, among other destructive and surgical modalities. There are few studies examining the effectiveness of combination therapy with 5% 5-fluorouracil and cryosurgery for the treatment of sBCC and SCCis. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the clinical cure rate achieved with the regimen of cryosurgery and a 3-week course of 5% 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of biopsy-proven sBCC and SCCis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455872/-pd-l1-expression-and-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Audrey Monneur, Anthony Gonçalves, François Bertucci
The development of immune checkpoints inhibitors represents one of the major recent advances in oncology. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) provides durable disease control, particularly in melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder and head and neck cancers. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current data on the expression of PD-L1 in breast cancer and on the preliminary clinical results of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer patients. In breast cancer, PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the presence of poor-prognosis factors, such as young age, high grade, ER-negativity, PR-negativity, and HER-2 overexpression, high proliferative index, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple negative, basal-like, HER-2-overexpressing)...
February 15, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455848/caveolin-1-the-unnoticed-player-in-tcr-and-bcr-signaling
#3
Gina J Fiala, Susana Minguet
T and B lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system. They recognize pathogenic cues via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) to get activated and execute their protective function. TCR and BCR signaling are initiated at the plasma membrane and subsequently propagated into the cell, ultimately leading to cell activation and a protective immune response. However, inappropriate activation of T and B cells can be detrimental to the host resulting in autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and cancer...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455656/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nedd4-mediates-cell-migration-signaling-of-egfr-in-lung-cancer-cells
#4
Genbao Shao, Ranran Wang, Aiqin Sun, Jing Wei, Ke Peng, Qian Dai, Wannian Yang, Qiong Lin
BACKGROUND: EGFR-dependent cell migration plays an important role in lung cancer progression. Our previous study observed that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and required for migration and invasion signaling of EGFR in gastric cancer cells. However, how NEDD4 promotes the EGFR-dependent lung cancer cell migration is unknown. This study is to elucidate the mechanism by which NEDD4 mediates the EGFR lung cancer migration signaling. METHODS: Lentiviral vector-loaded NEDD4 shRNA was used to deplete endogenous NEDD4 in lung cancer cell lines...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453475/basal-cell-carcinoma-in-cases-with-or-without-xeroderma-pigmentosum
#5
Dilasma Ghartimagar, Arnab Ghosh, Sushil Ram Shrestha, Sachet Shrestha, Sushma Thapa, Raghavan Narasimhan, O P Talwar
INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of cancer in humans and comprises the vast majority of skin cancers. It predominantly affects fair-skinned individuals, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The objective of the study is to identify the epidemiology, its topography and different histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma in patients with or without Xeroderma Pigmentosum. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara from Jan 2009 to Dec 2016...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453319/leptin-signaling-mediates-obesity-associated-csc-enrichment-and-emt-in-preclinical-tnbc-models
#6
Laura W Bowers, Emily L Rossi, Shannon B McDonell, Steven S Doerstling, Subreen A Khatib, Claire G Lineberger, Jody E Albright, Xiaohu Tang, Linda A deGraffenried, Stephen D Hursting
Obesity is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Preclinical models of TNBC were used to test the hypothesis that increased leptin signaling drives obesity-associated TNBC development by promoting cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and/or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice, which develop spontaneous basal-like, triple-negative mammary tumors, received either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or a diet-induced obesity regimen (DIO, 60% kcal from fat) for up to 42 weeks (n=15/group)...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453315/autophagic-flux-is-regulated-by-interaction-between-the-c-terminal-domain-of-patched1-and-atg101
#7
Lucy X Chen, Cintli C Morales-Alcala, Natalia A Riobo-Del Galdo
The Hedgehog (Hh) receptor Patched1 (PTCH1) is a well-known tumor suppressor that in its active form represses Smoothened (SMO) activity, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis. The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates PTCH1 turnover and nucleates a pro-apoptotic complex. In this study, it was mechanistically determined that Autophagy Related 10 (ATG101), essential for mammalian autophagy, physically interacts with the CTD of PTCH1 and connects it to the ULK complex, which stimulates the autophagy machinery in response to changes in nutrient availability...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447503/the-effects-of-all-trans-retinoic-acid-on-estrogen-receptor-signaling-in-the-estrogen-sensitive-mcf-bus-subline
#8
Ignacio Miro Estruch, Laura H J de Haan, Diana Melchers, René Houtman, Jochem Louisse, John P Groten, Ivonne M C M Rietjens
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) play important and opposite roles in breast cancer growth. While exposure to ERα agonists such as 17β-estradiol (E2 ) is related to proliferation, RAR agonists such as all-trans retinoic acid (AtRA) induce anti-proliferative effects. Although crosstalk between these pathways has been proposed, the molecular mechanisms underlying this interplay are still not completely unraveled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AtRA on ERα-mediated signaling in the ERα positive cell lines MCF7/BUS and U2OS-ERα-Luc to investigate some of the possible underlying modes of action...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445582/dermoscopic-and-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-features-of-two-cases-of-vulvar-basal-cell-carcinoma
#9
Elisa Cinotti, Giulia Tonini, Jean Luc Perrot, Cyril Habougit, Stefano Luisi, Pietro Rubegni
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant skin cancer. Its genital localization is rare, and the diagnosis in this site could be challenging. Here, we report two patients with vulvar BCC and describe their clinical, dermoscopic and in vivo and ex vivo reflectance confocal microscopic (RCM) features. Dermoscopy and RCM can be useful tools for helping the clinical diagnosis of vulvar BCC and for identifying the correct surgical margins.
January 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444261/selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-s42-suppresses-prostate-cancer-cell-proliferation
#10
Takako Kawanami, Tomoko Tanaka, Yuriko Hamaguchi, Takashi Nomiyama, Hajime Nawata, Tosihiko Yanase
We previously identified a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM), S42, which does not stimulate prostate growth but has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. In the prostate cancer (PC) cell line LNCaP, S42 did not induce androgen receptor (AR) transactivation but antagonized 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced AR activation. Next, we investigated whether S42 suppresses the growth of PC cell lines. Basal growth of LNCaP cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with S42 compared with vehicle, as determined by cell counting and BrdU assays...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441520/methods-for-multivariate-recurrent-event-data-with-measurement-error-and-informative-censoring
#11
Hsiang Yu, Yu-Jen Cheng, Ching-Yun Wang
In multivariate recurrent event data regression, observation of recurrent events is usually terminated by other events that are associated with the recurrent event processes, resulting in informative censoring. Additionally, some covariates could be measured with errors. In some applications, an instrumental variable is observed in a subsample, namely a calibration sample, which can be applied for bias correction. In this article, we develop two non-parametric correction approaches to simultaneously correct for the informative censoring and measurement errors in the analysis of multivariate recurrent event data...
February 13, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439667/impact-of-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-downregulation-on-autophagy-in-glioblastoma-cells
#12
Ewa Toton, Aleksandra Romaniuk, Natalia Konieczna, Johann Hofmann, Jan Barciszewski, Maria Rybczynska
BACKGROUND: Several efforts have been focused on identification of pathways involved in malignancy, progression, and response to treatment in Glioblastoma (GB). Overexpression of PKCε was detected in histological samples from GB, anaplastic astrocytoma, and gliosarcoma and is considered an important marker of negative disease outcome. In multiple studies on GB, autophagy has been shown as a survival mechanism during cellular stress, contributing to resistance against anti-cancer agents...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439457/immune-landscape-of-breast-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Divya Nagarajan, Stephanie E B McArdle
Breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, both at a molecular and a histological level. Five intrinsic subtypes were initially identified-Luminal-A, Luminal-B, HER2⁺, Triple negative/basal like (TNBC) and normal like-subsequently expanded to seven (Basal-like-1 and 2, mesenchymal, mesenchymal stem-like, luminal androgen receptor, immuno-modulatory and unstable). Although genetic and epigenetic changes are key pathogenic events, the immune system plays a substantial role in promoting progression and metastasis...
February 11, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438745/an-automated-epifluorescence-microscopy-imaging-assay-for-the-identification-of-phospho-akt-level-modulators-in-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Elke Kaemmerer, Dane Turner, Amelia A Peters, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson, Gregory R Monteith
AKT is an enzyme of the PI3K/pAKT pathway, regulating proliferation and cell survival. High basal levels of active, phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) are associated with tumor progression and therapeutic resistance in some breast cancer subtypes, including HER2 positive breast cancers. Various stimuli can increase pAKT levels and elevated basal pAKT levels are a feature of PTEN-deficient breast cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop an assay able to identify modulators of pAKT levels using an automated epifluorescence microscope and high content analysis...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438174/presence-or-absence-of-significant-hpve4-expression-in-high-grade-anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-with-p16-ki-67-positivity-indicates-distinct-patterns-of-neoplasia-a-study-combining-immunohistochemistry-and-laser-capture-microdissection-pcr
#15
Annemiek Leeman, Edyta C Pirog, John Doorbar, Miekel M van de Sandt, Folkert J van Kemenade, David Jenkins, Wim G V Quint
Progression of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) involves transition from productive to transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Grading aims to distinguish productive low-grade AIN from high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) with risk of cancer. We describe immunohistochemical patterns in AIN adding a novel marker for initiation of the productive phase of the HPV life cycle (panHPVE4) to those for cell cycle activity (Ki-67) and transforming activity of HPVE7 gene (p16). We studied 67 anal biopsies for suspected anal neoplasia (17 normal, 15 AIN1, 20 AIN2, 15 AIN3) from 54 men who have sex with men at New York Presbyterian Hospital, USA...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438147/ulcerated-basal-cell-carcinomas-masquerading-as-venous-leg-ulcers
#16
Catherine N Tchanque-Fossuo, Jillian W Millsop, Mary Ann Johnson, Sara E Dahle, R Rivkah Isseroff
BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancers rarely arise from venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer, its association with lower-extremity ulcers is not as frequently reported as other malignancies. OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of biopsy-proven BCC from lower-extremity ulcers of patients who presented at a multispecialty wound clinic. METHODS: Four male patients (mean age, 82...
March 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436720/an-expanded-study-of-long-pulsed-1064-nm-nd-yag-laser-treatment-of-basal-cell-carcinoma
#17
Arisa E Ortiz, R Rox Anderson, Catherine DiGiorgio, Shang I Brian Jiang, Faiza Shafiq, Mathew M Avram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an indolent form of skin cancer that is rarely life threatening, but can cause significant cosmetic and functional morbidity. Surgical treatments often result in disfiguring scars, while topical therapies frequently result in recurrence. The need for a more effective nonsurgical alternative has led to the investigation of laser treatment of BCC. We have previously conducted a pilot study which showed 100% histologic clearance at high fluences...
February 13, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435119/a-dual-mechanism-of-activation-of-the-sonic-hedgehog-pathway-in-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-crosstalk-with-ras-braf-mek-pathway-and-ligand-secretion-by-tumor-stroma
#18
Alessia Parascandolo, Mikko O Laukkanen, Nancy De Rosa, Clara Ugolini, Maria Carmela Cantisani, Anna Maria Cirafici, Fulvio Basolo, Massimo Santoro, Maria Domenica Castellone
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway regulates embryonic development of different organs including the thyroid gland. The aberrant activation of Shh signaling has been found in several types of cancer and according to recent evidences it represents an important regulator of tumor-stroma interaction. In this study, we have analyzed expression, activation and molecular mechanisms regulating the Shh pathway and its involvement in the modulation of tumor stroma interaction in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells. Our results suggest that Shh signaling undergoes a dual mechanism of induction in ATC cells: 1) a basal non-canonical Smo-dependent activation of Gli transcription factor that is partly caused by interaction with the RAS/BRAF/MEK oncogenic pathway and is characterized by the absence of Shh ligand expression in thyroid cancer cells and 2) a paracrine response of cancer cells to Shh ligand secreted by tumor stroma (fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells, MSCs) inducing cancer cell migration and in vitro tumorigenesis...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435066/potential-anticancer-effect-of-prostratin-through-sik3-inhibition
#19
Dalal Alotaibi, Suneetha Amara, Terrance L Johnson, Venkataswarup Tiriveedhi
Prostratin, a phorbol ester natural plant compound, has been demonstrated to exert an anti-retroviral effect through activation of latent cluster of differentiation (CD)4+T lymphocytes and inhibition of viral entry into the cell through downregulation of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression. However, the potential effect of prostratin on cancer is yet to be defined. As CXCR4 is well known to induce cancer migration, it was hypothesized that prostratin induces an anti-cancer effect through inhibition of CXCR4 expression...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435052/simvastatin-in-combination-with-meclofenamic-acid-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells-via-an-akr1c3-mechanism
#20
Yoshitaka Sekine, Hiroshi Nakayama, Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Haruo Kato, Yosuke Furuya, Seiji Arai, Hidekazu Koike, Hiroshi Matsui, Yasuhiro Shibata, Kazuto Ito, Kazuhiro Suzuki
Statins have become of interest in research due to their anticancer effects. However, the exact mechanism of their anticancer properties remains unclear. The authors previously reported that statins decrease intracellular cholesterol levels in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. In de novo androgen synthesis, cholesterol is the primary material and certain enzymes have important roles. The present study aimed to determine whether simvastatin alters the expression of androgen synthesis-associated enzymes in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
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