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Dementia risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911316/risk-factors-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-german-primary-care-practices
#1
Louis Jacob, Jens Bohlken, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common mental disorder affecting around 16% of elderly people without dementia. MCI is considered an intermediate state between normal cognition and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To analyze risk factors for the development of MCI in German primary care practices. METHODS: In total, 3,604 MCI patients and 3,604 controls without MCI were included between January 2010 and December 2015. Several disorders potentially associated with MCI were determined...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911311/risk-factors-and-pathological-substrates-associated-with-agitation-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-study-using-nacc-data
#2
Simrin Sennik, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have targeted psychosis, i.e., hallucinations and delusions in AD, but few have assessed agitation/aggression in AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and pathological substrates associated with presence [A(+)] and absence [A(-)] of agitation/aggression (A) in autopsy-confirmed AD. METHODS: Data was collected from the UDS data as of 2015 on the NACC database...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910931/mutational-analysis-of-prnp-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-in-china
#3
Weiwei Zhang, Bin Jiao, Tingting Xiao, Chuzheng Pan, Xixi Liu, Lin Zhou, Beisha Tang, Lu Shen
The prion protein (PRNP) gene is associated with prion diseases, whereas variants of the PRNP gene may also explain some cases of Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in Caucasian populations. To determine the prevalence of the PRNP gene in patients with AD and FTD in China, we screened all exons of the PRNP gene in a cohort of 683 cases (606 AD and 77 FTD) in the Chinese Han population and we detected a novel missense mutation p.S17G in a late-onset AD (LOAD) patient. Furthermore, we analyzed the PRNP M/V polymorphism at codon 129, which was previously reported as a risk factor...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910252/memory-performance-on-the-story-recall-test-and-prediction-of-cognitive-dysfunction-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-dementia
#4
Jong-Hwan Park, Hyuntae Park, Sang Wuk Sohn, Sungjae Kim, Kyung Won Park
AIM: To determine the factors that influence diagnosis and differentiation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) by comparing memory test results at baseline with those at 1-2-year follow up. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 23 healthy participants, 44 MCI patients and 27 patients with very mild AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorder Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease and Petersen's clinical diagnostic criteria...
December 1, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908711/cerebral-blood-flow-measured-by-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-at-resting-state-in-normal-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Nan Zhang, Marc L Gordon, Terry E Goldberg
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD...
November 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908278/comparison-of-predictors-of-hip-fracture-and-mortality-after-hip-fracture-in-community-dwellers-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease-exposure-matched-cohort-study
#6
Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Heidi Taipale, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: Dementia, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) being the most common form, is a major hip fracture risk factor, but currently it is not known whether the same factors predict hip fracture among persons with and without dementia/AD. We compared the predictors of hip fracture and mortality after hip fracture in persons with and without AD. METHODS: An exposure-matched cohort of all community-dwellers of Finland who received a new clinically verified AD diagnosis in 2005-2011 and had no history of previous hip fracture (N = 67,072) and an age, sex, and region-matched cohort of persons without AD (N = 67,072)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907913/screening-younger-individuals-in-a-primary-care-setting-flags-putative-dementia-cases-and-correlates-gastrointestinal-diseases-with-poor-cognitive-performance
#7
Ilka M Rosa, Ana Gabriela Henriques, Liliana Carvalho, Joana Oliveira, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diagnosing dementia is challenging in many primary care settings, given the limited human resources and the lack of current diagnostic tools. With this in mind, a primary care-based cohort was established in the Aveiro district of Portugal. METHODS: A total of 568 participants were evaluated using cognitive tests and APOE genotyping. RESULTS: The findings revealed a dementia prevalence of 12%. A strong correlation between increasing Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores and education was clearly evident...
December 2, 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906438/cholinesterase-inhibitors-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-as-alzheimer-s-disease-therapies-an-updated-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#8
C-H Wang, L-S Wang, N Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a major neurological disorder marked by an amyloid-beta plaque and neurofibrillary tau-tangle depositions in the brain. Cognitive dysfunction is the key manifestation of AD. In this study, we conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses on the risk factors and therapeutics targeting cognitive impairment and AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed from January 2000-August, 2016, and screened systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in AD patients...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905159/the-interaction-of-sleep-and-amyloid-deposition-on-cognitive-performance
#9
Jennifer R V Molano, Catherine M Roe, Yo-El S Ju
Sleep difficulties are emerging as a risk factor for dementia. This study examined the effect of sleep and amyloid deposition on cognitive performance in cognitively normal adults. Sleep efficiency was determined by actigraphy. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels <500 pg mL(-1) , indicating amyloid deposition, was present in 23 participants. Psychometric tests included the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Animal Fluency, Letter Number Sequencing, and the Mini Mental State Examination...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903333/diffusion-tensor-imaging-predictors-of-episodic-memory-decline-in-healthy-elders-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Melissa A Lancaster, Michael Seidenberg, J Carson Smith, Kristy A Nielson, John L Woodard, Sally Durgerian, Stephen M Rao
OBJECTIVES: White matter (WM) integrity within the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for episodic memory (EM) functioning. The current study investigated the ability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MTL WM tracts to predict 3-year changes in EM performance in healthy elders at disproportionately higher genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Fifty-one cognitively intact elders (52% with family history (FH) of dementia and 33% possessing an Apolipoprotein E ε4 allelle) were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) at study entry and at 3-year follow-up...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903330/intraindividual-cognitive-variability-in-middle-age-predicts-cognitive-impairment-8-10-years-later-results-from-the-wisconsin-registry-for-alzheimer-s-prevention
#11
Rebecca L Koscik, Sara E Berman, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Carey E Gleason, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Intraindividual cognitive variability (IICV) has been shown to differentiate between groups with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. This study examined whether baseline IICV predicted subsequent mild to moderate cognitive impairment in a cognitively normal baseline sample. METHODS: Participants with 4 waves of cognitive assessment were drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP; n=684; 53.6(6.6) baseline age; 9...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899872/type-2-diabetes-cognition-and-dementia-in-older-adults-toward-a-precision-health-approach
#12
Brenna Cholerton, Laura D Baker, Thomas J Montine, Suzanne Craft
IN BRIEF There has been a concurrent dramatic rise in type 2 diabetes and dementia in the United States, and type 2 diabetes shares common genetic and environmental risk factors and underlying pathology with both vascular and Alzheimer's dementias. Given the ability to identify this at-risk population and a variety of potential targeted treatments, type 2 diabetes represents a promising focus for a precision health approach to reduce the impact of cognitive decline and dementia in older adults.
November 2016: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#13
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899749/long-term-risk-of-dementia-among-survivors-of-ischemic-or-hemorrhagic-stroke
#14
Priscila Corraini, Victor W Henderson, Anne G Ording, Lars Pedersen, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Henrik T Sørensen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a risk factor for dementia, but the risk of dementia after different stroke types is poorly understood. We examined the long-term risk of dementia among survivors of any first-time stroke and of first-time ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: We conducted a 30-year nationwide population-based cohort study using data from Danish medical databases (1982-2013) covering all Danish hospitals...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898735/cognitive-dysfunction-and-malnutrition-are-independent-predictor-of-dysphagia-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-congestive-heart-failure
#15
Junichi Yokota, Yoshiko Ogawa, Shinsuke Yamanaka, Yoshimi Takahashi, Hiroshi Fujita, Nobuhiro Yamaguchi, Noriko Onoue, Takeshi Ishizuka, Tsuyoshi Shinozaki, Masahiro Kohzuki
Early detection and intervention for dysphagia is important in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, previous studies have focused on how many patients with dysphagia develop CHF. Studies focusing on the comorbidity of dysphagia in patients with CHF are rare. Additionally, risk factors for dysphagia in patients with CHF are unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to clarify risk factors for dysphagia in patients with acute exacerbation of CHF. A total of 105 patients, who were admitted with acute exacerbation of CHF, were enrolled...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895449/cadasil-presenting-with-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-report-of-a-case-and-description-of-the-first-family-in-northern-greece
#16
I Koutroulou, T Karapanayiotides, N Grigoriadis, D Karacostas
INTRODUCTION: CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy), the most common inherited cause of stroke and dementia in adults, has been described in six Greek families. Common presenting manifestations include migraine with aura, brain ischemia, mood disorders and cognitive decline. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) rarely occurs in CADASIL and only exceptionally as the first clinical manifestation. CASE DESCRIPTION: We have previously reported the sixth Greek family with CADASIL and in particular, two brothers in whom the genetic testing documented a classic mutation of the NOTCH3 gene (Arg169Cys)...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895004/predictors-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-poststroke-in-a-middle-eastern-bahrain-cohort-a-proposed-case-control-comparison
#17
Claire Donnellan, Mona Al Banna, Noor Redha, Adel Al Jishi, Isa Al Sharoqi, Safa Taha, Moiz Bakhiet, Fatema Abdulla, Patrick Walsh
BACKGROUND: Poststroke dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with poor long-term outcomes after stroke. The contribution of genetic factors such as the presence of apolipoprotein (ApoE) ɛ4 allele and its association with cognitive impairment poststroke remains inconclusive, particularly in Middle Eastern regions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine all correlates and potential predictors of cognitive impairment including self-awareness and regulation deficits in stroke patients and compare these functions with healthy older adults from a Middle Eastern population...
November 28, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894893/the-blood-brain-barrier-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
A Chakraborty, N M de Wit, W M van der Flier, H E de Vries
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting millions of people worldwide. One of the prominent causative factors of AD pathogenesis is cerebral vascular dysfunction, which results in diminished cerebral perfusion. Moreover, due to the loss of the protective function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), impaired clearance of excess neurotoxic amyloid beta (Aβ) occurs, causing vascular perturbation and diminished cognitive functioning. The relationship between the prevalence of AD and vascular risk factors is complex and not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893672/risk-factors-of-severe-hypoglycemia-requiring-medical-assistance-and-neurological-sequelae-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-case-control-study
#19
Ja Young Jeon, Se Ran Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan-Woo Lee, Jung-Dong Lee, Seung Jin Han
Hypoglycemia commonly occurs in patients who are being treated for diabetes. In some cases, these patients suffer from severe hypoglycemia that requires medical assistance and which can unfortunately result in long-term disabilities. Therefore, we investigated risk factors associated with severe hypoglycemia requiring medical assistance (HMA) and the resulting neurological sequelae in patients with diabetes. This investigation was a case-control study that assessed 129 patients with diabetes and documented hypoglycemia from a single tertiary hospital between February 2013 and May 2015...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893041/a-comparison-of-the-prevalence-of-dementia-in-the-united-states-in-2000-and-2012
#20
Kenneth M Langa, Eric B Larson, Eileen M Crimmins, Jessica D Faul, Deborah A Levine, Mohammed U Kabeto, David R Weir
Importance: The aging of the US population is expected to lead to a large increase in the number of adults with dementia, but some recent studies in the United States and other high-income countries suggest that the age-specific risk of dementia may have declined over the past 25 years. Clarifying current and future population trends in dementia prevalence and risk has important implications for patients, families, and government programs. Objective: To compare the prevalence of dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
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