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Dementia risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723773/development-and-validation-of-risk-stratification-delirium-prediction-model-for-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-observational-single-center-study
#1
Yu Chen, Hang Du, Bao-Hua Wei, Xue-Ni Chang, Chen-Ming Dong
The objective is to develop a model based on risk stratification to predict delirium among adult critically ill patients and whether early intervention could be provided for high-risk patients, which could reduce the incidence of delirium.We designed a prospective, observational, single-center study. We examined 11 factors, including age, APACHE-II score, coma, emergency operation, mechanical ventilation (MV), multiple trauma, metabolic acidosis, history of hypertension, delirium and dementia, and application of Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723664/detecting-the-genetic-link-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-obesity-using-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gwas-data
#2
Qi-Shuai Zhuang, Hao Zheng, Xiao-Dan Gu, Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the major form of dementia in the elderly. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicate that obesity may act as a risk factor for AD, while the genetic link between the two conditions remains unclear. This bioinformatics analysis aimed to detect the genetic link between AD and obesity on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene, and pathway levels based on genome-wide association studies data. A total of 31 SNPs were found to be shared by AD and obesity, which were linked to 7 genes...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721544/sleep-in-older-adults-and-in-subjects-with-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Helmut Frohnhofen, Jeanina Schlitzer, Nikolaus Netzer
The neuronal structures for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness are located in the brain. This complex network is vulnerable to numerous factors, most importantly neurodegenerative diseases and drugs. The macrostructure and microstructure of sleep change with age. These changes are more pronounced in subjects with dementia. Sleep disorders in subjects with dementia may be independent of dementia or caused by dementia. Furthermore, epidemiological studies reveal that sleep disorders per se may induce dementia by reduction of cerebral clearance of beta-amyloids...
July 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721127/diabetes-in-the-elderly
#4
REVIEW
Katarzyna Mordarska, Małgorzata Godziejewska-Zawada
The prevalence of both type 2 diabetes and prediabetes increases with advancing age. The most important factors leading to hyperglycaemia are as follows: deficiency of insulin secretion developing with age, and growing insulin resistance caused by a change in body composition and sarcopaenia. Clinical features of diabetes in the elderly could be different. Diabetes in elderly people is often diagnosed with delay due to atypical symptoms (dementia, urinary incontinence) and occurrence of mainly postprandial hyperglycaemia...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721027/frequency-of-frailty-and-its-association-with-cognitive-status-and-survival-in-older-chileans
#5
Cecilia Albala, Lydia Lera, Hugo Sanchez, Barbara Angel, Carlos Márquez, Patricia Arroyo, Patricio Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Age-associated brain physiologic decline and reduced mobility are key elements of increased age-associated vulnerability. OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of frailty phenotype and its association with mental health and survival in older Chileans. METHODS: Follow-up of ALEXANDROS cohorts designed to study disability associated with obesity in community-dwelling people 60 years and older living in Santiago, Chile. At baseline, 2,098 (67% women) of 2,372 participants were identified as having the frailty phenotype: weak handgrip dynamometry, unintentional weight loss, fatigue/exhaustion, five chair-stands/slow walking speed and difficulty walking (low physical activity)...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716371/detection-risk-factors-and-functional-consequences-of-cerebral-microinfarcts
#6
REVIEW
Susanne J van Veluw, Andy Y Shih, Eric E Smith, Christopher Chen, Julie A Schneider, Joanna M Wardlaw, Steven M Greenberg, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral microinfarcts are small lesions that are presumed to be ischaemic. Despite the small size of these lesions, affected individuals can have hundreds to thousands of cerebral microinfarcts, which cause measurable disruption to structural brain connections, and are associated with dementia that is independent of Alzheimer's disease pathology or larger infarcts (ie, lacunar infarcts, and large cortical and non-lacunar subcortical infarcts). Substantial progress has been made with regard to understanding risk factors and functional consequences of cerebral microinfarcts, partly driven by new in-vivo detection methods and the development of animal models that closely mimic multiple aspects of cerebral microinfarcts in human beings...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715552/large-perivascular-spaces-visible-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-progression-and-risk-of-dementia-the-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik-study
#7
Jie Ding, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Pálmi V Jónsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Andreas Charidimou, Oscar L Lopez, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore J Launer
Importance: With advancing age, an increased visibility of perivascular spaces (PVSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is hypothesized to represent impaired drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain and may reflect underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). However, whether large perivascular spaces (L-PVSs) (>3 mm in diameter) visible on MRI are associated with SVD and cognitive deterioration in older individuals is unknown. Objective: To examine whether L-PVSs are associated with the progression of the established MRI markers of SVD, cognitive decline, and increased risk of dementia...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713073/dementia-friendly-interventions-to-improve-the-care-of-people-living-with-dementia-admitted-to-hospitals-a-realist-review
#8
Melanie Handley, Frances Bunn, Claire Goodman
OBJECTIVES: To identify features of programmes and approaches to make healthcare delivery in secondary healthcare settings more dementia-friendly, providing a context-relevant understanding of how interventions achieve outcomes for people living with dementia. DESIGN: A realist review conducted in three phases: (1) stakeholder interviews and scoping of the literature to develop an initial programme theory for providing effective dementia care; (2) structured retrieval and extraction of evidence; and (3) analysis and synthesis to build and refine the programme theory...
July 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#9
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710667/parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-severe-cortical-thinning-antedates-dementia
#10
Carmen Gasca-Salas, Daniel García-Lorenzo, David Garcia-Garcia, Pedro Clavero, José A Obeso, Stephane Lehericy, María C Rodríguez-Oroz
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a risk factor for dementia and thus, it is of interest to elucidate if specific patterns of atrophy in PD-MCI patients are associated with a higher risk of developing dementia. We aim to define pattern(s) of regional atrophy in PD-MCI patients who developed dementia during 31 months of follow-up using cortical thickness analysis Twenty-three PD-MCI patients and 18 controls underwent brain MRI and completed a neuropsychological examination at baseline, PD-MCI patients were followed after a 31 month follow-up in order to assess their progression to dementia...
July 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710215/a-study-protocol-for-an-observational-cohort-investigating-cognitive-outcomes-and-wellness-in-survivors-of-critical-illness-the-cogwell-study
#11
M Elizabeth Wilcox, Andrew S Lim, Mary P McAndrews, Richard A Wennberg, Ruxandra L Pinto, Sandra E Black, Karolina D Walczak, Jan O Friedrich, Michael S Taglione, Gordon D Rubenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Up to 9 out of 10 intensive care unit (ICU) survivors will suffer some degree of cognitive impairment at hospital discharge and approximately half will have decrements that persist for years. The mechanisms for this newly acquired brain injury are poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of sleep abnormalities and their association with cognitive impairment, examine a well-known genetic risk factor for dementia (Apolipoprotein E ε4) that may allow for genetic risk stratification of ICU survivors at greatest risk of cognitive impairment and determine if electroencephalography (EEG) is an independent predictor of long-term cognitive impairment and possibly a candidate intermediate end point for future clinical trials...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709115/development-and-validation-of-the-korea-dementia-comorbidity-index-kdci-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-from-2002-to-2013
#12
Jae-Hyun Kim, Ki-Bong Yoo, Yunhwan Lee
This study develop and validate a simple and accessible measure of comorbidity, named the Korean Dementia Comorbidity index (KDCI), to assist in predicting the onset of dementia. This study used the National Health Insurance Service-Cohort Sample Database from 2002 to 2013 (n=23,856). Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate incident dementia (International Classification of Disease, 10th edition (ICD-10) codes: F00-F03, G30, G311), with a hazard ratio higher than 1.05 for each comorbid condition being assigned a score...
June 7, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709046/ankle-brachial-index-mri-markers-and-cognition-the-epidemiology-of-dementia-in-singapore-study
#13
Muhammad Amin Shaik, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien Yin Wong, Henri Vrooman, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Saima Hilal, Christopher Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies showed an independent association of low ankle-brachial index (ABI) with cognitive impairment. However, the association between low ABI and cognition in the presence of both cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and neurodegeneration is lacking. We aimed at investigating a) the association of low ABI with markers of CeVD and cortical thickness, and b) whether the association of low ABI with cognition is influenced by these markers. METHODS: Data was drawn from the Epidemiology of Dementia In Singapore (EDIS) study where all participants (n = 832) underwent neuropsychological tests and 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess CeVD markers as well as cortical thicknesses...
July 5, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708131/a-clinicopathological-approach-to-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Fanny M Elahi, Bruce L Miller
The most definitive classification systems for dementia are based on the underlying pathology which, in turn, is categorized largely according to the observed accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in neurons and glia. These aggregates perturb molecular processes, cellular functions and, ultimately, cell survival, with ensuing disruption of large-scale neural networks subserving cognitive, behavioural and sensorimotor functions. The functional domains affected and the evolution of deficits in these domains over time serve as footprints that the clinician can trace back with various levels of certainty to the underlying neuropathology...
July 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707697/shift-work-long-working-hours-and-later-risk-of-dementia-a-long-term-follow-up-of-the-copenhagen-male-study
#15
Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen, Anne Helene Garde, Kazi Ishtiak-Ahmed, Finn Gyntelberg, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Thien Kieu Thi Phung, Naja Hulvej Rod, Gunhild Waldemar, Rudi Gj Westendorp, Åse Marie Hansen
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970-1971 and 1985-1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970-1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers...
July 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707283/multimodal-physical-activity-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-improves-cognition-in-institutionalized-older-women
#16
Kelem Vedovelli, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Andréa Wieck, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women...
July 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705185/-you-ve-got-a-friend-in-me-can-social-networks-mediate-the-relationship-between-mood-and-mci
#17
Jennifer A Yates, Linda Clare, Robert T Woods
BACKGROUND: Social networks can change with age, for reasons that are adaptive or unwanted. Social engagement is beneficial to both mental health and cognition, and represents a potentially modifiable factor. Consequently this study explored this association and assessed whether the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mood problems was mediated by social networks. METHODS: This study includes an analysis of data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS Wales)...
July 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701495/neurodegenerative-and-psychiatric-diseases-among-families-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Elisa Longinetti, Daniela Mariosa, Henrik Larsson, Weimin Ye, Caroline Ingre, Catarina Almqvist, Paul Lichtenstein, Fredrik Piehl, Fang Fang
OBJECTIVE: To estimate risks of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their families. METHODS: We conducted a register-based nested case-control study during 1990-2013 in Sweden to assess whether patients with ALS had higher risks of other neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases before diagnosis. We included 3,648 patients with ALS and 36,480 age-, sex-, and county of birth-matched population controls...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700610/perioperative-hemodynamics-and-risk-for-delirium-and-new-onset-dementia-in-hip-fracture-patients-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#19
Bjørn Erik Neerland, Maria Krogseth, Vibeke Juliebø, Anette Hylen Ranhoff, Knut Engedal, Frede Frihagen, Johan Ræder, Torgeir Bruun Wyller, Leiv Otto Watne
BACKGROUND: Delirium is common in hip fracture patients and many risk factors have been identified. Controversy exists regarding the possible impact of intraoperative control of blood pressure upon acute (delirium) and long term (dementia) cognitive decline. We explored possible associations between perioperative hemodynamic changes, use of vasopressor drugs, risk of delirium and risk of new-onset dementia. METHODS: Prospective follow-up study of 696 hip fracture patients, assessed for delirium pre- and postoperatively, using the Confusion Assessment Method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698453/plasma-homocysteine-and-serum-folate-and-vitamin-b12-levels-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#20
Fei Ma, Tianfeng Wu, Jiangang Zhao, Lu Ji, Aili Song, Meilin Zhang, Guowei Huang
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Vitamin B12 and folate are cofactors necessary for the methylation of Hcy. However, there is some debate regarding the differing levels of plasma Hcy and serum folate and vitamin B12 among healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to evaluate how the levels of plasma Hcy and its biological determinants, folate and vitamin B12, are related to MCI and AD in older Chinese adults...
July 8, 2017: Nutrients
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