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Dementia risk factors

Celeste Sassi, Michael A Nalls, Perry G Ridge, Jesse R Gibbs, Michelle K Lupton, Claire Troakes, Katie Lunnon, Safa Al-Sarraj, Kristelle S Brown, Christopher Medway, Jenny Lord, James Turton, Jose Bras, Sonja Blumenau, Mareike Thielke, Christa Josties, Dorette Freyer, Annette Dietrich, Monia Hammer, Michael Baier, Ulrich Dirnagl, Kevin Morgan, John F Powell, John S Kauwe, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Andrew B Singleton, Rita Guerreiro, Angela Hodges, John Hardy
Mendelian adult-onset leukodystrophies are a spectrum of rare inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorders affecting the white matter of the central nervous system. Among these, cerebral autosomal dominant and recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, cerebroretinal vasculopathy, metachromatic leukodystrophy, hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids, and vanishing white matter disease present with rapidly progressive dementia as dominant feature and are caused by mutations in NOTCH3, HTRA1, TREX1, ARSA, CSF1R, EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, and EIF2B5, respectively...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ivan Martinez-Valbuena, Irene Amat-Villegas, Rafael Valenti-Azcarate, Maria Del Mar Carmona-Abellan, Irene Marcilla, Maria-Teresa Tuñon, Maria-Rosario Luquin
Parkinson's disease patients experience a wide range of non-motor symptoms that may be provoked by deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the peripheral nervous system. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus might be a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease, and indeed, nearly 60% of Parkinson's disease patients are insulin resistant. Thus, we have investigated whether phosphorylated α-synuclein is deposited in pancreatic tissue of subjects with synucleinopathies. We studied pancreatic tissue from 39 subjects diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, Lewy body Dementia or incidental Lewy bodies disease, as well as that from 34 subjects with diabetes mellitus and a normal neuropathological examination, and 52 subjects with a normal neuropathological examination...
March 13, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Liv Tybjærg Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Katrine Laura Rasmussen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Clusterin, also known as apolipoprotein J (apoJ), is one of the most abundantly expressed apolipoproteins in the brain after apolipoprotein E (apoE). Like the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), the clusterin gene (CLU) is a risk locus for Alzheimer's disease, and may play additional roles in atherosclerosis pathogenesis. We tested whether genetic variation in CLU was associated with either Alzheimer's disease or atherosclerosis-related diseases. METHODS: We studied individual data on 103,987 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) and the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS)...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medicine
Jesús Rivera-Navarro, Rosa Sepúlveda, Israel Contador, Bernardino Fernández-Calvo, Francisco Ramos, Miguel Ángel Tola-Arribas, Miguel Goñi
The objective of our study is to validate the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) as an instrument for detecting the maltreatment of people with dementia in Spain. In total, 326 informal caregivers of people with different types of dementia were interviewed in several cities in northwest Spain. The caregivers were selected from outpatient neurology clinics and associations of relatives of people with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. A comprehensive sociodemographic questionnaire was administered to all participants, and several standardized scales were used to assess burden, anxiety, depression, social support and resilience...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Kilmer S McCully
The indoleamine hormone melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland, controls circadian rhythm, and is dependent upon adenosyl methionine for enzymatic synthesis of melatonin from N-acetyl serotonin. Pineal melatonin secretion declines dramatically with aging and dementia. Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, and the marked decline in adenosyl methionine with aging leads to dysregulation of methionine metabolism and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thioretinaco ozonide is a disulfonium complex formed from thioretinamide, cobalamin, and ozone, which binds the alpha and gamma-phosphate groups of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxygen in the process of oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Jacek Staszewski, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Ewa Skrobowska, Bogdan Brodacki, Katarzyna Macek, Adam Stępień
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of aspirin resistance (AR) in patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease is not well known. The aim of this single-center, prospective study was to examine the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic significance of AR in patients with different clinical manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) over 24-month follow-up. METHODS: We studied 104 patients with MRI confirmed CSVD, including those with recent lacunar stroke (LS, n=49), vascular parkinsonism (VaP, n=16) and dementia (VaD, n=39)...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Yi-Qi Lin, Sheng-Di Chen
Increasing evidence indicates a strong association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson's disease - cognitive impairment (PD-CI). Numerous longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have shown that RBD may be an important risk factor and predictor of Parkinson's disease - mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); which may be explained by the association of mechanisms between RBD and PD-CI, including neurotransmitter alterations, genetic mutation, neuroinflammation, alpha-synuclein inclusion, abnormal cerebral metabolism and cortical activity slowing...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Wenke Cheng, Weijun Liu, Bin Li, Dongfang Li
BACKGROUND: Currently, it is considered that atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, which is independent of stroke. However, the relationship between anticoagulant drugs and cognitive function in patients with atrial fibrillation is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to complete a meta-analysis, and investigate the association between Anticoagulant therapy and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two investigators systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase databases and Web of Science for all studies showing associations...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Mary H Kosmidis, George S Vlachos, Costas A Anastasiou, Mary Yannakoulia, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou, Paraskevi Sakka, Eva Ntanasi, Nikolaos Scarmeas
INTRODUCTION: Study of the epidemiology of dementia to gain insight into putative predisposing and prophylactic factors is the first step toward establishing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for this ever-growing public health problem. Relevant data in Greece are scattered and outdated. METHODS: We investigated dementia prevalence as part of a population-representative epidemiological study [Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD)] in 2 Greek regions...
March 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Annie Lannuzel, Régine Edragas, Angéla Lackmy, Benoit Tressières, Véronique Pelonde, Mireille Edimo Nana Kaptué, Sylvie Mécharles, Alexis Demas, Billy François, Eavan McGovern, Marie Vidailhet, Bertrand Gaymard, Emmanuel Roze
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of an atypical levodopa-resistant parkinsonism has been reported in the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. These seminal observations have not been replicated or extended to neighbouring populations who share genetic and environmental characteristics. METHODS: To further characterise this atypical parkinsonism we prospectively investigated 305 consecutive patients with neurodegenerative parkinsonism in a community-based population from Guadeloupe and Martinique, a neighbouring French Caribbean island where the population has similar environmental and genetic backgrounds...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
M Fareed K Suri, Jincheng Zhou, Ye Qiao, Haitao Chu, Adnan I Qureshi, Tom Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman, Lisa Wruck, A Richey Sharrett, Alvaro Alonso, Bruce A Wasserman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort. METHODS: ARIC participants underwent high-resolution 3T magnetic resonance angiography and a neuropsychology battery and neurologic examination adjudicated by an expert panel to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We adjusted for demographic and vascular risk factors in weighted logistic regression analysis, accounting for stratified sampling design and attrition, to determine the association of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) with cognitive impairment...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
Carole P Kaufmann, Dominik Stämpfli, Nadine Mory, Kurt E Hersberger, Markus L Lampert
INTRODUCTION: Identifying patients with a high risk for drug-related problems (DRPs) might optimise the allocation of targeted pharmaceutical care during the hospital stay and on discharge. OBJECTIVE: To develop a self-assessment screening tool to identify patients at risk for DRPs and validate the tool regarding feasibility, acceptability and the reliability of the patients' answers. DESIGN: Prospective validation study. SETTING: Two mid-sized hospitals (300-400 beds)...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Haruo Hanyu
There is a wide range of potentially modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and dementia, including cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, sleep-apnea syndrome), psychosocial factors (e.g., depression), health behaviors (e.g., low level of physical or mental activity, smoking status), and head trauma. In the elderly, weight loss associated with frailty and sarcopenia is another risk factor for dementia. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of dementia has declined in the US and European countries during the last 20 years...
March 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Veronica Tisato, Giovanni Zuliani, Marco Vigliano, Giovanna Longo, Eugenia Franchini, Paola Secchiero, Giorgio Zauli, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Ajay Vikram Singh, Maria Luisa Serino, Beatrice Ortolani, Amedeo Zurlo, Cristina Bosi, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa, Rosanna Asselta, Donato Gemmati
Cognitive impairments of different aetiology share alterations in iron and lipid homeostasis with mutual relationships. Since iron and cholesterol accumulation impact on neurodegenerative disease, the associated gene variants are appealing candidate targets for risk and disease progression assessment. In this light, we explored the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the main iron homeostasis genes and in the main lipoprotein transporter gene (APOE) in a cohort of 765 patients with dementia of different origin: Alzheimer's disease (AD) n = 276; vascular dementia (VaD), n = 255; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), n = 234; and in normal controls (n = 1086)...
2018: PloS One
Lin Y Chen, Faye L Norby, Rebecca F Gottesman, Thomas H Mosley, Elsayed Z Soliman, Sunil K Agarwal, Laura R Loehr, Aaron R Folsom, Josef Coresh, Alvaro Alonso
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and dementia. These studies, however, had limited follow-up, were based mostly on white and highly selected populations, and did not account for attrition. We evaluated the association of incident AF with 20-year change in cognitive performance (accounting for attrition) and incident dementia in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 12 515 participants (mean age, 56...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jeremy M Silverman, James Schmeidler
INTRODUCTION: Some associations of high total cholesterol with dementia risk diminish as the outcome age-age at cognitive assessment-increases. METHODS: The Framingham Heart Study provided 1897 participants with intact cognition at entry. Cox regression analysis for incident marked cognitive decline included "time-dependent" coefficients, with associations between total cholesterol and covariates changing by outcome age. Decline within age categories of 75-84 and 85-94 years was also examined...
March 1, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
L A Rafferty, P E Cawkill, S A M Stevelink, K Greenberg, N Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Dementia is currently incurable, irreversible and a major cause of disability for the world's older population. The association between mental health difficulties, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and dementia has a long history within the civilian population. Despite the increased importance of this link within the military veteran population, who suffer a greater propensity of mental health difficulties and consist largely of over 65s, attention is only recently being paid to the salience of such an association for this group...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Robert Perneczky
Progress in prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia is hampered by the restricted understanding of the biological and environmental causes underlying pathophysiology. It is widely accepted that certain genetic factors are associated with AD and a number of lifestyle and other environmental characteristics have also been linked to dementia risk. However, interactions between genes and the environment are not yet well understood, and coordinated global action is required to utilize existing cohorts and other resources effectively and efficiently to identify new avenues for dementia prevention...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Frank J Wolters, M Arfan Ikram
Dementia is among the leading causes of death and disability. Due to the ageing population, its prevalence is expected to nearly triple worldwide by 2050, urging the development of preventive and curative interventions. Various modifiable risk factors have been identified in community-based cohort studies, but insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is lacking. Clinical trials have thus far failed in the development of disease-modifying therapy in patients with dementia, thereby triggering a shift of focus toward the presymptomatic phase of disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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