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Dementia risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#1
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810593/carotid-atherosclerosis-promotes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-three-year-prospective-study
#2
Jing Xiang
Although cerebrovascular diseases have been considered as risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, the associations between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been fully examined and remain controversial. The aim of this three-year prospective study was to investigate whether arotid artery atherosclerosis accelerates cognitive impairment in AD patients. The association of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) with prospective trajectories of cognitive function was assessed among 521 patients with light to moderate AD, and 437 AD patients were followed up annually for 3 years...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809655/assistive-technology-addressing-safety-issues-in-dementia-a-scoping-review
#3
Mireille Gagnon-Roy, Annick Bourget, Stéphanie Stocco, Annie-Claude Lemieux Courchesne, Nicolas Kuhne, Véronique Provencher
Safety is an issue for older adults with dementia because they are at risk for various incidents. Intelligent assistive technology (IAT) may mitigate risks while promoting independence and reducing the impact on the caregiver of supporting a relative with dementia. The aim of this scoping review was to describe IATs and to identify factors to consider when selecting one. A systematic search was performed of the scientific and gray literature published between 2000 and 2015. A total of 31 sources were included...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807498/vascular-pathology-and-trajectories-of-late-life-major-depressive-disorder-in-secondary-psychiatric-care
#4
Katherine L Musliner, Peter P Zandi, Xiaoqin Liu, Thomas M Laursen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Preben B Mortensen, William W Eaton
OBJECTIVE: To examine 5-year trajectories of psychiatrist-treated late-life major depressive disorder (MDD), and evaluate whether previous vascular pathology is associated with more severe trajectories of late-life MDD. METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative civil, psychiatric, hospital, and prescription registers in Denmark. The sample included 11,092 older adults (≥60 years) who received their first diagnosis of MDD in a psychiatric facility in Denmark between 2000 and 2007...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807493/homocysteine-and-cognitive-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Nicole Licking, Charles Murchison, Brenna Cholerton, Cyrus P Zabetian, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Montine, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Kathryn A Chung, Karen Edwards, James B Leverenz, Joseph F Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Increased plasma homocysteine (HC) is a risk factor for dementia in the general population. Levodopa therapy causes increased plasma HC, but it remains unclear whether elevated plasma HC is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study population includes all participants in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center (PANUC) Clinical cohort at the time of the study, consisting of 294 individuals with PD who had a standardized neuropsychological assessment and plasma collection for HC measurement...
August 9, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807457/identification-of-pseudobulbar-affect-symptoms-in-the-nursing-home-setting-development-and-assessment-of-a-screening-tool
#6
Carrie Allen, Barbara Zarowitz, Terrence O'Shea, Edward Peterson, Charles Yonan, Fanta Waterman
Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA) is a neurologic condition characterized by involuntary outbursts of crying and/or laughing disproportionate to patient mood or social context. Although an estimated 9% of nursing home residents have symptoms suggestive of PBA, they are not routinely screened. Our goal was to develop an electronic screening tool based upon characteristics common to nursing home residents with PBA identified through medical record data. Nursing home residents with PBA treated with dextromethorphan hydrobromide/quinidine sulfate (n = 140) were compared to age-, gender-, and dementia-diagnosis-matched controls without PBA or treatment (n = 140)...
August 11, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806610/risk-factors-of-transition-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-and-death-a-cohort-study
#7
Haihong Xue, Qianqian Sun, Long Liu, Liye Zhou, Ruifeng Liang, Runlian He, Hongmei Yu
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors is essential for developing strategies that prevent or minimise transitions from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and death. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for progression to AD and death among Chinese individuals with cognitive impairment. METHODS: We conducted a multisite, population-based cohort study on 437 community-dwelling elderly MCI residents in Taiyuan, China from 2010 to 2014...
July 18, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805188/managing-faecal-incontinence-in-people-with-advanced-dementia-resident-in-care-homes-finch-study-a-realist-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#8
Claire Goodman, Christine Norton, Marina Buswell, Bridget Russell, Danielle Harari, Rowan Harwood, Brenda Roe, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Vari M Drennan, Mandy Fader, Michelle Maden, Karen Cummings, Frances Bunn
BACKGROUND: Eighty per cent of care home residents in the UK are living with dementia. The prevalence of faecal incontinence (FI) in care homes is estimated to range from 30% to 50%. There is limited evidence of what is effective in the reduction and management of FI in care homes. OBJECTIVE: To provide a theory-driven explanation of the effectiveness of programmes that aim to improve FI in people with advanced dementia in care homes. DESIGN: A realist synthesis...
August 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802934/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Dominic H Ffytche, Dag Aarsland
Although illusions, hallucinations and delusions did not play a prominent role in James Parkinson's original clinical descriptions, the longitudinal view of disease progression he advocated has important lessons for the study of such symptoms today. A focus on longitudinal progression rather than individual symptoms led to the concept of PD psychosis-a spectrum of positive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The publication of criteria for PD psychosis in 2007 helped unify the disparate set of symptoms, raising their profile and resulting in a rapid expansion of literature focussing on clinical aspects, mechanisms, and treatment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802919/nonmotor-signs-in-genetic-forms-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Meike Kasten, Connie Marras, Christine Klein
Although only a minority (i.e., ~5%) of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases is due to well-defined genetic causes, important clues about the common, "idiopathic" PD (iPD) can be garnered from monogenic model diseases. Nonmotor signs (NMS) are also present in monogenic PD and reviewed in this chapter for the confirmed PD genes SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, and the risk factor gene GBA. Within the context of the MDSGene database (www.mdsgene.org), we performed a systematic literature search and extracted information on cognitive decline, depression, psychotic signs and symptoms, autonomic signs and symptoms, anxiety, sleep disorder, and olfactory impairment...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801790/cardiovascular-disease-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-and-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#11
REVIEW
Blossom C M Stephan, Stephanie L Harrison, Hannah A D Keage, Abrar Babateen, Louise Robinson, Mario Siervo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarise the evidence on the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment and explore the role of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway as a causal mechanism. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that the presence of CVD and its risk factors in midlife is associated with an increased risk of later life cognitive impairment and dementia. It is unclear what is driving this association but risk may be conveyed via an increase in neurodegeneration (e...
August 11, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801438/associations-between-polypharmacy-and-treatment-intensity-for-hypertension-and-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study-of-nursing-home-patients-in-british-columbia-canada
#12
Rita McCracken, James McCormack, Margaret J McGregor, Sabrina T Wong, Scott Garrison
OBJECTIVES: Describe nursing home polypharmacy prevalence in the context of prescribing for diabetes and hypertension and determine possible associations between lower surrogate markers for treated hypertension and diabetes (overtreatment) and polypharmacy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 6 nursing homes in British Columbia, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 214 patients residing in one of the selected facilities during data collection period...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800073/electronegative-low-density-lipoprotein-l5-impairs-viability-and-ngf-induced-neuronal-differentiation-of-pc12-cells-via-lox-1
#13
Jiz-Yuh Wang, Chiou-Lian Lai, Ching-Tien Lee, Chen-Yen Lin
There have been striking associations of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis) and hypercholesterolemia with increased risk of neurodegeneration including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a cardiovascular risk factor, plays a crucial role in AD pathogenesis; further, L5, a human plasma LDL fraction with high electronegativity, may be a factor contributing to AD-type dementia. Although L5 contributing to atherosclerosis progression has been studied, its role in inducing neurodegeneration remains unclear...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799417/factors-that-contribute-to-remaining-in-the-community-among-older-adults
#14
Heehyul Moon, Sunshine Rote, William E Haley
OBJECTIVES: Using nation730-740al data on Medicare beneficiaries and their caregivers (CGs), we investigated CG and care recipient (CR) factors associated with the likelihood of remaining in the community. METHODS: We obtained data on 722 CG and CR dyads who lived in the community in 2011 from the National Study of Caregiving and the National Health Aging and Trend Study. We then used pooled data from 2011 to 2015 to track the CRs' likelihood of remaining in the community...
August 11, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797371/dementia-for-the-primary-care-provider
#15
REVIEW
Daniela Claudia Moga, Monica Roberts, Gregory Jicha
Dementia represents one of the most important and growing public health issues facing society today. Primary care clinics serve a crucial role as the first line of defense in the recognition and treatment of dementia. Increased awareness and treatment of risk factors for dementia are important for lessening disease burden in the population. Diagnostic workup should include screening for medical and nondegenerative causes of cognitive impairment that may be remedial. Treatment approaches should include multimodal approaches to address cognitive decline and behavioral/psychiatric symptoms of dementia in an effort to maximize quality of life for both patients and caregivers...
September 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797215/the-cadm2-gene-is-associated-with-processing-speed-performance-evidence-among-elderly-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Lior Greenbaum, Ramit Ravona-Springer, Abigail Livny, Shahar Shelly, Inbal Sharvit-Ginon, Ithamar Ganmore, Anna Alkelai, Anthony Heymann, Michal Schnaider Beeri
OBJECTIVES: Recent large scale meta-analysis of genome wide association studies (GWAS) from multiple cohorts, demonstrated the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17518584, with processing speed (measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST) or the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST)), at GWAS significance level. This SNP is located within the cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) gene. We aimed to validate this finding in our sample of 944 cognitively normal Jewish elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a population which is at risk for cognitive decline and dementia...
August 11, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795579/is-use-of-the-internet-in-midlife-associated-with-lower-dementia-incidence-results-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#17
Eleonora d'Orsi, Andre Junqueira Xavier, Snorri Bjorn Rafnsson, Andrew Steptoe, Eef Hogervorst, Martin Orrell
OBJECTIVES: Dementia is expected to affect one million individuals in the United Kingdom by 2025; its prodromal phase may start decades before its clinical onset. The aim of this study is to investigate whether use of internet from 50 years of age is associated with a lower incidence of dementia over a ten-year follow-up. METHODS: We analysed data based on 8,238 dementia free (at baseline in 2002-2004) core participants from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
August 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795095/quantitative-exploration-of-factors-influencing-psychotic-disorder-ailments-in-nigeria
#18
Adebowale O Adejumo, Nehemiah A Ikoba, Esivue A Suleiman, Hilary I Okagbue, Pelumi E Oguntunde, Oluwole A Odetunmibi, Obalowu Job
In this data article, records on demographic data, family problem issues, as well as results of medical tests from five major classes of psychotic disorder namely: bipolar; vascular dementia, minimal brain dysfunction; insomnia; and schizophrenia, were collected on 500 psychotic patients carefully selected from the pool of medical records of Yaba Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, for the period of 5 years, between January 2010 and December 2014, were examined. X-squared Statistic was used to examine each of psychotic disorders to identify demographic (age, gender, religion, marital status, and occupation) and family issues (loss of parent, history of such ailment in the family (family status), divorce, head injury, and heredity of such ailment (genetic) factors that influence them...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792946/is-intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-an-independent-cognitive-predictor-of-mortality-in-old-age-findings-from-the-sydney-memory-and-ageing-study
#19
Nicole A Kochan, David Bunce, Sarah Pont, John D Crawford, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Intraindividual variability of reaction time (IIVRT), a proposed cognitive marker of neurobiological disturbance, increases in old age, and has been associated with dementia and mortality. The extent to which IIVRT is an independent predictor of mortality, however, is unclear. This study investigated the association of IIVRT and all-cause mortality while accounting for cognitive level, incident dementia and biomedical risk factors in 861 participants aged 70-90 from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Participants completed two computerised reaction time (RT) tasks (76 trials in total) at baseline, and comprehensive medical and neuropsychological assessments every 2 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791690/apathy-risk-factor-for-mortality-in-nursing-home-patients
#20
Johanna M H Nijsten, Ruslan Leontjevas, Ron Pat-El, Martin Smalbrugge, Raymond T C M Koopmans, Debby L Gerritsen
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prognostic value of apathy for mortality in patients of somatic (SC) and dementia special care (DSC) nursing home (NH) units. DESIGN: Longitudinal design, secondary analyses of a 2-year, cluster-randomized trial with six measurements, approximately 4 months in between. SETTING: SC and DSC-units of Dutch NHs. PARTICIPANTS: NH-patients of seventeen SC-units (n = 342) and sixteen DCS-units (n = 371)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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