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Dementia risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146957/frailty-is-an-independent-predictor-of-incident-dementia-evidence-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#1
Nina T Rogers, Andrew Steptoe, Dorina Cadar
The aim of this study was to determine whether frailty in older adults is associated with the risk of subsequent dementia. A total of 8,722 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were followed-up every two years until they reported a diagnosis of dementia, died, or were right censored. Frailty was defined using a frailty index comprised of 47 health deficits. To test if cognitive function influences the relationship between frailty and incident dementia, the analyses were repeated according to lower or upper three quartiles of baseline cognitive function...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145914/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-retrospective-indigenous-childhood-enrichment-scale-rice
#2
Cecilia Minogue, Kim Delbaere, Kylie Radford, Tony Broe, Wendy Sue Forder, Suncica Lah
BACKGROUND: Years of education is the most commonly used proxy measure of cognitive reserve. Other forms of cognitive stimulation in childhood may provide similar protection against cognitive decline, particularly in Indigenous groups, where education may have been lacking in quality or quantity. The Retrospective Indigenous Childhood Enrichment (RICE) scale was developed to measure non-school-based activities and environmental stimulation during childhood that are likely to have enhanced cognitive reserve...
November 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145549/generational-differences-in-the-5-year-incidence-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
Karen J Cruickshanks, David M Nondahl, Lauren J Johnson, Dayna S Dalton, Mary E Fisher, Guan-Hua Huang, Barbara E Klein, Ronald Klein, Carla R Schubert
Importance: Whether a reported decline in the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD) continued for people born during the Baby Boom years (1946-1964) or later is unknown. These data are important to plan for ocular health care needs in the 21st century. Objectives: To determine whether the 5-year risk for AMD declined by generation and to identify factors that contributed to improvement in risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data came from the longitudinal cohort Beaver Dam Eye Study (March 1, 1988, through September 15, 1990, and March 1, 1993, through June 15, 1995) and the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (June 8, 2005, through August 4, 2008, and July 12, 2010, through March 21, 2013)...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145207/determinants-prevalence-and-trajectory-of-long-term-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-results-from-a-4-year-follow-up-of-the-auckland-stroke-regional-outcomes-study-iv-study
#4
Susan Mahon, Priya Parmar, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Rita Krishnamurthi, Kelly Jones, Alice Theadom, Valery Feigin
BACKGROUND: The long-term (>12 months) prevalence, predictors, and trajectory of post-stroke cognitive deficits are not well established, especially at a community level. This study investigated the longitudinal course and prevalence of cognitive impairment in an incidence cohort, identifying factors associated with declining cognition. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-seven participants (mean age = 67.93 ± 13.59) of first-ever stroke survivors, completed cognitive assessments within 2 weeks post stroke, and/or 1, 6, 12, and 48-month...
November 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143759/the-role-of-food-antioxidants-benefits-of-functional-foods-and-influence-of-feeding-habits-on-the-health-of-the-older-person-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Douglas W Wilson, Paul Nash, Harpal Singh Buttar, Keith Griffiths, Ram Singh, Fabien De Meester, Rie Horiuchi, Toru Takahashi
This overview was directed towards understanding the relationship of brain functions with dietary choices mainly by older humans. This included food color, flavor, and aroma, as they relate to dietary sufficiency or the association of antioxidants with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of olfactory and gustatory function in relation to these diseases was also explored. The role of functional foods was considered as a potential treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase as well as similar treatments based on herbs, spices and antioxidants therein...
October 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141875/cognitive-enhancers-associated-with-decreased-risk-of-injury-in-patients-with-dementia-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#6
Pei-Chun Chao, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Ching-Wen Chu, Chin-Bin Yeh, San-Yuan Huang, Ru-Band Lu, Hsin-An Chang, Yu-Chen Kao, Hui-Wen Yeh, Wei-Shan Chiang, Yu-Ching Chou, Nian-Sheng Tzeng
This study aimed to investigate the associations among dementia, psychotropic medications and the risk of overall injuries. In this nationwide matched cohort study, a total of 144 008 enrolled patients ≥age of 50, with 36 002 study subjects who suffered from dementia and 108 006 controls matched for sex and age, from the Inpatient Dataset, for the period 2000-2010 in Taiwan were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database, according to International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137424/septicemia-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-dementia-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#7
Chung-Hsing Chou, Jiunn-Tay Lee, Chun-Chieh Lin, Yueh-Feng Sung, Che-Chen Lin, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fu-Chi Yang, Chi-Pang Wen, I-Kuan Wang, Chia-Hung Kao, Chung Y Hsu, Chun-Hung Tseng
Background: Systemic infection has been linked to cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that patients with septicemia are predisposed to increased risks for developing dementia in a long-term setting. Methods: This observational, retrospective, longitudinal, nation-wide population-based study was conducted using the data deduced from Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in Taiwan. All patients with septicemia hospitalized for the first time from 2001 to 2011 without prior dementia were included...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133855/effect-of-short-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-particulate-matter-on-incidence-of-delirium-in-a-surgical-population
#8
Lu Che, Yan Li, Cheng Gan
Delirium remains an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality among older surgical adults. Recent research has shed light on the relationship between pollution and dementia, yet little is known about the health impacts of particulate matter (PM) on delirium. Therefore, we aim to further explore association of PM and delirium among surgical population. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study. Electronic hospitalization summary reports derived from 26 major cities in China between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2015 were used...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131309/deaths-from-resident-to-resident-aggression-in-australian-nursing-homes
#9
Briony Murphy, Lyndal Bugeja, Jennifer Pilgrim, Joseph E Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and nature of deaths from resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes in Australia. DESIGN: National population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Accredited nursing homes in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Residents whose deaths resulted from RRA and were reported to the coroner between July 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013. MEASUREMENTS: Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data on individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors were collected through review of the paper-based coroners' files...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129622/personalized-long-term-prediction-of-cognitive-function-using-sequential-assessments-to-improve-model-performance
#10
Chih-Lin Chi, Wenjun Zeng, Wonsuk Oh, Soo Borson, Tatiana Lenskaia, Xinpeng Shen, Peter J Tonellato
Prediction of onset and progression of cognitive decline and dementia is important both for understanding the underlying disease processes and for planning health care for populations at risk. Predictors identified in research studies are typically accessed at one point in time. In this manuscript, we argue that an accurate model for predicting cognitive status over relatively long periods requires inclusion of time-varying components that are sequentially assessed at multiple time points (e.g., in multiple follow-up visits)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128686/when-is-audit-and-feedback-effective-in-dementia-care-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Michael J Sykes, Jennifer McAnuff, Niina Kolehmainen
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based care for people with dementia is a priority for patients, carers and clinicians and a policy priority. There is evidence that people with dementia do not always receive such care. Audit and feedback, also known as clinical audit, is an extensively-used intervention to improve care. However, there is uncertainty about the best way to use it. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether audit and feedback is effective for improving health professionals' care of people with dementia...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126874/decreased-serum-undercarboxylated-osteocalcin-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-male-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Hui Fang, Xiao-Yu Xu, Rui-Zhe Xu, Yan-Feng Zhen, Gang Xu, Yu-Kai Li
BACKGROUND: Basic and clinical researches have suggested that type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment, and diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Recently, some reports found that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) could affect brain functions, and decreased in patients with T2DM. We aimed to investigate the association of serum ucOC with cognitive impairment in T2DM patients. METHODS: A total of 196 male T2DM patients without medications known to affect bone metabolism or history of bone fracture, aged ≥18years were recruited and divided into impaired cognition group and normal cognition group...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125486/putative-dementia-cases-fluctuate-as-a-function-of-mini-mental-state-examination-cut-off-points
#13
Ilka M Rosa, Ana G Henriques, Jens Wiltfang, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
As the population ages, there is a growing need to quickly and accurately identify putative dementia cases. Many cognitive tests are available; among those commonly used are the Cognitive Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). The aim of this work was to compare the validity and reliability of these cognitive tests in a primary care based cohort (pcb-Cohort). The MMSE and the CDR were applied to 568 volunteers in the pcb-Cohort. Distinct cut-off points for the MMSE were considered, namely MMSE 27, MMSE 24, and MMSE PT (adapted for the Portuguese population)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125484/general-practice-clinical-data-help-identify-dementia-hotspots-a-novel-geospatial-analysis-approach
#14
Nasser Bagheri, Kinley Wangdi, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
We have a poor understanding of whether dementia clusters geographically, how this occurs, and how dementia may relate to socio-demographic factors. To shed light on these important questions, this study aimed to compute a dementia risk score for individuals to assess spatial variation of dementia risk, identify significant clusters (hotspots), and explore their association with socioeconomic status. We used clinical records from 16 general practices (468 Statistical Area level 1 s, N = 14,746) from the city of west Adelaide, Australia for the duration of 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124116/toward-common-mechanisms-for-risk-factors-in-alzheimer-s-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Miguel Medina, Zaven S Khachaturian, Martin Rossor, Jesús Avila, Angel Cedazo-Minguez
The global strategic goal of reducing health care cost, especially the prospects for massive increases due to expanding markets for health care services demanded by aging populations and/or people with a wide range of chronic disorders-disabilities, is a complex and formidable challenge with many facets. Current projections predict marked increases in the demand for health driven by both the exponential climb in the prevalence of chronic disabilities and the increases in the absolute numbers of people in need of some form of health care...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121542/risk-factors-for-three-month-mortality-after-discharge-in-a-cohort-of-non-oncologic-hospitalized-elderly-patients-results-from-the-reposi-study
#16
Luca Pasina, Laura Cortesi, Mara Tiraboschi, Alessandro Nobili, Giovanna Lanzo, Mauro Tettamanti, Carlotta Franchi, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Silvia Ghidoni, Andrea Assolari, Antonio Brucato
BACKGROUND: Short-term prognosis, e.g. mortality at three months, has many important implications in planning the overall management of patients, particularly non-oncologic patients in order to avoid futile practices. The aims of this study were: i) to investigate the risk of three-month mortality after discharge from internal medicine and geriatric wards of non-oncologic patients with at least one of the following conditions: permanent bedridden status during the hospital stay; severely reduced kidney function; hypoalbuminemia; hospital admissions in the previous six months; severe dementia; ii) to establish the absolute risk difference of three-month mortality of bedridden compared to non-bedridden patients...
November 6, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120563/diagnosing-and-managing-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Sophie Behrman, Vyara Valkanova, Charlotte L Allan
There has been a rapid rise in the number of people diagnosed with dementia in England from 232,000 in 2008 to 850,000 in 2014. Currently, it is estimated that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in adults aged 65 and over is 10-20%. It is likely that this figure will increase in line with trends in dementia diagnosis. In some cases, mild cognitive impairment may be a prodrome for dementia, and my be caused by any of the dementia pathology subtypes. The relationship between depression in the elderly and mild cognitive impairment is difficult to tease out as they are frequently comorbid conditions and both have been found to be independent risk factors for subsequent dementia: about 10% convert to dementia each year, compared with 1-2% of the general elderly population...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120562/be-vigilant-for-dementia-in-parkinson%C3%A2-s-disease
#18
Flavia Niccolini, Konstantinos Diamantopoulos, Stelios Kiosses, Marios Politis
It is estimated that up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease will eventually develop cognitive impairment over the course of their illness. Even at the time of diagnosis, cognitive impairment has been reported in 20-25% of patients. Commonly affected cognitive domains are executive function, visuospatial ability and attention control. In addition, patients with Parkinson's disease dementia may present with deficits in language function and verbal memory. Psychosis may occur in approximately 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease, and is associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114370/taming-alzheimer-s-disease-new-perspectives-newer-horizons
#19
REVIEW
Debraj Sen, Anusree Majumder, Vijinder Arora, Neha Yadu, Ritwik Chakrabarti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia. However, current therapies do not prevent progression of the disease. New research into the pathogenesis of the disease has brought about a greater understanding of the "amyloid cascade" and associated receptor abnormalities, the role of genetic factors, and revealed that the disease process commences 10 to 20 years prior to the appearance of clinical signs. This greater understanding of the disease has prompted development of novel disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) which may prevent onset or delay progression of the disease...
July 6, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106439/increased-diastolic-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-mri-biomarkers-of-dementia-related-brain-pathology-in-normative-ageing
#20
Christopher J McNeil, Phyo Kyaw Myint, Anca-Larisa Sandu, John F Potter, Roger Staff, Lawrence J Whalley, Alison D Murray
Background: hypertension is a risk for brain ageing, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected biomarkers of brain ageing include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a marker of cerebrovascular disease, and hippocampal volume, a marker of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Objective: to examine relationships between blood pressure (BP) components and brain pathology in older adults. Subjects: two hundred and twenty-seven members of the Aberdeen 1936 Birth Cohort between ages 64 and 68 years...
July 4, 2017: Age and Ageing
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