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Pauline Funchain, Ahmad A Tarhini
Rapidly advancing genomic sequencing technologies are changing all areas of cancer, from diagnosis to surveillance, and prognostication to treatment. The role of genomic testing in melanoma is expanding, and multiple genomically based tests are available, including somatic tumor sequencing for actionable genetic alterations and tumor mutational burden, prognostic gene expression profiling from tumor tissue, and germline genetic testing from blood. The available testing options have varying levels of supporting data, from robust to preliminary...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Kevin D Martin, Jeffrey Wake, Laura Dawson, J Preston Van Buren
Background: The prevalence of Achilles tendon (AT) pathology is common and can result in disability. Understanding normal AT properties can improve our ability to prevent AT injuries. We examined the cross-sectional area of the AT at multiple levels in an asymptomatic population of Army Rangers. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study composed of 41 voluntarily recruited United States Army Rangers deployed in a combat theater. All subjects were members of the Ranger Regiment participating in more than 20 h of intense bipedal non-sport weekly training with no history of AT pathology...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Angharad E Green, Alejandro Amézquita, Yvan Le-Marc, Matthew J Bull, Thomas R Connor, Eshwar Mahenthiralingam
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common contaminant associated with product recalls in the home and personal care (HPC) industry. Preservation systems are used to prevent spoilage and protect consumers, but greater knowledge is needed of preservative resistance mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa contaminants. We aimed to identify genetic pathways associated with preservative exposure by using an industrial P. aeruginosa strain and implementing RNA-Seq to understand gene expression changes in response to industry relevant conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Theodore Gouliouris, Ben Warne, Edward J P Cartwright, Luke Bedford, Chathika K Weerasuriya, Kathy E Raven, Nick M Brown, M Estée Török, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Sharon J Peacock
Background: VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. Methods: A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Sharon Reif, Rachel Sayko Adams, Grant A Ritter, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Dayna A Johnson, Jana A Hirsch, Kari A Moore, Susan Redline, Ana V Diez Roux
Although dense neighborhood built environments support increased physical activity and lower obesity, these features may also disturb sleep. Therefore, we sought to understand the association between the built environment and objectively measured sleep. From 2010 to 2013, we analyzed data from examination 5 of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a diverse population from 6 US cities. We fit multilevel models that assessed the association between the built environment (Street Smart Walk Score, social engagement destinations, street intersections, and population density) and sleep duration or efficiency from 1-week wrist actigraphy in 1,889 individuals...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Paula P Schnurr, Joan M Cook
Objective: Available studies on implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for patients attending Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs rely on therapist self-report of EBP delivery. Patient-level data on receipt of EBP are needed both to corroborate therapist self-report and to understand patient factors that predict receipt of EBPs for PTSD. Materials and Methods: We identified 159 therapists from 38 VA residential PTSD programs who responded to a survey about EBP implementation during the 2015 fiscal year (FY15)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Clément Niel, Christine Sinoquet, Christian Dina, Ghislain Rocheleau
Motivation: Large scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are tools of choice for discovering associations between genotypes and phenotypes. To date, many studies rely on univariate statistical tests for association between the phenotype and each assayed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). However, interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered when tackling the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Epistasis analysis at large scale entails a prohibitive computational burden when addressing the detection of more than two interacting SNPs...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Malgorzata A Gazda, Pedro Andrade, Sandra Afonso, Jolita Dilyte, John P Archer, Ricardo J Lopes, Rui Faria, Miguel Carneiro
Racing pigeons have been selectively bred to find their way home quickly over what are often extremely long distances. This breed is of substantial commercial value and is also an excellent avian model to gain empirical insights into the evolution of traits associated with flying performance and spatial orientation. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of the superior athletic and navigational capabilities of racing pigeons using whole-genome and RNA sequencing data. We inferred multiple signatures of positive selection distributed across the genome of racing pigeons...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Igor Mandric, Sergey Knyazev, Alex Zelikovsky
Summary: Genomic sequences are assembled into a variable, but large number of contigs that should be scaffolded (ordered and oriented) for facilitating comparative or functional analysis. Finding scaffolding is computationally challenging due to misassemblies, inconsistent coverage across the genome, and long repeats. An accurate assessment of scaffolding tools should take into account multiple locations of the same contig on the reference scaffolding rather than matching a repeat to a single best location...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Sacha Klein, Brittany Mihalec-Adkins, Stephanie Benson, Sei-Young Lee
Increasing access to early care and education (ECE) for children in the child welfare system (CWS) remains a critical issue in the United States, as the numbers of young children entering this system steadily increases. Mounting evidence suggests that participation in at least some types of ECE can mitigate the need for child welfare supervision. Moreover, ECE participation has been linked to positive developmental and school readiness outcomes, lower rates of foster placement, and greater placement stability for children in the CWS...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Mousumi Pal, Utpal Nandi, Debaraj Mukherjee
Ruthenium (Ru) complexes are known for their promising anticancer activity presumably due to octahedral coordination geometry, slow ligand exchange rate, the range of different oxidation states and target specificity. This review article summarizes the physicochemical processes which are responsible for the selectivity of Ru complexes toward cancer cells over the normal cells. Emphasis has been given on the activation mechanism of Ru(III) complex administered as a prodrug and then the release of active species in an acidic environment of cancer cell through normal or photo induced hydrolysis or ligand oxidation...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
L Lavorgna, G Miele, M Petruzzo, R Lanzillo, S Bonavita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Lisa M Jones, Kimberly J Mitchell, Heather A Turner, Michele L Ybarra
Using a national sample of youth from the U.S., this paper examines incidents of bias-based harassment by peers that include language about victims' perceived sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, religion, weight or height, or intelligence. Telephone interviews were conducted with youth who were 10-20 years old (n = 791). One in six youth (17%) reported at least one experience with bias-based harassment in the past year. Bias language was a part of over half (52%) of all harassment incidents experienced by youth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Nicolas Hoertel, Hadi Faiz, Guillaume Airagnes, Carlos Blanco, Rachel Pascal De Raykeer, Silvia Franco, Géraldine Ducoutumany, Cédric Lemogne, Frédéric Limosin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinkers are at high risk for suicide attempt and suicide. Multiple factors, when examined in isolation, have been implicated in the risk of suicide attempt in this population. In this report, we present a comprehensive model of the 3-year risk of suicide attempt in heavy drinkers using a longitudinal nationally representative study, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). METHODS: We used structural equation modeling to simultaneously examine effects of four broad groups of clinical factors previously identified as potential predictors of attempted suicides: 1) alcohol use disorder severity, 2) severity of comorbidity, 3) sociodemographic characteristics and 4) help-seeking for alcohol problems...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ryo Yuge, Yasuhiko Kitadai, Hidehiko Takigawa, Toshikatsu Naito, Naohide Oue, Wataru Yasui, Shinji Tanaka, Kazuaki Chayama
Accumulating evidence suggests that a unique set of receptor tyrosine kinases, known as discoidin domain receptors (DDRs), plays a role in cancer progression by interacting with the surrounding collagen matrix. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of DDR1 in human gastric cancer metastasis. Proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation assays were conducted in DDR1-expressing MKN74 gastric cancer cells and corresponding DDR1-silenced cells. The effects of DDR1 on tumor growth and metastasis were examined in orthotopically implanted and experimental liver metastasis models in nude mice...
March 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
Matthew S Panizzon, Richard L Hauger, Hong Xian, Kristen Jacobson, Michael J Lyons, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen
Animal and human research suggests that testosterone is associated with hippocampal structure and function. Studies examining the association between testosterone and either hippocampal structure or hippocampal-mediated cognitive processes have overwhelmingly focused on the effects of testosterone alone, without considering the interaction of other neuroendocrine factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the interactive effects of testosterone and cortisol in relation to hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a sample of late-middle aged men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging...
March 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
John Gunderson, Sara Masland, Lois Choi-Kain
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has moved from being an untreatable disorder to a disorder with multiple evidence-based psychotherapies. When a second generation of research showed that less intensive, easier-to-learn therapies could be nearly as effective, they offered an approach that would be responsive to the persisting unmet needs of these patients. This paper describes good psychiatric management (GPM), a once-weekly, generalist model that medicalizes the disorder, emphasizes psychoeducation, and focuses on social adaptation...
January 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Guillaume Dubeaux, Julie Neveu, Enric Zelazny, Grégory Vert
Plant roots forage the soil for iron, the concentration of which can be dramatically lower than those needed for growth. Soil iron uptake uses the broad metal spectrum IRT1 transporter that also transports zinc, manganese, cobalt, and cadmium. Sophisticated iron-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the abundance of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of iron. Here, we uncover that IRT1 acts as a transporter and receptor (transceptor), directly sensing excess of its non-iron metal substrates in the cytoplasm, to regulate its own degradation...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
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