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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906005/the-role-of-nk-cells-in-hiv-1-protection-autologous-allogeneic-or-both
#1
REVIEW
Jef Hens, Wim Jennes, Luc Kestens
Natural killer (NK) cells specialize in killing virally infected- or tumor cells and are part of the innate immune system. The activational state of NK cells is determined by the balance of incoming activating and inhibitory signals mediated by receptor-ligand binding with the target cell. These receptor-ligand bonds mainly consist of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which are expressed at the cell surface of NK cells, and their ligands: the highly variable human leukocyte antigen -class I molecules (HLA)...
March 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904959/differential-pulmonic-nk-and-nkt-cell-responses-in-schistosoma-japonicum-infected-mice
#2
Hefei Cha, Wenjuan Qin, Quan Yang, Hongyan Xie, Jiale Qu, Mei Wang, Daixiong Chen, Fang Wang, Nuo Dong, Longhua Chen, Jun Huang
Natural killer cells (NK cells) and natural killer T cells (NKT cells) play a role in anti-infection, anti-tumor, transplantation immunity, and autoimmune regulation. However, the role of NK and NKT cells during Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection has not been widely reported, especially regarding lung infections. The aim of this study was to research the NK and NKT cell response to S. japonicum infection in the lungs of mice. Using immunofluorescent histological analysis, NK and NKT cells were found near pulmonary granulomas...
November 30, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903841/influence-of-a-moderate-intensity-exercise-program-on-early-nk-cell-immune-recovery-in-pediatric-patients-after-reduced-intensity-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Carolina Chamorro-Viña, Jaime Valentín, Lucía Fernández, Marta González-Vicent, Margarita Pérez-Ruiz, Alejandro Lucía, S Nicole Culos-Reed, Miguel Ángel Díaz, Antonio Pérez-Martínez
INTRODUCTION: After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), NK cell reconstitution, which is crucial for positive outcomes, is dominated by the CD56(bright) subset with low NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) activity. Moderate exercise has been described as a potent NK cell stimulus in adults with cancer. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a moderate-intensity exercise program on NK cell recovery early after HSCT and the feasibility of this intervention...
November 30, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903610/nk-cells-converge-lytic-granules-to-promote-cytotoxicity-and-prevent-bystander-killing
#4
Hsiang-Ting Hsu, Emily M Mace, Alexandre F Carisey, Dixita I Viswanath, Athanasia E Christakou, Martin Wiklund, Björn Önfelt, Jordan S Orange
Natural killer (NK) cell activation triggers sequential cellular events leading to destruction of diseased cells. We previously identified lytic granule convergence, a dynein- and integrin signal-dependent movement of lysosome-related organelles to the microtubule-organizing center, as an early step in the cell biological process underlying NK cell cytotoxicity. Why lytic granules converge during NK cell cytotoxicity, however, remains unclear. We experimentally controlled the availability of human ligands to regulate NK cell signaling and promote granule convergence with either directed or nondirected degranulation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903272/inhibition-of-bromodomain-and-extra-terminal-bet-proteins-increases-nkg2d-ligand-mica-expression-and-sensitivity-to-nk-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-role-of-cmyc-irf4-mir-125b-interplay
#5
Maria Pia Abruzzese, Maria Teresa Bilotta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Zingoni, Alessandra Soriani, Elisabetta Vulpis, Cristiana Borrelli, Beatrice Zitti, Maria Teresa Petrucci, Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Rosa Molfetta, Rossella Paolini, Angela Santoni, Marco Cippitelli
BACKGROUND: Anti-cancer immune responses may contribute to the control of tumors after conventional chemotherapy, and different observations have indicated that chemotherapeutic agents can induce immune responses resulting in cancer cell death and immune-stimulatory side effects. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence highlight the importance of natural killer (NK) cells in immune responses toward multiple myeloma (MM), and combination therapies able to enhance the activity of NK cells against MM are showing promise in treating this hematologic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899767/immune-function-parameters-as-markers-of-biological-age-and-predictors-of-longevity
#6
Irene Martínez de Toda, Ianire Maté, Carmen Vida, Julia Cruces, Mónica De la Fuente
Chronological age is not a good indicator of how each individual ages and thus how to maintain good health. Due to the long lifespan in humans and the consequent difficulty of carrying out longitudinal studies, finding valid biomarkers of the biological age has been a challenge both for research and clinical studies. The aim was to identify and validate several immune cell function parameters as markers of biological age. Adult, mature, elderly and long-lived human volunteers were used. The chemotaxis, phagocytosis, natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in neutrophils and lymphocytes of peripheral blood were analyzed...
November 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898462/recent-advances-in-allograft-vasculopathy
#7
Jonathan Merola, Daniel D Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite considerable advances in controlling acute rejection, the longevity of cardiac and renal allografts remains significantly limited by chronic rejection in the form of allograft vasculopathy. This review discusses recently reported mechanistic insights of allograft vasculopathy pathogenesis as well as recent clinical evaluations of new therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Although adaptive immunity is the major driver of allograft vasculopathy, natural killer cells mediate vasculopathic changes in a transplanted mouse heart following treatment with donor-specific antibody (DSA)...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896523/a-cd57-ctl-degranulation-assay-effectively-identifies-familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-type-3-patients
#8
Masayuki Hori, Takahiro Yasumi, Saeko Shimodera, Hirofumi Shibata, Eitaro Hiejima, Hirotsugu Oda, Kazushi Izawa, Tomoki Kawai, Masataka Ishimura, Naoko Nakano, Ryutaro Shirakawa, Ryuta Nishikomori, Hidetoshi Takada, Satoshi Morita, Hisanori Horiuchi, Osamu Ohara, Eiichi Ishii, Toshio Heike
PURPOSE: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3) is a genetic disorder that results in immune dysregulation. It requires prompt and accurate diagnosis. A natural killer (NK) cell degranulation assay is often used to screen for FHL3 patients. However, we recently encountered two cases of late-onset FHL3 carrying novel UNC13D missense mutations: in these cases, the degranulation assays using freshly isolated and interleukin (IL)-2-activated NK cells yielded contradictory results...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896283/a-potential-founder-variant-in-carmil2-rltpr-in-three-norwegian-families-with-warts-molluscum-contagiosum-and-t-cell-dysfunction
#9
Hanne S Sorte, Liv T Osnes, Børre Fevang, Pål Aukrust, Hans C Erichsen, Paul H Backe, Tore G Abrahamsen, Ole B Kittang, Torstein Øverland, Shalini N Jhangiani, Donna M Muzny, Magnus D Vigeland, Pubudu Samarakoon, Tomasz Gambin, Zeynep H C Akdemir, Richard A Gibbs, Olaug K Rødningen, Robert Lyle, James R Lupski, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Four patients from three Norwegian families presented with a common skin phenotype of warts, molluscum contagiosum, and dermatitis since early childhood, and various other immunological features. Warts are a common manifestation of human papilloma virus (HPV), but when they are overwhelming, disseminated and/or persistent, and presenting together with other immunological features, a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) may be suspected. METHODS AND RESULTS: The four patients were exome sequenced as part of a larger study for detecting genetic causes of primary immunodeficiencies...
November 2016: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895726/adenovirus-mediated-interleukin-21-gene-transfer-enhances-antitumor-immunity-and-reduces-tumorigenicity-of-hepa1-6-in-mice
#10
Jiyu Ju, Lina Wang, Dalin Di, Weiling Xiao, Meiyu Peng, Yishuai Liu, Xiaoyan Fu, Chunling Zhao, Xuebin Qin
In the present study, adenovirus-mediated interleukin 21 (Ad5-IL-21-EGFP) gene expression was induced in Hepa1-6 cells to investigate whether IL-21 was capable of enhancing antitumor immunity and reducing tumorigenicity of Hepa1-6 in a mouse model. Mice were inoculated intradermally into the right flank with Hepa1-6 cells or Hepa1-6 cells infected with Ad5 or Ad5-IL-21. Four weeks later, the mice were sacrificed humanely, and the tumor volume, tumor weight and mouse spleen index were measured. The levels of IL-21, IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in mouse serum and tumor tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895646/manufacturing-natural-killer-cells-as-medicinal-products
#11
REVIEW
Christian Chabannon, Bechara Mfarrej, Sophie Guia, Sophie Ugolini, Raynier Devillier, Didier Blaise, Eric Vivier, Boris Calmels
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of human leukocyte antigen presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895167/pgi2-controls-pulmonary-nk-cells-that-prevent-airway-sensitization-to-house-dust-mite-allergen
#12
Bryan Simons, Maria E Ferrini, Sophia Carvalho, David J P Bassett, Zeina Jaffar, Kevan Roberts
In allergic asthma, inhalation of airborne allergens such as the house dust mite (HDM) effectively activates both innate and adaptive immunity in the lung mucosa. To determine the role of the eicosanoid PGI2 and its receptor IP during allergic airway sensitization, HDM responses in mice lacking a functional IP receptor (i.e., PGI2 IP receptor-deficient [IP(-/-)]) were compared with wild type (WT) mice. Surprisingly, IP(-/-) mice had increased numbers of pulmonary CD3(-)NK1.1(+)Ly49b(+) NK cells producing IFN-γ that was inversely associated with the number of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) expressing IL-33Rα and IL-13 compared with WT animals...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894857/cytokine-induced-memory-like-differentiation-enhances-unlicensed-nk-cell-anti-leukemia-and-fc%C3%AE-riiia-triggered-responses
#13
Julia A Wagner, Melissa M Berrien-Elliott, Maximillian Rosario, Jeffrey W Leong, Brea A Jewell, Timothy Schappe, Sara Abdel-Latif, Todd A Fehniger
Cytokine-induced memory-like natural killer (NK) cells differentiate following short-term pre-activation with interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, and IL-18 and display enhanced effector function in response to cytokines or tumor targets for weeks following the initial pre-activation. Conventional NK cell function is dependent upon a licensing signal, classically delivered by an inhibitory receptor engaging its cognate MHC class I ligand. How licensing status integrates with cytokine-induced memory-like NK cell responses is unknown...
November 25, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892871/phenotypic-modulation-of-porcine-cd14-monocytes-natural-killer-natural-killer-t-cells-and-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subsets-by-an-antibody-derived-killer-peptide-kp
#14
Luca Ferrari, Paolo Borghetti, Giulia Ferrarini, Elena De Angelis, Elena Canelli, Giulia Ogno, Alessia Catella, Tecla Ciociola, Walter Magliani, Paolo Martelli
An engineered killer peptide (KP) based on a recombinant anti-idiotypic antibody representing the functional image of a yeast killer toxin (KT) was demonstrated to mediate antimicrobial effects against fungi and viruses. KP binds to murine dendritic cells and macrophages and up-regulate co-receptor expression, thus sustaining CD4+ lymphocyte activation. No immunological data are available in domestic animals thus KP-induced immunomodulation was evaluated in porcine monocyte and lymphocyte subsets. PBMC from healthy adult pigs were stimulated with KP or a scramble peptide (SP), or kept unstimulated for 24, 48 and 72h, and subsequently analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891126/the-ly49e-receptor-inhibits-the-immune-control-of-acute-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#15
Jessica Filtjens, Nicolas Coltel, Sabrina Cencig, Sylvie Taveirne, Els Van Ammel, Aline Van Acker, Tessa Kerre, Patrick Matthys, Tom Taghon, Bart Vandekerckhove, Yves Carlier, Carine Truyens, Georges Leclercq
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades various cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK) and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890931/a-tlr7-agonist-enhances-the-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-obinutuzumab-in-murine-lymphoma-models-via-nk-cells-and-cd4-t-cells
#16
E J Cheadle, G Lipowska-Bhalla, S J Dovedi, E Fagnano, C Klein, J Honeychurch, T M Illidge
Anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab have proven highly effective at improving outcome in B-cell malignancies. However, many patients ultimately relapse and become refractory to treatment. The glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb obinutuzumab was developed to induce enhanced antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody dependent phagocytosis and direct cell death and was shown to lead to improved outcomes in a randomized study in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). We hypothesized that immune stimulation through TLR7 agonism in combination with obinutuzumab would further enhance lymphoma clearance and the generation of long-term anti-tumor immune responses...
November 28, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890369/anti-tumor-activity-of-tanshinone-iia-in-combined-with-cyclophosphamide-against-lewis-mice-with-lung-cancer
#17
Qi Li, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Li-Fang Xu, Yu-Chuan Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the anti-tumor activity of tanshinone IIA in combined with cyclophosphamide against Lewis mice with lung cancer and the effect on cellular immune function. METHODS: Lewis tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right armpit of mice in each group (n = 20) to establish Lewis lung cancer mice model. After model establishment, mice in the model group were given normal saline by lavage, qd. Mice in treatment I group were given intraperitoneal injection of Tan IIA, 15 mg/kg, qd...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890368/effect-of-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-fisch-polysaccharide-on-growth-performance-and-immunologic-function-in-mice-in-ural-city-xinjiang
#18
Jie Chen, Xiao-Qing Zhu, Li Yang, Yan Luo, Meng-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Ting Liu, Ke-Xun Liang, Xin-Li Gu
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) Fisch polysaccharide on growth performance and immunologic function in mice in Ural City, Xinjiang and to provide important data supporting the application of Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide. METHODS: A total of 100 Kunming mice aged 3 weeks old were randomly divided into 5 groups with 20 mice in each group (10 were females and 10 were males). About 0.5 mL normal saline was given to the mice of control group every day and 0...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890259/how-important-is-nk-alloreactivity-and-kir-in-allogeneic-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Brian C Shaffer, Katharine C Hsu
Relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) is a major cause of death in transplant recipients. Efforts to control relapse by promoting donor T-cell alloreactivity, such as withdrawal of immune suppression or donor lymphocyte infusions, are limited by the propensity to induce graft versus host disease (GVHD) and by inadequate efficacy. Therefore, options for AML patients who have relapsed AML after allo HCT are few and outcomes are poor. Similar to T-cells, natural killer (NK) cells have potent anti-leukemia effector capacity, and yet unlike T-cells, NK cells do not mediate GVHD...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887964/anti-inflammatory-tetraquinane-diterpenoids-from-a-crinipellis-species
#20
Markus Rohr, Katharina Oleinikov, Mathias Jung, Louis P Sandjo, Till Opatz, Gerhard Erkel
The small pro-inflammatory 10kDa chemokine CXCL10 (Interferon-inducible protein 10, IP-10) plays an important role in mediating immune responses through the activation and recruitment of leukocytes such as T cells, eosinophils, monocytes and NK cells to the sites of inflammation. Elevated levels of CXCL10 have been associated with chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases and therefore CXCL10 represents an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. In a search for anti-inflammatory compounds from fungi inhibiting the inducible CXCL10 promoter activity, four new tetraquinane diterpenoids, crinipellin E (1), crinipellin F (2), crinipellin G (3) and crinipellin H (4) were isolated from fermentations of a Crinipellis species...
November 12, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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