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Kai Ma, Ruirui Xing, Ti-Feng Jiao, Guizhi Shen, Chengjun Chen, Junbai Li, Xuehai Yan
Self-assembling peptide-based materials are playing an important role in fabricating drug delivery carriers, however, they are often limited by several challenges, such as precise structure modulation, desirable nanoscale size and sufficient circulation lifetime in the body. To address this issue, herein one type of injectable dipeptide-based nanocarriers with well-modulated size and structure has been developed by adjusting glutaraldehyde (GA) assisted cationic dipeptide (CDP) assembly. After loading a model photosensitive drug (Ce6) and further decorating CDP nanoparticles (NPs) with heparin polymers (Hep), the desired dipeptide-based NPs are achieved with average diameter of 100 nm and surface charge of -25 mV, which are favorable for the enhanced permeability and retention effects...
October 25, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Emanuela Zannin, Daniela Doni, Maria Luisa Ventura, Tiziana Fedeli, Camilla Rigotti, Raffaele L Dellacá, Paolo E Tagliabue
OBJECTIVE: To characterize changes in lung mechanics and right ventricular output (RVO) during incremental/decremental continuous distending pressure (CDP) maneuvers in newborn infants receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, with the aim of evaluating when open lung maneuvers are needed and whether they are beneficial. STUDY DESIGN: Thirteen infants on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation were studied with a median (IQR) gestational age of 26(1) (25(3)-29(1)) weeks and median (IQR) body weight of 810 (600-1020) g...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Yingmiao Liu, Junzhi Wang, Chongmao Xu, Yong Chen, Junjie Yang, Dong Liu, Huanqing Niu, Yu Jiang, Sheng Yang, Hanjie Ying
Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) has been applied for treating acute craniocerebral injury and allowing recovery of consciousness after brain surgery. In this study, an acetate kinase (ACK)/acetyl phosphate system was used to supply ATP and combined with Escherichia coli-overexpressed CMP kinase (CMK), NDP kinase (NDK), choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CCT), and choline kinase (CKI) to produce CDP-choline from CMP and choline chloride. Within 1 h, 49 mM CDP-choline was produced, for a molar yield of 89...
October 13, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sandi Rowland, Jonathon P Leider, Clare Davidson, Joanne Brady, Alana Knudson
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the expansion of a community dental access program (CDP) in rural Maryland providing urgent dental care to low-income individuals, as well as the CDP's impact on dental-related visits to a regional emergency department (ED). METHODS: We used de-identified CDP and ED claims data to construct a data set of weekly counts of CDP visits and dental-related ED visits among Maryland adults. A time series model examined the association over time between visits to the CDP and ED visits for fiscal years (FYs) 2011 through 2015...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Alexei Gorelik, Leonhard X Heinz, Katalin Illes, Giulio Superti-Furga, Bhushan Nagar
The enzyme acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3B (SMPDL3B) was shown to act as a negative regulator of innate immune signaling, affecting cellular lipid composition and membrane fluidity. Furthermore, several reports identified this enzyme as an off-target of the therapeutic antibody rituximab, with implications in kidney disorders. However, structural information for this protein is lacking. Here we present the high-resolution crystal structure of murine SMPDL3B which reveals a substrate binding site strikingly different from its paralogs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shinji Honda, Vincent T Bicocca, Jordan D Gessaman, Michael R Rountree, Ayumi Yokoyama, Eun Y Yu, Jeanne M L Selker, Eric U Selker
DNA methylation, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, histone deacetylation, and highly repeated sequences are prototypical heterochromatic features, but their interrelationships are not fully understood. Prior work showed that H3K9 methylation directs DNA methylation and histone deacetylation via HP1 in Neurospora crassa and that the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation. The complex consists of the chromodomain proteins HP1 and chromodomain protein 2 (CDP-2), the histone deacetylase HDA-1, and the AT-hook motif protein CDP-2/HDA-1-associated protein (CHAP)...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kanchana R Ravichandran, Alexander T Taguchi, Yifeng Wei, Cecilia Tommos, Daniel G Nocera, JoAnne Stubbe
Escherichia coli class Ia ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) converts ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides. A diferric-tyrosyl radical (Y122•) in one subunit (β2) generates a transient thiyl radical in another subunit (α2) via long-range radical transport (RT) through aromatic amino acid residues (Y122 ⇆ [W48] ⇆ Y356 in β2 to Y731 ⇆ Y730 ⇆ C439 in α2). Equilibration of Y356•, Y731•, and Y730• was recently observed using site specifically incorporated unnatural tyrosine analogs; however, equilibration between Y122• and Y356• has not been detected...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yuanheng Guo, Lili Cao, Qingsheng Zhao, Lijun Zhang, Jinjin Chen, Boyan Liu, Bing Zhao
To research the preliminary characterizations, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of polysaccharides from Cistanche deserticola (CDPs), three polysaccharide fractions, CDP-A, CDP-B and CDP-C, were obtained by successively membrane filtration (microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration). Molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions, purities and IR spectra of the three fractions were analyzed. Results showed that CDP-C contained higher proportion of galacturonic acid (GalUA) than CDP-B and CDP-A...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Andrew J Knappenberger, Md Faiz Ahmad, Rajesh Viswanathan, Chris G Dealwis, Michael E Harris
Class I ribonucleotide reductase (RR) maintains balanced pools of deoxyribonucleotide substrates for DNA replication by converting ribonucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to 2'-deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates (dNDPs). Binding of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) effectors (ATP/dATP, dGTP, and dTTP) modulates the specificity of class I RR for CDP, UDP, ADP, and GDP substrates. Crystal structures of bacterial and eukaryotic RRs show that dNTP effectors and NDP substrates bind on either side of a flexible nine-amino acid loop (loop 2)...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
Matthew J Urban, Robert T Sataloff
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between white matter changes (WMCs) and abnormal balance test results on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) and electronystagmography (ENG). Also, to compare the utility of CDP with ENG for this purpose. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary care referral center. PATIENTS: A retrospective review of 137 subjects was conducted. The CDP and ENG results were compared between patients with (80) and without (57) WMCs as detected byT2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Amnon Golan, Ning Wei, Elah Pick
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an evolutionary conserved complex that is found in all eukaryotes, and implicated in regulating the activity of Cullin-RING ubiquitin Ligases (CRLs). Activity of CRLs is highly regulated; complexes are active when the cullin subunit is covalently attached to the ubiquitin like modifier, Nedd8. Neddylation/deneddylation cycles are required for proper CRLs activity, and deneddylation is performed by the CSN complex.We describe here a method utilizing resin-coupled antibodies to deplete the CSN from human cell extracts, and to obtain endogenous CSN complexes by immunopurification...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fosheng Li, Lanju Mei, Cheng Zhan, Qiang Mao, Min Yao, Shenghua Wang, Lin Tang, Fang Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in nearly every aspect of biology, including physiological, biochemical, developmental and pathological processes. Therefore, a highly sensitive and accurate method of detection of miRNAs has great potential in research on theory and application, such as the clinical approach to medicine, animal and plant production, as well as stress response. Here, we report a strategic method to detect miRNAs from multicellular organisms, which mainly includes liquid hybridization and solid phase detection (LHSPD); it has been verified in various species and is much more sensitive than traditional biotin-labeled Northern blots...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Margo Diricks, Alexander Gutmann, Simon Debacker, Griet Dewitte, Bernd Nidetzky, Tom Desmet
Sucrose Synthase (SuSy) catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) into NDP-glucose and fructose. Biochemical characterization of several plant and bacterial SuSys has revealed that the eukaryotic enzymes preferentially use UDP whereas prokaryotic SuSys prefer ADP as acceptor. In this study, SuSy from the bacterium Acidithiobacillus caldus, which has a higher affinity for ADP as reflected by the 25-fold lower Km value compared to UDP, was used as a test case to scrutinize the effect of introducing plant residues at positions in a putative nucleotide binding motif surrounding the nucleobase ring of NDP...
September 1, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Damien Contandriopoulos, Nancy Hanusaik, Katerina Maximova, Gilles Paradis, Jennifer L O'Loughlin
In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study - a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada - we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system...
August 2016: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
Yang Huang, Ming-Yang Liu, Tai Ma, Zhong-Ping Lou, Chao Cao, Yao He
Using hybrid functional calculations, we investigate the effects of defects and defect complexes related with Cd, Li, and N impurities on the atomic and electronic properties of Ag3PO4. It was found that substitutional Cd on Ag lattice site (CdAg) contributes to the n-type conductivity of Ag3PO4. For substitutional Cd on P (or O) lattice site (CdP) (or CdO), it is not expected that Cd will incorporate into the P (or O) site due to the strong covalent interactions in the PO4 structural units. The interstitial Cd (Cdi) acts as a shallow donor, but its formation energy is relatively high compared with that of CdAg...
2016: Scientific Reports
Haitao Sun, Xinru Shao, Zhongsu Ma
This work aimed to study the effect of nanocrystalline corn straw cellulose (NCSC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the properties of biodegradable corn distarch phosphate (CDP) films. The mechanical properties and barrier properties were investigated. Meanwhile, the compatibility, crystallization, thermal stability, and morphological structure of the films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), thermogravimetric (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Joseph W Brewer, Viktoriya Solodushko, Ileana Aragon, Robert A Barrington
In activated B cells, increased production of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), the most abundant cellular phospholipid, is handled primarily by the CDP-choline pathway. B cell-specific deletion of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα), the rate-limiting enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway, led to augmented IgM secretion and reduced IgG production, suggesting that PtdCho synthesis is required for germinal center reactions. To specifically assess whether PtdCho influences B cell fate during germinal center responses, we examined immune responses in mice whereby PtdCho synthesis is disrupted in B cells that have undergone class switch recombination to IgG1 (referred to as either Cγ1(wt/wt), Cγ1(Cre/wt) or Cγ1(Cre/Cre) based on Cre copy number)...
August 3, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Fei Guo, Yishu Zhou, He Song, Jinling Zhao, Hongying Shen, Bin Zhao, Feng Liu, Xianhua Jiang
The HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel (the HID Identity Panel) is designed to detect 124-plex single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with next generation sequencing (NGS) technology on the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform, including 90 individual identification SNPs (IISNPs) on autosomal chromosomes and 34 lineage informative SNPs (LISNPs) on Y chromosome. In this study, we evaluated performance for the HID Identity Panel to provide a reference for NGS-SNP application, focusing on locus strand balance, locus coverage balance, heterozygote balance, and background signals...
July 29, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Mun-Teng Wong, Steve S Chen
UNLABELLED: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection reorganizes cellular membranes to create an active viral replication site named the membranous web (MW). The role that human choline kinase-α (hCKα) plays in HCV replication remains elusive. Here, we first showed that hCKα activity, not the CDP-choline pathway, promoted viral RNA replication. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation of HCV-infected cells revealed that a small fraction of hCKα colocalized with the viral replication complex (RC) on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that HCV infection increased hCKα localization to the ER...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
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