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Philipp Klapsing, Onnen Moerer, Christoph Wende, Peter Herrmann, Michael Quintel, Annalen Bleckmann, Jan Florian Heuer
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have not shown an overall benefit of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), possibly due to injurious or non-individualized HFOV settings. We compared conventional HFOV (HFOVcon ) settings with HFOV settings based on mean transpulmonary pressures (PLmean ) in an animal model of experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: ARDS was induced in eight pigs by intrabronchial installation of hydrochloric acid (0...
May 9, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Hadeel Alrukban, David Chitayat
Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is a skeletal abnormality characterized by premature calcification that is usually noticeable in the prenatal period and infancy. Etiologically, the condition is heterogeneous, and the causes include fetal conditions such as chromosome abnormalities, peroxisomal disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, cholesterol synthesis defects and abnormal vitamin K metabolism, as well as maternal diseases such as severe malabsorption and exposure to teratogens. An association between CDP and maternal autoimmune disease was first observed and reported by Curry et al and Costa et al in 1993 and expanded by Chitayat et al in 2010...
2018: Application of Clinical Genetics
Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Rebecca Cusack, Michael P W Grocott, Anthony D Postle
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with a severe pro-inflammatory response; although decreased plasma cholesterol concentration has been linked to systemic inflammation, any association of phospholipid metabolic pathways with ARDS has not been characterized. Plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid of circulating lipoproteins, is synthesized in human liver by two biologically diverse pathways: the CDP:choline and phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathways...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Mackenzie J Parker, Ailiena O Maggiolo, William C Thomas, Albert Kim, Steve P Meisburger, Nozomi Ando, Amie K Boal, JoAnne Stubbe
The high fidelity of DNA replication and repair is attributable, in part, to the allosteric regulation of ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that maintains proper deoxynucleotide pool sizes and ratios in vivo. In class Ia RNRs, ATP (stimulatory) and dATP (inhibitory) regulate activity by binding to the ATP-cone domain at the N terminus of the large α subunit and altering the enzyme's quaternary structure. Class Ib RNRs, in contrast, have a partial cone domain and have generally been found to be insensitive to dATP inhibition...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yue Liu, Hui Wang, Mei Yang, Ning Liu, Yuping Zhao, Xue Qi, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Yuxiang Li, Jianqiang Yu
Ischemia stroke is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Cistanche deserticola polysaccharides (CDP) possess a wide range of beneficial effects, including hepatoprotection and immune homeostasis. As far as we know, the protective effect of CDP on neurons injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/RP) has not been investigated. In this study, OGD/RP injured a PC12 cell model. Briefly, CDP (0.05, 0.5 and 5??g/ml) was administered before reperfusion. The protective effect of CDP was then evaluated on the basis of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, [Ca2+ ]i , mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)and cell apoptosis, and redox status after reperfusion was evaluated by assaying reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant capacity...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xinru Shao, Haitao Sun, Ruiping Jiang, Ting Qin, Zhongsu Ma
BACKGROUND: In this paper, a novel modified microcrystalline corn straw cellulose (MMCSC) was prepared by ultrasonic/microwave-assisted treatment. Effective incorporation of MMCSC into corn distarch phosphate (CDP) based composite films were investigated. RESULTS: As the proportion of MMCSC was increased, tensile strength increased initially before decreasing, and the elongation at break always decreased. The composite film of MMCSC20 showed the lowest water vapor permeability (2...
April 29, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Shu Zhang, Qiang Zhu, Xiaogang Chen, Yuancun Zhao, Xiaohong Zhao, Yiwen Yang, Zehua Gao, Ting Fang, Yufang Wang, Ji Zhang
Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels), which possess the characteristics of low mutation rates and a short amplicon size, have been regarded as promising markers for forensic DNA analysis. InDels can be classified as bi-allelic or multi-allelic, depending on the number of alleles. Many studies have explored the use of bi-allelic InDels in forensic applications, such as individual identification and ancestry inference. However, multi-allelic InDels have received relatively little attention. In this study, InDels with 2-6 alleles and a minor allele frequency ≥0...
April 27, 2018: Electrophoresis
Cecilia Zazueta, Mabel Buelna-Chontal, Arturo Macías-López, Nadia G Román-Anguiano, Héctor González-Pacheco, Natalia Pavón, Rashidi Springall, Alberto Aranda-Frausto, Rafael Bojalil, Alejandro Silva-Palacios, Rodrigo Velázquez-Espejel, Sonia Galvan Arzate, Francisco Correa
CDP-choline (citicoline) participates as intermediary in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an essential component of cellular membranes. Citicoline treatment has shown beneficial effects in cerebral ischemia, but its potential to diminish reperfusion damage in liver has not been explored. In this work, we evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of citicoline and its possible association with inflammatory/oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, as they are main cellular features of reperfusion damage...
April 20, 2018: Liver Transplantation
R Bregier-Jarzębowska, L Łomozik, A Gąsowska
Potentiometric and NMR spectroscopic studies of the nucleotide (NucP)/polyamine (PA) system (where NucP = CDP, CTP, PA = putrescine or spermidine) revealed the formation of molecular complexes (NucP)(Hx+y )(PA) (where Hx+y  = number of protons; x - from NucP and y - from PA). Their thermodynamic parameters were determined and the modes of their interactions were proposed. The main reaction centers were found to be the protonated amine groups of polyamine (positive centers) and phosphate groups of nucleotide (negative centers)...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Enrique Arriola Manchola, Javier Alaba Loinaz
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome encompassing affective and behavioural symptoms and various subtypes. MCI is a heterogeneous clinical entity with varied causes (degenerative, vascular, psychiatric, non-neurological disorders), and there is wide variation in symptoms and clinical course. There are multiple causes and consequently various treatments can be applied and should be combined with non-pharmacological measures. This article describes both preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions: control of vascular risk factors, avoidance of iatrogeny, use of nutraceuticals, CDP-choline, and Ginkgo biloba EGb 761® , and improvement in sense organs...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
John Robert Ciotti, Anne Haney Cross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS), often first affecting people in early adulthood. Although most MS patients have a relapsing-remitting course (RRMS) at disease onset, a substantial proportion later develop chronic progression, termed secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Approximately 10% of MS patients experience chronic progression from disease onset, termed primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS)...
April 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Lorena Andrade de Aguiar, Lauro Melo, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira
A major drawback of conventional descriptive profile (CDP) in sensory evaluation is the long time spent in panel training. Rapid descriptive methods (RDM) have increased significantly. Some of them have been compared with CDP for validation. In Health Sciences, systematic reviews (SR) are performed to evaluate validation of diagnostic tests in relation to a gold standard method. SR present a well-defined protocol to summarize research evidence and to evaluate the quality of the studies with determined criteria...
April 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Haitao Sun, Xinru Shao, Ruiping Jiang, Zhongsu Ma, Huan Wang
Edible films were casted using aqueous solutions of corn distarch phosphate (CDP, 3 wt%) and corn straw cellulose (CSC, 0.5 wt%). The effects of ultrasonic, microwave and ultrasonic/microwave-assisted treatment on mechanical properties and light transmittance, as well as the water vapour permeability (WVP) of edible films, were evaluated. It was found that corn distarch phosphate/corn straw cellulose (CDP/CSC) films treated using ultrasonic waves/microwaves for a certain condition has a distinct increase in tensile strength, elongation at break and light transmittance and a drastic decrease in WVP...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Zane W Taylor, Frank M Raushel
Campylobacter jejuni, a leading cause of gastroenteritis, produces a capsular polysaccharide that is derivatized with a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification. This modification contributes to serum resistance and invasion of epithelial cells. Previously, the first three biosynthetic steps for the formation of MeOPN have been elucidated. The first step is catalyzed by a novel glutamine kinase (Cj1418), which catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the amide nitrogen of L-glutamine. L-Glutamine phosphate is used by CTP:phosphoglutamine cytidylyltransferase (Cj1416) to displace pyrophosphate from CTP to generate CDP-L-glutamine, which is then hydrolyzed by γ-glutamyl-CDP-amidate hydrolase (Cj1417) to form cytidine diphosphoramidate (CDP-NH2)...
March 26, 2018: Biochemistry
Ludwig Kappos, Amit Bar-Or, Bruce A C Cree, Robert J Fox, Gavin Giovannoni, Ralf Gold, Patrick Vermersch, Douglas L Arnold, Sophie Arnould, Tatiana Scherz, Christian Wolf, Erik Wallström, Frank Dahlke
BACKGROUND: No treatment has consistently shown efficacy in slowing disability progression in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We assessed the effect of siponimod, a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor1,5 modulator, on disability progression in patients with SPMS. METHODS: This event-driven and exposure-driven, double-blind, phase 3 trial was done at 292 hospital clinics and specialised multiple sclerosis centres in 31 countries...
March 22, 2018: Lancet
Sharzehan Mohamad Ayub Khan, Ling Ling Few, Wei Cun See Too
Choline kinase (CK) is the first enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant phospholipid in the mammalian cell membrane. This enzyme exists as three isozymes (α1, α2 and β) and the CKα isozyme has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Inhibition of CK activity has been proposed for cancer therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are non‑coding RNAs that serve important roles in diverse biological pathways and human diseases, including cancer. However, the regulation of CKα gene expression by miRNAs has never been investigated, to the best of the authors' knowledge...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ji-Bin Zhang, Li-Rong Zhao, Tian-Xiang Cui, Xie-Wan Chen, Qiao Yang, Yi-Bing Zhou, Zheng-Tang Chen, Shao-Xiang Zhang, Jian-Guo Sun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimal strategy and dosimetric measurement of thoracic radiotherapy based on three-dimensional (3D) modeling of mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs). A 3D model of MLNs was constructed from a Chinese Visible Human female dataset. Image registration and fusion between reconstructed MLNs and original chest computed tomography (CT) images was conducted in the Eclipse™ treatment planning system (TPS). There were three plans, including 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), which were designed based on 10 cases of simulated lung lesions (SLLs) and MLNs...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Todd M Olszewski
This article examines the history and effect of the Consensus Development Program (CDP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Introduced at a time when the relationship between the U.S. public and the medical profession was at a nadir, the CDP frequently placed the NIH in the middle of broader debates in medical practice and health policy during the last quarter of the 20th century. Drawing on published and archival sources, this paper sheds light on the challenges associated with collecting, assessing, and communicating evidence to medical professionals and convincing them to act on it in the name of improved health care...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Shilpa B Gaikwad, Eric G Johnson, Todd C Nelson, Oluwaseun I Ambode, Abdulaziz A Albalwi, Ahmad A Alharbi, Noha S Daher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motion sensitivity is a common condition among the general population and may be accompanied by postural instability and anxiety. Preliminary studies suggest that minimal dosage of gaze stability exercises improves postural stability in young adults with chronic motion sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive gaze stability exercises on postural stability, motion sensitivity, and anxiety in healthy young adults with chronic motion sensitivity...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Simon Boecker, Stefan Grätz, Dennis Kerwat, Lutz Adam, David Schirmer, Lennart Richter, Tabea Schütze, Daniel Petras, Roderich D Süssmuth, Vera Meyer
Background: Fungal cyclodepsipeptides (CDPs) are non-ribosomally synthesized peptides produced by a variety of filamentous fungi and are of interest to the pharmaceutical industry due to their anticancer, antimicrobial and anthelmintic bioactivities. However, both chemical synthesis and isolation of CDPs from their natural producers are limited due to high costs and comparatively low yields. These challenges might be overcome by heterologous expression of the respective CDP-synthesizing genes in a suitable fungal host...
2018: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
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