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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706149/management-of-sexually-transmissible-infections-in-the-era-of-multiplexed-molecular-diagnostics-a-primary-care-survey
#1
Tal Brosh-Nissimov, Ron Kedem, Nimrod Ophir, Omri Shental, Nathan Keller, Sharon Amit
Background: Data regarding sexually transmissible infections (STI) often originate from STI clinics, screening programs or laboratory-based studies, thus are biased for specific risk groups or lack clinical details. This real-life observational study presents sample data of most young adult Israeli population by exploiting the centralised diagnostic and documentation platforms resulting from a mandatory military service at the age of 18 years for both genders. Methods: All STI diagnoses of Israeli Defence Forces soldiers during a 6-month period were reviewed...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616376/chemical-fertility-signaling-in-termites-idiosyncrasies-and-commonalities-in-comparison-with-ants
#2
REVIEW
Judith Korb
Termites evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. As a common trait, reproductive monopoly is maintained through chemical communication. The queen (and in termites also a king) prevents workers from reproduction by conveying their reproductive status. In termites all soldiers are sterile, but workers' potential to reproduce differs between species. It ranges from totipotency in wood-dwelling lower termites where workers are a transient stage from which all other castes develop, to sterile workers in some higher termites...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615005/improving-risk-prediction-accuracy-for-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army-by-adding-self-report-survey-data-to-administrative-data
#3
Samantha L Bernecker, Anthony J Rosellini, Matthew K Nock, Wai Tat Chiu, Peter M Gutierrez, Irving Hwang, Thomas E Joiner, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: High rates of mental disorders, suicidality, and interpersonal violence early in the military career have raised interest in implementing preventive interventions with high-risk new enlistees. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS) developed risk-targeting systems for these outcomes based on machine learning methods using administrative data predictors. However, administrative data omit many risk factors, raising the question whether risk targeting could be improved by adding self-report survey data to prediction models...
April 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507745/interpersonal-violence-and-suicidality-among-former-child-soldiers-and-war-exposed-civilian-children-in-nepal
#4
Anvita Bhardwaj, Christine Bourey, Sauharda Rai, Ramesh Prasad Adhikari, Carol M Worthman, Brandon A Kohrt
Background: Suicide risk reduction is crucial for 15-29-year-old youth, who account for 46% of suicide deaths in low- and middle-income countries. Suicide predictors in high-resource settings, specifically depression, do not adequately predict suicidality in these settings. We explored if interpersonal violence (IPV) was associated with suicidality, independent of depression, in Nepal. Methods: A longitudinal cohort of child soldiers and matched civilian children, enrolled in 2007 after the People's War in Nepal, were re-interviewed in 2012...
2018: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353545/prevalence-of-bystander-intervention-opportunities-and-behaviors-among-u-s-army-soldiers
#5
Toby D Elliman, Molly E Shannahoff, Jonathan N Metzler, Robin L Toblin
The bystander intervention model is one approach utilized to reduce risky behaviors within the U.S. Army; however, it is unclear how frequently soldiers experience opportunities to intervene and whether they already intervene in such situations. The present analysis aims to ascertain frequencies for opportunities to intervene and the rates at which soldiers intervene when presented with such opportunities. Soldiers ( N = 286) were asked whether they had witnessed particular risky behavior scenarios of interest to the Army (i...
January 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327450/the-black-legend-on-the-spanish-presence-in-the-low-countries-verifying-shared-beliefs-on-genetic-ancestry
#6
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Francesc Calafell, Sarah A Princen, Ronny Decorte, Violet Soen
OBJECTIVES: War atrocities committed by the Spanish army in the Low Countries during the 16th century are so ingrained in the collective memory of Belgian and Dutch societies that they generally assume a signature of this history to be present in their genetic ancestry. Historians claim this assumption is a consequence of the so-called "Black Legend" and negative propaganda portraying and remembering Spanish soldiers as extreme sexual aggressors. The impact of the presence of Spaniards during the Dutch Revolt on the genetic variation in the Low Countries has been verified in this study...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171862/deployment-related-military-sexual-trauma-predicts-heavy-drinking-and-alcohol-problems-among-male-reserve-and-national-guard-soldiers
#7
Jennifer Fillo, Sarah Cercone Heavey, D Lynn Homish, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: Military sexual trauma (MST) is associated with a range of deleterious mental and physical health consequences; however, far less attention has been paid to the associations between MST and negative health behaviors, such as substance abuse. This study examined 2 focal research questions: (i) What is the prevalence of experiencing MST during deployment among male Reserve and National Guard soldiers? and (ii) to what extent is the degree of MST exposure during deployment associated with frequent heavy drinking and alcohol problems postdeployment? METHODS: Data from male soldiers who had been deployed (N = 248) were drawn from the baseline wave of Operation: SAFETY (Soldiers And Families Excelling Through the Years) an ongoing study examining health among U...
January 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168309/soldier-biased-gene-expression-in-a-subterranean-termite-implies-functional-specialization-of-the-defensive-caste
#8
Tian Wu, Gurpreet K Dhami, Graham J Thompson
In a termite colony, reproduction is typically monopolized by a small number of sexuals that are supported by reproductively altruistic soldiers and workers. We expect caste differentiation to be associated with clear-cut differences in gene expression, and for these differences to reflect caste function and development. Here, we use RNA-Sequencing to compare the gene expression profiles of sexual nymphs and two non-reproductive helper castes (i.e., workers and soldiers) of the Eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes...
January 2018: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161275/hiv-prevalence-and-behavioral-risk-factors-in-the-sudan-people-s-liberation-army-data-from-south-sudan
#9
Lauren P Courtney, Norman Goco, John Woja, Tonya Farris, Chris Cummiskey, Emily Smith, Lia Makuach, Helen M Chun
OVERVIEW: After two decades of civil war, South Sudan has limited published data on HIV prevalence and behavioral determinants of HIV infection risk. A surge in HIV/AIDS prevalence is a real concern for this new country with limited access to medical or HIV preventive services, and low education and literacy levels. We present findings from the first bio-behavioral surveillance survey conducted within the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,149 randomly selected soldiers from thirteen SPLA bases was conducted in two phases: July to August 2010 and April to May 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108022/risk-factors-for-hiv-infection-among-female-sex-workers-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#10
Jean De Dieu Longo, Marcel Mbeko Simaleko, Henri Saint-Calvaire Diemer, Gérard Grésenguet, Gilles Brücker, Laurent Belec
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were i) to categorize female sex workers (FSW) according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii) to investigate factors associated with HIV status. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972706/trauma-informed-care-survey-of-psychiatrists-and-primary-care-physicians-in-the-middle-east
#11
Ossama T Osman, Laeth Nasir, Richard F Mollica, Taoufik Zoubeidi, James Lavelle, Noor Amawi
Objective: To explore in Arab communities the prevalence, dynamics, and resources available to address the physical and psychological consequences that may arise from psychiatric disorders. Methods: An online survey of psychiatrists and primary care physicians from 17 Arab countries was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012. The survey serves as a needs assessment in a scientifically valid and culturally sensitive manner. Additionally, it focuses attention on the clinical strengths and weaknesses of Middle Eastern primary health care and mental health centers in identifying and treating trauma-related health and mental health issues...
September 28, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972302/the-sexual-harassment-suicide-connection-in-the-u-s-military-contextual-effects-of-hostile-work-environment-and-trusted-unit-leaders
#12
James Griffith
Sexual harassment has been associated with suicidal behaviors, and with the rise in suicides in the U.S. military, sexual harassment's role in suicide has been of growing interest. Lacking are studies that examine group- or unit-level variables in the relationship of sexual harassment to suicidal behaviors (thoughts, plans, and attempts). In this study, survey data from soldiers (12,567 soldiers in 180 company-sized units) who completed the Unit Risk Inventory administered during calendar year 2010 were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling...
October 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953412/sexually-transmitted-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2007-2016
#13
Shauna Stahlman, Alexis A Oetting
This report summarizes incidence rates of the five most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2007-2016. Chlamydia diagnoses were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by diagnoses associated with genital human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and syphilis. Compared to men, women had higher rates of all STIs except for syphilis. In general, compared to their respective counterparts, younger service members, non-Hispanic blacks, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of STIs...
September 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820704/the-price-of-peace-peacekeeping-with-impunity-harms-public-health-in-haiti
#14
Louise C Ivers, Yodeline Guillaume
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818420/predicting-sexual-assault-perpetration-in-the-u-s-army-using-administrative-data
#15
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
INTRODUCTION: The Department of Defense uses a universal prevention framework for sexual assault prevention, with each branch implementing its own branch-wide programs. Intensive interventions exist, but would be cost effective only if targeted at high-risk personnel. This study developed actuarial models to identify male U.S. Army soldiers at high risk of administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration. METHODS: This study investigated administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration among the 821,807 male Army soldiers serving 2004-2009...
November 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759645/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-u-s-army-soldiers-linked-in-molecular-transmission-clusters-2001-2012
#16
Shilpa Hakre, Linda L Jagodzinski, Ying Liu, Peter T Pham, Gustavo H Kijak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Francine E McCutchan, Stephanie L Scoville, Steven B Cersovsky, Nelson L Michael, Paul T Scott, Sheila A Peel
OBJECTIVE: Recent surveillance data suggests the United States (U.S.) Army HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. To identify potential targets for HIV prevention strategies, the relationship between demographic and clinical factors and membership within transmission clusters based on baseline pol sequences of HIV-infected Soldiers from 2001 through 2012 were analyzed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of baseline partial pol sequences, demographic and clinical characteristics available for all Soldiers in active service and newly-diagnosed with HIV-1 infection from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541647/childhood-maltreatment-and-lifetime-suicidal-behaviors-among-new-soldiers-in-the-us-army-results-from-the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs
#17
Murray B Stein, Laura Campbell-Sills, Robert J Ursano, Anthony J Rosellini, Lisa J Colpe, Feng He, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler
OBJECTIVE: Understanding suicide risk is a priority for the US military. We aimed to estimate associations of childhood maltreatment with pre-enlistment suicidal behaviors in new Army soldiers. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data from 38,237 soldiers reporting for basic training from April 2011 through November 2012 were analyzed. Scales assessing retrospectively reported childhood abuse and neglect were derived and subjected to latent class analysis, which yielded 5 profiles: No Maltreatment, Episodic Emotional Maltreatment, Frequent Emotional/Physical Maltreatment, Episodic Emotional/Sexual Abuse, and Frequent Emotional/Physical/Sexual Maltreatment...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521722/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-syphilis-infections-among-military-personnel-in-sierra-leone
#18
Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Foday Sahr, J Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Stephanie K Brodine, Richard A Shaffer
CONTEXT: HIV and syphilis infections are common in military personnel in sub-Saharan Africa, which impact combat preparedness and increase demands on the military health care system. The prevalence of HIV is estimated at 1.5% among the general population (15-49 years of age) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for these two common sexually transmitted infections in the Sierra Leone military personnel...
2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443533/childhood-adversity-adult-stress-and-the-risk-of-major-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-us-soldiers-a-test-of-the-stress-sensitization-hypothesis
#19
G Bandoli, L Campbell-Sills, R C Kessler, S G Heeringa, M K Nock, A J Rosellini, N A Sampson, M Schoenbaum, R J Ursano, M B Stein
BACKGROUND: The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed...
October 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374665/using-self-report-surveys-at-the-beginning-of-service-to-develop-multi-outcome-risk-models-for-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army
#20
A J Rosellini, M B Stein, D M Benedek, P D Bliese, W T Chiu, I Hwang, J Monahan, M K Nock, M V Petukhova, N A Sampson, A E Street, A M Zaslavsky, R J Ursano, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Army uses universal preventives interventions for several negative outcomes (e.g. suicide, violence, sexual assault) with especially high risks in the early years of service. More intensive interventions exist, but would be cost-effective only if targeted at high-risk soldiers. We report results of efforts to develop models for such targeting from self-report surveys administered at the beginning of Army service. METHODS: 21 832 new soldiers completed a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) in 2011-2012 and consented to link administrative data to SAQ responses...
October 2017: Psychological Medicine
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