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soldiers sexuality

Jillian C Shipherd, Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, Alexis Matza
Although intrusive cognitions (ICs) are common posttrauma, little is known about trauma-related IC content, or associations between IC content and posttraumatic adjustment. A mixed-method cross-sectional approach was used in a secondary analysis of IC content and postdeployment distress. Participants were 1,521 U.S. Army soldiers 3-12 months postdeployment reporting their most distressing postdeployment ICs (mean number of ICs reported was 1.20). ICs were transcribed and content was categorized by 13 emergent themes...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Daisuke Uka, Takuma Sakamoto, Jin Yoshimura, Kikuo Iwabuchi
Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement...
2016: Scientific Reports
Denis Fournier, Simon Hellemans, Robert Hanus, Yves Roisin
Termite colonies are typically founded by a pair of sexually reproducing dispersers, which can sometimes be replaced by some of their offspring. Some Reticulitermes and Embiratermes species routinely practice asexual queen succession (AQS): the queen is replaced by neotenic daughters produced by parthenogenesis, which mate with the primary king. Here, to cast light on the evolution of AQS, we investigated another candidate species, Cavitermes tuberosus (Termitinae). Of 95 nests, 39 contained a primary queen and 28 contained neotenic females (2-667 individuals), usually with the primary king...
June 15, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Catherine Thèves, Elodie Cabot, Caroline Bouakaze, Pierre Chevet, Éric Crubézy, Patricia Balaresque
Mass graves were discovered in Le Mans and 154 skeletons were exhumed, representing a remarkable historical series of human remains from western France. We aimed to characterise the age-class and sex of these subjects, and to determine whether their profile fits with that of the Catholic and Royal Army of Vendée, who fought against the Republican Army during the Battle of Le Mans (12th-13th December, 1793). This atypical army was composed of male soldiers, but also of civilian people who followed the troops, including the elderly, children and women...
May 2016: Forensic Science International
Kouhei Toga, Shutaro Hanmoto, Ryutaro Suzuki, Dai Watanabe, Toru Miura, Kiyoto Maekawa
In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers...
April 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Matthew Banti, Jack Walter, Steven Hudak, Douglas Soderdahl
BACKGROUND: The use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has had a profound effect on battlefield trauma in the 21st century. Historically, wounds to the genitourinary (GU) structures have been less common than extremity and penetrating abdominal trauma in combat operations. GU injury incidence, severity, and associated injuries secondary to the use of this weapon in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom has not been described. METHODS: Data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was reviewed for combat-related GU injuries in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom from 2001 to 2011...
January 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Hyung Jin Kim, J K Park, S C Park, Y G Kim, H Choi, J I Ko, M K Kim, Y B Jeong, Y S Shin
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the causative organisms in young male soldiers with clinical signs and symptoms after sexual contact that suggests a diagnosis of urethritis. METHODS: Between June 2012 and January 2015, male patients with urethritis symptoms that had resulted from sexual contact within 3 months participated in this study. All patients were evaluated using urinalysis and were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay in order to detect sexually transmitted infections (STI) or pathogens...
November 25, 2015: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Laurel Hourani, Jason Williams, Robert M Bray, Joshua E Wilk, Charles W Hoge
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent findings between studies of gender differences in mental health outcomes in military samples have left open questions of differential prevalence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among all United States Army soldiers and in differential psychosocial and comorbid risk and protective factor profiles and their association with receipt of treatment. METHODS: This study assesses the prevalence and risk factors of screening positive for PTSD for men and women based on two large, population-based Army samples obtained as part of the 2005 and 2008 U...
January 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Xiao Hong Su, Jiao Ling Chen, Xiao Jing Zhang, Wei Xue, He Liu, Lian Xi Xing
The separation of reproductive and non-reproductive roles based on caste differentiation is the most prominent characteristic of termites. However, little is known about the mechanism of male reproductive division that underlies caste differentiation. In the present study, testicular development and stage-specific apoptotic patterns were investigated and compared during spermatogenesis in reproductives, workers and soldiers of the termite Reticulitermes labralis. The results showed that male workers were divided into two types, the workers with spermatozoa (WS) and the workers without spermatozoa (WN)...
November 2015: Arthropod Structure & Development
Pamela J VandeVord, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Evon Ereifej, Amy Hermundstad, Shijie Mao, Timothy J Hadden
Endocrine disorders have been shown to be a consequence of blast traumatic brain injury in soldiers returning from military conflicts. Hormone deficiency and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dysfunction can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and decreased quality of life. Given these changes following blast exposure, the current study focused on investigating chronic pathology within the hypothalamus following blast, in addition to systemic effects. An established rodent model of blast neurotrauma was used to induce mild blast-induced neurotrauma...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Shilpa Hakre, Stephanie L Scoville, Laura A Pacha, Sheila A Peel, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Steven B Cersovsky, Paul T Scott
The United States (US) Army implemented a comprehensive HIV characterization program in 2012 following repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy banning openly homosexual individuals from serving in the US military. Program staff administered a standardized case report form to soldiers newly diagnosed with HIV from 2012 to 2014 in compliance with new program requirements. The case report form documented sociodemographic, sexual, and other risk behavior information elicited from US Army regulation-mandated epidemiologic interviews at initial HIV notification...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Heidi M Zinzow, Thomas W Britt, Cynthia L S Pury, Kristen Jennings, Janelle H Cheung, Mary Anne Raymond
Despite significant mental health needs among sexual assault (SA) victims in the military, little is known about treatment-seeking patterns or factors associated with service use. This study examined service use behavior, barriers, and facilitators of mental health treatment-seeking in an active duty sample of 927 U.S. Army soldiers with mental health problems. SA victims (n = 113) did not differ from non-victims on barriers or facilitators after adjusting for demographic and mental health variables, with stigma rated as the largest barrier...
August 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Ethan B McCallum, Maureen Murdoch, Christopher R Erbes, Paul Arbisi, Melissa A Polusny
This study used a longitudinal research design to examine the impact of predeployment stressors and deployment-related sexual stressors on self-reported psychiatric symptoms of U.S. National Guard soldiers returning from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan. Prior to deployment, participants completed measures of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, along with an inventory of predeployment stressor experiences. At 3-months postdeployment, participants (468 men, 60 women) again completed self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms, along with an inventory of sexual stressors experienced during deployment...
August 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Gerald Schneider, Lilli Banholzer, Laura Albarracin
Policy makers and academics often contend that organizational anarchy permits soldiers to perpetrate sexual violence. A recent United Nations report supports this thesis especially with regard to the massive sexual abuse in the Congolese civil war. We challenge the anarchy argument and maintain, based on a principal-agent framework, that opportunistic military commanders can order their soldiers to rape through the use of sanctions and rewards. Our qualitative and quantitative analysis of a survey of 96 Congolese ex-soldiers shows that ordered rape is more likely in organizations where soldiers fear punishment and in which commanders distribute drugs as stimulants...
November 2015: Violence Against Women
Romain Fougeyrollas, Klára Dolejšová, David Sillam-Dussès, Virginie Roy, Chantal Poteaux, Robert Hanus, Yves Roisin
Asexual queen succession (AQS), in which workers, soldiers and dispersing reproductives are produced sexually while numerous non-dispersing queens arise through thelytokous parthenogenesis, has recently been described in three species of lower termites of the genus Reticulitermes. Here, we show that AQS is not an oddity restricted to a single genus of lower termites, but a more widespread strategy occurring also in the most advanced termite group, the higher termites (Termitidae). We analysed the genetic structure in 10 colonies of the Neotropical higher termite Embiratermes neotenicus (Syntermitinae) using five newly developed polymorphic microsatellite loci...
June 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
I M Uliukin, V N Bolekhan, V V Iusupov, Iu I Bulan'kov, E S Orlova
The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection...
January 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Gail Hornor
Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service...
January 2015: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Krzysztof Korzeniewski, Monika Konior, Anna Lass, Aneta Guzek
This article presents the results of a preliminary study concerning cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among professional soldiers in the Polish Armed Forces. Soldiers who declared casual sexual contact with women were investigated in this study regarding the transmission of chlamydial infections by sexual activity. In total, 66 healthy, sexually active professional Polish soldiers, aged between 27 and 44, who didn't report any symptoms of urogenital infection were investigated. Urine samples taken from these patients were investigated using molecular methods (Cobas TaqMan, real-time PCR) in March-April 2012 in the Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland...
2014: International Maritime Health
Kate Walsh, Sandro Galea, Magdalena Cerda, Catherine Richards, Israel Liberzon, Marijo B Tamburrino, Joseph Calabrese, Karestan C Koenen
OBJECTIVE: Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. METHODS: Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009...
November 2014: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
G Dennis Shanks
World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers...
November 8, 2014: Lancet
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