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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108022/risk-factors-for-hiv-infection-among-female-sex-workers-in-bangui-central-african-republic
#1
Jean De Dieu Longo, Marcel Mbeko Simaleko, Henri Saint-Calvaire Diemer, Gérard Grésenguet, Gilles Brücker, Laurent Belec
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were i) to categorize female sex workers (FSW) according to socio-anthropologic criteria in Bangui; ii) to examine the association between a selection of demographic and risk variables with the different categories of female sex work as outcome, and iii) to investigate factors associated with HIV status. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to describe the spectrum of commercial sex work in Bangui among 345 sexually active women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972706/trauma-informed-care-survey-of-psychiatrists-and-primary-care-physicians-in-the-middle-east
#2
Ossama T Osman, Laeth Nasir, Richard F Mollica, Taoufik Zoubeidi, James Lavelle, Noor Amawi
Objective: To explore in Arab communities the prevalence, dynamics, and resources available to address the physical and psychological consequences that may arise from psychiatric disorders. Methods: An online survey of psychiatrists and primary care physicians from 17 Arab countries was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012. The survey serves as a needs assessment in a scientifically valid and culturally sensitive manner. Additionally, it focuses attention on the clinical strengths and weaknesses of Middle Eastern primary health care and mental health centers in identifying and treating trauma-related health and mental health issues...
September 28, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972302/the-sexual-harassment-suicide-connection-in-the-u-s-military-contextual-effects-of-hostile-work-environment-and-trusted-unit-leaders
#3
James Griffith
Sexual harassment has been associated with suicidal behaviors, and with the rise in suicides in the U.S. military, sexual harassment's role in suicide has been of growing interest. Lacking are studies that examine group- or unit-level variables in the relationship of sexual harassment to suicidal behaviors (thoughts, plans, and attempts). In this study, survey data from soldiers (12,567 soldiers in 180 company-sized units) who completed the Unit Risk Inventory administered during calendar year 2010 were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling...
October 3, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953412/sexually-transmitted-infections-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2007-2016
#4
Shauna Stahlman, Alexis A Oetting
This report summarizes incidence rates of the five most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2007-2016. Chlamydia diagnoses were the most common, followed in decreasing order of frequency by diagnoses associated with genital human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and syphilis. Compared to men, women had higher rates of all STIs except for syphilis. In general, compared to their respective counterparts, younger service members, non-Hispanic blacks, soldiers, and enlisted members had higher incidence rates of STIs...
September 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820704/the-price-of-peace-peacekeeping-with-impunity-harms-public-health-in-haiti
#5
Louise C Ivers, Yodeline Guillaume
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818420/predicting-sexual-assault-perpetration-in-the-u-s-army-using-administrative-data
#6
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
INTRODUCTION: The Department of Defense uses a universal prevention framework for sexual assault prevention, with each branch implementing its own branch-wide programs. Intensive interventions exist, but would be cost effective only if targeted at high-risk personnel. This study developed actuarial models to identify male U.S. Army soldiers at high risk of administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration. METHODS: This study investigated administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration among the 821,807 male Army soldiers serving 2004-2009...
November 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759645/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-u-s-army-soldiers-linked-in-molecular-transmission-clusters-2001-2012
#7
Shilpa Hakre, Linda L Jagodzinski, Ying Liu, Peter T Pham, Gustavo H Kijak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Francine E McCutchan, Stephanie L Scoville, Steven B Cersovsky, Nelson L Michael, Paul T Scott, Sheila A Peel
OBJECTIVE: Recent surveillance data suggests the United States (U.S.) Army HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. To identify potential targets for HIV prevention strategies, the relationship between demographic and clinical factors and membership within transmission clusters based on baseline pol sequences of HIV-infected Soldiers from 2001 through 2012 were analyzed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of baseline partial pol sequences, demographic and clinical characteristics available for all Soldiers in active service and newly-diagnosed with HIV-1 infection from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541647/childhood-maltreatment-and-lifetime-suicidal-behaviors-among-new-soldiers-in-the-us-army-results-from-the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs
#8
Murray B Stein, Laura Campbell-Sills, Robert J Ursano, Anthony J Rosellini, Lisa J Colpe, Feng He, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler
OBJECTIVE: Understanding suicide risk is a priority for the US military. We aimed to estimate associations of childhood maltreatment with pre-enlistment suicidal behaviors in new Army soldiers. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data from 38,237 soldiers reporting for basic training from April 2011 through November 2012 were analyzed. Scales assessing retrospectively reported childhood abuse and neglect were derived and subjected to latent class analysis, which yielded 5 profiles: No Maltreatment, Episodic Emotional Maltreatment, Frequent Emotional/Physical Maltreatment, Episodic Emotional/Sexual Abuse, and Frequent Emotional/Physical/Sexual Maltreatment...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521722/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-syphilis-infections-among-military-personnel-in-sierra-leone
#9
Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Foday Sahr, J Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Stephanie K Brodine, Richard A Shaffer
CONTEXT: HIV and syphilis infections are common in military personnel in sub-Saharan Africa, which impact combat preparedness and increase demands on the military health care system. The prevalence of HIV is estimated at 1.5% among the general population (15-49 years of age) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for these two common sexually transmitted infections in the Sierra Leone military personnel...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443533/childhood-adversity-adult-stress-and-the-risk-of-major-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-us-soldiers-a-test-of-the-stress-sensitization-hypothesis
#10
G Bandoli, L Campbell-Sills, R C Kessler, S G Heeringa, M K Nock, A J Rosellini, N A Sampson, M Schoenbaum, R J Ursano, M B Stein
BACKGROUND: The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed...
October 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374665/using-self-report-surveys-at-the-beginning-of-service-to-develop-multi-outcome-risk-models-for-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army
#11
A J Rosellini, M B Stein, D M Benedek, P D Bliese, W T Chiu, I Hwang, J Monahan, M K Nock, M V Petukhova, N A Sampson, A E Street, A M Zaslavsky, R J Ursano, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Army uses universal preventives interventions for several negative outcomes (e.g. suicide, violence, sexual assault) with especially high risks in the early years of service. More intensive interventions exist, but would be cost-effective only if targeted at high-risk soldiers. We report results of efforts to develop models for such targeting from self-report surveys administered at the beginning of Army service. METHODS: 21 832 new soldiers completed a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) in 2011-2012 and consented to link administrative data to SAQ responses...
October 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374655/childhood-maltreatment-in-children-born-of-occupation-after-wwii-in-germany-and-its-association-with-mental-disorders
#12
Heide Glaesmer, Philipp Kuwert, Elmar Braehler, Marie Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Children born of war are a common phenomenon of conflict. In the aftermath of World War II, more than 200,000 German occupation children (GOC) were fathered by occupation soldiers and born to local women. GOC often grew up under difficult conditions and showed high prevalence rates of mental disorders even decades later. METHODS: Experiences of childhood maltreatment and their association with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatization in GOC (N = 146) are investigated and compared with a representative birth-cohort-matched sample (BCMS) from the German general population (N = 920)...
April 4, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323466/sexual-assault-victimization-and-mental-health-treatment-suicide-attempts-and-career-outcomes-among-women-in-the-us-army
#13
Anthony J Rosellini, Amy E Street, Robert J Ursano, Wai Tat Chiu, Steven G Heeringa, John Monahan, James A Naifeh, Maria V Petukhova, Ben Y Reis, Nancy A Sampson, Paul D Bliese, Murray B Stein, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. METHODS: We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk...
May 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322768/unintended-pregnancies-among-women-serving-in-the-israeli-military
#14
Misgav Rottenstreich, Limor Loitner, Shir Dar, Ron Kedem, Noam Smorgick, Zvi Vaknin
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18 years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status and history of psychiatric illness...
July 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198140/u-s-reserve-soldiers-combat-exposure-and-intimate-partner-violence-not-more-common-but-it-is-more-violent
#15
Sarah Cercone Heavey, D Lynn Homish, Erin Anderson Goodell, Gregory G Homish
Combat exposure's influence on intimate partner violence (IPV) in reserve soldiers is not well understood. This work examines combat exposure's influence on IPV in U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Data are from Operation: SAFETY, a longitudinal study of U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Logistic regression models examined odds of sexual aggression, physical aggression, and physical injury with combat exposure, controlling for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, marital satisfaction, and age...
February 15, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955871/under-ascertainment-from-healthcare-settings-of-child-abuse-events-among-children-of-soldiers-by-the-u-s-army-family-advocacy-program
#16
Joanne N Wood, Heather M Griffis, Christine M Taylor, Douglas Strane, Gerlinde C Harb, Lanyu Mi, Lihai Song, Kevin G Lynch, David M Rubin
In cases of maltreatment involving children of U.S. Army service members, the U.S. Army Family Advocacy Program (FAP) is responsible for providing services to families and ensuring child safety. The percentage of cases of maltreatment that are known to FAP, however, is uncertain. Thus, the objective of this retrospective study was to estimate the percentage of U.S. Army dependent children with child maltreatment as diagnosed by a military or civilian medical provider who had a substantiated report with FAP from 2004 to 2007...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405098/intrusive-cognitive-content-and-postdeployment-distress
#17
Jillian C Shipherd, Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, Alexis Matza
Although intrusive cognitions (ICs) are common posttrauma, little is known about trauma-related IC content, or associations between IC content and posttraumatic adjustment. A mixed-method cross-sectional approach was used in a secondary analysis of IC content and postdeployment distress. Participants were 1,521 U.S. Army soldiers 3-12 months postdeployment reporting their most distressing postdeployment ICs (mean number of ICs reported was 1.20). ICs were transcribed and content was categorized by 13 emergent themes...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385149/sexual-complementarity-between-host-humoral-toxicity-and-soldier-caste-in-a-polyembryonic-wasp
#18
Daisuke Uka, Takuma Sakamoto, Jin Yoshimura, Kikuo Iwabuchi
Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252019/facultative-asexual-reproduction-and-genetic-diversity-of-populations-in-the-humivorous-termite-cavitermes-tuberosus
#19
Denis Fournier, Simon Hellemans, Robert Hanus, Yves Roisin
Termite colonies are typically founded by a pair of sexually reproducing dispersers, which can sometimes be replaced by some of their offspring. Some Reticulitermes and Embiratermes species routinely practice asexual queen succession (AQS): the queen is replaced by neotenic daughters produced by parthenogenesis, which mate with the primary king. Here, to cast light on the evolution of AQS, we investigated another candidate species, Cavitermes tuberosus (Termitinae). Of 95 nests, 39 contained a primary queen and 28 contained neotenic females (2-667 individuals), usually with the primary king...
June 15, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968017/about-42-of-154-remains-from-the-battle-of-le-mans-france-1793-belong-to-women-and-children-morphological-and-genetic-evidence
#20
Catherine Thèves, Elodie Cabot, Caroline Bouakaze, Pierre Chevet, Éric Crubézy, Patricia Balaresque
Mass graves were discovered in Le Mans and 154 skeletons were exhumed, representing a remarkable historical series of human remains from western France. We aimed to characterise the age-class and sex of these subjects, and to determine whether their profile fits with that of the Catholic and Royal Army of Vendée, who fought against the Republican Army during the Battle of Le Mans (12th-13th December, 1793). This atypical army was composed of male soldiers, but also of civilian people who followed the troops, including the elderly, children and women...
May 2016: Forensic Science International
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