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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541647/childhood-maltreatment-and-lifetime-suicidal-behaviors-among-new-soldiers-in-the-us-army-results-from-the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs
#1
Murray B Stein, Laura Campbell-Sills, Robert J Ursano, Anthony J Rosellini, Lisa J Colpe, Feng He, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Ronald C Kessler
OBJECTIVE: Understanding suicide risk is a priority for the US military. We aimed to estimate associations of childhood maltreatment with pre-enlistment suicidal behaviors in new Army soldiers. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data from 38,237 soldiers reporting for basic training from April 2011 through November 2012 were analyzed. Scales assessing retrospectively reported childhood abuse and neglect were derived and subjected to latent class analysis, which yielded 5 profiles: No Maltreatment, Episodic Emotional Maltreatment, Frequent Emotional/Physical Maltreatment, Episodic Emotional/Sexual Abuse, and Frequent Emotional/Physical/Sexual Maltreatment...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521722/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-syphilis-infections-among-military-personnel-in-sierra-leone
#2
Djeneba Audrey Djibo, Foday Sahr, J Allen McCutchan, Sonia Jain, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Stephanie K Brodine, Richard A Shaffer
CONTEXT: HIV and syphilis infections are common in military personnel in sub-Saharan Africa, which impact combat preparedness and increase demands on the military health care system. The prevalence of HIV is estimated at 1.5% among the general population (15-49 years of age) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for these two common sexually transmitted infections in the Sierra Leone military personnel...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443533/childhood-adversity-adult-stress-and-the-risk-of-major-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-us-soldiers-a-test-of-the-stress-sensitization-hypothesis
#3
G Bandoli, L Campbell-Sills, R C Kessler, S G Heeringa, M K Nock, A J Rosellini, N A Sampson, M Schoenbaum, R J Ursano, M B Stein
BACKGROUND: The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374665/using-self-report-surveys-at-the-beginning-of-service-to-develop-multi-outcome-risk-models-for-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army
#4
A J Rosellini, M B Stein, D M Benedek, P D Bliese, W T Chiu, I Hwang, J Monahan, M K Nock, M V Petukhova, N A Sampson, A E Street, A M Zaslavsky, R J Ursano, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Army uses universal preventives interventions for several negative outcomes (e.g. suicide, violence, sexual assault) with especially high risks in the early years of service. More intensive interventions exist, but would be cost-effective only if targeted at high-risk soldiers. We report results of efforts to develop models for such targeting from self-report surveys administered at the beginning of Army service. METHODS: 21 832 new soldiers completed a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) in 2011-2012 and consented to link administrative data to SAQ responses...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374655/childhood-maltreatment-in-children-born-of-occupation-after-wwii-in-germany-and-its-association-with-mental-disorders
#5
Heide Glaesmer, Philipp Kuwert, Elmar Braehler, Marie Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Children born of war are a common phenomenon of conflict. In the aftermath of World War II, more than 200,000 German occupation children (GOC) were fathered by occupation soldiers and born to local women. GOC often grew up under difficult conditions and showed high prevalence rates of mental disorders even decades later. METHODS: Experiences of childhood maltreatment and their association with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatization in GOC (N = 146) are investigated and compared with a representative birth-cohort-matched sample (BCMS) from the German general population (N = 920)...
April 4, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323466/sexual-assault-victimization-and-mental-health-treatment-suicide-attempts-and-career-outcomes-among-women-in-the-us-army
#6
Anthony J Rosellini, Amy E Street, Robert J Ursano, Wai Tat Chiu, Steven G Heeringa, John Monahan, James A Naifeh, Maria V Petukhova, Ben Y Reis, Nancy A Sampson, Paul D Bliese, Murray B Stein, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during military service with subsequent mental health and negative career outcomes among US Army women controlling for nonrandom victimization exposure. METHODS: We used data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers to apply propensity score methods to match all 4238 female Regular Army soldiers with administratively recorded sexual assault victimization during 2004 to 2009 to 5 controls per case with similar composite victimization risk...
May 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322768/unintended-pregnancies-among-women-serving-in-the-israeli-military
#7
Misgav Rottenstreich, Limor Loitner, Shir Dar, Ron Kedem, Noam Smorgick, Zvi Vaknin
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and history of psychiatric illness...
March 16, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198140/u-s-reserve-soldiers-combat-exposure-and-intimate-partner-violence-not-more-common-but-it-is-more-violent
#8
Sarah Cercone Heavey, D Lynn Homish, Erin Anderson Goodell, Gregory G Homish
Combat exposure's influence on intimate partner violence (IPV) in reserve soldiers is not well understood. This work examines combat exposure's influence on IPV in U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Data are from Operation: SAFETY, a longitudinal study of U.S. Army Reserve/National Guard soldiers and partners. Logistic regression models examined odds of sexual aggression, physical aggression, and physical injury with combat exposure, controlling for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, marital satisfaction, and age...
February 15, 2017: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955871/under-ascertainment-from-healthcare-settings-of-child-abuse-events-among-children-of-soldiers-by-the-u-s-army-family-advocacy-program
#9
Joanne N Wood, Heather M Griffis, Christine M Taylor, Douglas Strane, Gerlinde C Harb, Lanyu Mi, Lihai Song, Kevin G Lynch, David M Rubin
In cases of maltreatment involving children of U.S. Army service members, the U.S. Army Family Advocacy Program (FAP) is responsible for providing services to families and ensuring child safety. The percentage of cases of maltreatment that are known to FAP, however, is uncertain. Thus, the objective of this retrospective study was to estimate the percentage of U.S. Army dependent children with child maltreatment as diagnosed by a military or civilian medical provider who had a substantiated report with FAP from 2004 to 2007...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405098/intrusive-cognitive-content-and-postdeployment-distress
#10
Jillian C Shipherd, Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, Alexis Matza
Although intrusive cognitions (ICs) are common posttrauma, little is known about trauma-related IC content, or associations between IC content and posttraumatic adjustment. A mixed-method cross-sectional approach was used in a secondary analysis of IC content and postdeployment distress. Participants were 1,521 U.S. Army soldiers 3-12 months postdeployment reporting their most distressing postdeployment ICs (mean number of ICs reported was 1.20). ICs were transcribed and content was categorized by 13 emergent themes...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385149/sexual-complementarity-between-host-humoral-toxicity-and-soldier-caste-in-a-polyembryonic-wasp
#11
Daisuke Uka, Takuma Sakamoto, Jin Yoshimura, Kikuo Iwabuchi
Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252019/facultative-asexual-reproduction-and-genetic-diversity-of-populations-in-the-humivorous-termite-cavitermes-tuberosus
#12
Denis Fournier, Simon Hellemans, Robert Hanus, Yves Roisin
Termite colonies are typically founded by a pair of sexually reproducing dispersers, which can sometimes be replaced by some of their offspring. Some Reticulitermes and Embiratermes species routinely practice asexual queen succession (AQS): the queen is replaced by neotenic daughters produced by parthenogenesis, which mate with the primary king. Here, to cast light on the evolution of AQS, we investigated another candidate species, Cavitermes tuberosus (Termitinae). Of 95 nests, 39 contained a primary queen and 28 contained neotenic females (2-667 individuals), usually with the primary king...
June 15, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968017/about-42-of-154-remains-from-the-battle-of-le-mans-france-1793-belong-to-women-and-children-morphological-and-genetic-evidence
#13
Catherine Thèves, Elodie Cabot, Caroline Bouakaze, Pierre Chevet, Éric Crubézy, Patricia Balaresque
Mass graves were discovered in Le Mans and 154 skeletons were exhumed, representing a remarkable historical series of human remains from western France. We aimed to characterise the age-class and sex of these subjects, and to determine whether their profile fits with that of the Catholic and Royal Army of Vendée, who fought against the Republican Army during the Battle of Le Mans (12th-13th December, 1793). This atypical army was composed of male soldiers, but also of civilian people who followed the troops, including the elderly, children and women...
May 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26868724/sexual-difference-in-juvenile-hormone-titer-in-workers-leads-to-sex-biased-soldier-differentiation-in-termites
#14
Kouhei Toga, Shutaro Hanmoto, Ryutaro Suzuki, Dai Watanabe, Toru Miura, Kiyoto Maekawa
In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers...
April 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26683399/improvised-explosive-device-related-lower-genitourinary-trauma-in-current-overseas-combat-operations
#15
Matthew Banti, Jack Walter, Steven Hudak, Douglas Soderdahl
BACKGROUND: The use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has had a profound effect on battlefield trauma in the 21st century. Historically, wounds to the genitourinary (GU) structures have been less common than extremity and penetrating abdominal trauma in combat operations. GU injury incidence, severity, and associated injuries secondary to the use of this weapon in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom has not been described. METHODS: Data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was reviewed for combat-related GU injuries in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom from 2001 to 2011...
January 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607860/the-prevalence-of-causative-organisms-of-community-acquired-urethritis-in-an-age-group-at-high-risk-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-korean-soldiers
#16
Hyung Jin Kim, J K Park, S C Park, Y G Kim, H Choi, J I Ko, M K Kim, Y B Jeong, Y S Shin
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the causative organisms in young male soldiers with clinical signs and symptoms after sexual contact that suggests a diagnosis of urethritis. METHODS: Between June 2012 and January 2015, male patients with urethritis symptoms that had resulted from sexual contact within 3 months participated in this study. All patients were evaluated using urinalysis and were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay in order to detect sexually transmitted infections (STI) or pathogens...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562624/gender-differences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-help-seeking-in-the-u-s-army
#17
Laurel Hourani, Jason Williams, Robert M Bray, Joshua E Wilk, Charles W Hoge
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent findings between studies of gender differences in mental health outcomes in military samples have left open questions of differential prevalence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among all United States Army soldiers and in differential psychosocial and comorbid risk and protective factor profiles and their association with receipt of treatment. METHODS: This study assesses the prevalence and risk factors of screening positive for PTSD for men and women based on two large, population-based Army samples obtained as part of the 2005 and 2008 U...
January 2016: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26344723/testicular-development-and-modes-of-apoptosis-during-spermatogenesis-in-various-castes-of-the-termite-reticulitermes-labralis-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#18
Xiao Hong Su, Jiao Ling Chen, Xiao Jing Zhang, Wei Xue, He Liu, Lian Xi Xing
The separation of reproductive and non-reproductive roles based on caste differentiation is the most prominent characteristic of termites. However, little is known about the mechanism of male reproductive division that underlies caste differentiation. In the present study, testicular development and stage-specific apoptotic patterns were investigated and compared during spermatogenesis in reproductives, workers and soldiers of the termite Reticulitermes labralis. The results showed that male workers were divided into two types, the workers with spermatozoa (WS) and the workers without spermatozoa (WN)...
November 2015: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26274838/chronic-hormonal-imbalance-and-adipose-redistribution-is-associated-with-hypothalamic-neuropathology-following-blast-exposure
#19
Pamela J VandeVord, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Evon Ereifej, Amy Hermundstad, Shijie Mao, Timothy J Hadden
Endocrine disorders have been shown to be a consequence of blast traumatic brain injury in soldiers returning from military conflicts. Hormone deficiency and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dysfunction can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and decreased quality of life. Given these changes following blast exposure, the current study focused on investigating chronic pathology within the hypothalamus following blast, in addition to systemic effects. An established rodent model of blast neurotrauma was used to induce mild blast-induced neurotrauma...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26247893/brief-report-sexual-risk-behaviors-of-hiv-seroconverters-in-the-us-army-2012-2014
#20
Shilpa Hakre, Stephanie L Scoville, Laura A Pacha, Sheila A Peel, Jerome H Kim, Nelson L Michael, Steven B Cersovsky, Paul T Scott
The United States (US) Army implemented a comprehensive HIV characterization program in 2012 following repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy banning openly homosexual individuals from serving in the US military. Program staff administered a standardized case report form to soldiers newly diagnosed with HIV from 2012 to 2014 in compliance with new program requirements. The case report form documented sociodemographic, sexual, and other risk behavior information elicited from US Army regulation-mandated epidemiologic interviews at initial HIV notification...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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