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Effect of ROS on peripheral blood cells

Xin Liu, Baiyan Sui, Jiao Sun
Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) has been extensively exploited in biomedical fields and mostly designed to enter the circulatory system, however, few studies focused on the potential adverse effects of SiO2-NPs exposure on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that serves as a critical barrier between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral circulation. This study attempts to provide an understanding of whether and how SiO2-NPs disrupts the BBB in vitro and in vivo. Through a human BBB model, we found that SiO2-NPs could induce tight junction loss and cytoskeleton arrangement, and increase inflammatory response and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs), which further activates astrocytes to amplify the generation of VEGF and increase the aquaporin-4 expression, and thus causing BBB disruption through a complex immunoregulatory loop between BMECs and astrocytes under SiO2-NPs exposure...
January 4, 2017: Biomaterials
Melissa Przyborowski Olekson, Renea A Faulknor, Henry C Hsia, Ann Marie Schmidt, François Berthiaume
Objective: In diabetes, hyperglycemia causes the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through binding the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Because exogenous growth factors have had little success in enhancing chronic wound healing, we investigated whether hyperglycemia-induced AGEs interfere with cellular responses to extracellular signals. We used stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), an angiogenic chemokine also known to promote stem cell recruitment in skin wounds...
December 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Zhenxin Zhao, Jun Xie, Bo Liu, Xianping Ge, Changyou Song, Mingchun Ren, Qunlan Zhou, Linghong Miao, Huimin Zhang, Fan Shan, Zhenfei Yang
We determined the effects of emodin on the cell viability, respiratory burst activity, mRNA levels of antioxidative enzymes (Cu-Zn SOD, CAT and NOX2), and gene expressions of the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling molecules in the peripheral blood leukocytes of blunt snout bream. Triplicate groups of cultured cells were treated with different concentrations of emodin (0.04-25 μg/ml) for 24 h. Results showed that the emodin caused a dramatic loss in cell viability, and occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Emodin exposure (1-25 μg/ml) were significantly induced the ROS generation compared to the control...
January 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Deepika Soni, Deepa Gandhi, Prashant Tarale, Amit Bafana, R A Pandey, Saravanadevi Sivanesan
In the present study, toxicity of commercial zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was studied on the bacterium Pseudomonas sp., human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The toxicity was assessed by measuring growth, cell viability, and protein expression in bacterial cell. The bacterial growth and viability decreased with increasing concentrations of ZnO NP. Three major proteins, ribosomal protein L1 and L9 along with alkyl hydroperoxides reductase, were upregulated by 1...
January 5, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Juan Carlos García-Ramos, Anllely Grizett Gutiérrez, Adriana Vázquez-Aguirre, Yanis Toledano-Magaña, Ana Luisa Alonso-Sáenz, Virginia Gómez-Vidales, Marcos Flores-Alamo, Carmen Mejía, Lena Ruiz-Azuara
The family of Copper(II) coordination compounds Casiopeínas(®) (Cas) has shown antiproliferative activity in several tumour lines by oxidative cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction that lead to cell death through apoptotic pathways. The goal of this work is looking for the functional mechanism of CasIIgly, CasIIIia and CasIIIEa in neuroblastoma metastatic cell line SK-N-SH, a paediatric extra-cranial tumour which is refractory to several anti-carcinogenic agents. All Cas have shown higher antiproliferative activity than cisplatin (IC50 = 123 μM) with IC50 values of 18, 22 and 63 µM for CasIIgly, CasIIIEa and CasIIIia, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Guillermina Calo, Florencia Sabbione, Daiana Vota, Daniel Paparini, Rosanna Ramhorst, Analía Trevani, Claudia Pérez Leirós
STUDY QUESTION: Do human trophoblast cells modulate neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and neutrophil apoptosis through mechanisms involving vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Trophoblast cells inhibited NET formation and ROS synthesis and enhanced neutrophil apoptosis through VIP-mediated pathways in a model of maternal-placental interaction. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immune homeostasis maintenance at the maternal-placental interface is mostly coordinated by trophoblast cells...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
Catrin Roolf, Christin Kretzschmar, Katrin Timmer, Anett Sekora, Gudrun Knübel, Hugo Murua Escobar, Georg Fuellen, Saleh M Ibrahim, Markus Tiedge, Simone Baltrusch, Sarah Müller, Rüdiger Köhling, Christian Junghanss
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for the respiratory chain proteins. Genetic alterations in mtDNA have been described during aging and linked to impaired hematopoiesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated two novel conplastic mouse strains harboring a mitochondrial nt7778 G/T polymorphism leading to an amino acid exchange in respiratory chain complex V. Effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, as well as bone marrow composition and peripheral blood counts, were investigated during aging (up to 24 month)...
November 2016: In Vivo
Rongli Sun, Meng Cao, Juan Zhang, Wenwen Yang, Haiyan Wei, Xing Meng, Lihong Yin, Yuepu Pu
Benzene is a well-known hematotoxic carcinogen that can cause leukemia and a variety of blood disorders. Our previous study indicated that benzene disturbs levels of metabolites in the fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) pathway, which is crucial for the maintenance and function of hematopoietic and leukemic cells. The present research aims to investigate the effects of benzene on changes in the expression of key enzymes in the FAO pathway in male C3H/He mice. Results showed that benzene exposure caused reduced peripheral white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), platelet (Pit) counts, and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carlos Henrique Rocha Catalão, Nilton Nascimento Santos-Júnior, Luís Henrique Angenendt da Costa, Anderson Oliveira Souza, Luciane Carla Alberici, Maria José Alves Rocha
During sepsis, brain damage is associated with oxidative stress due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although there are recent reports about the benefits of statins in experimental sepsis and endotoxemia in peripheral organs, little is known about their effects in the CNS. Here, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simvastatin and its possible neuroprotective role during experimental sepsis. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, n = 34) or remained as non-manipulated (naive, n = 34)...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Manosij Ghosh, Sonali Sinha, Manivannan Jothiramajayam, Aditi Jana, Anish Nag, Anita Mukherjee
ZnO-np has immense potential and application in cosmetic and health care sectors. Hence it was imperative to assess the toxicity/safety of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of ZnO-np in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and in Swiss albino male mice in vivo for cyto-genotoxicity and oxidative damage. In vitro results showed that ZnO-nps were weakly genotoxic, induced significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and was capable of ROS generation, leading to apoptosis...
November 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Christin Kretzschmar, Catrin Roolf, Katrin Timmer, Anett Sekora, Gudrun Knübel, Hugo Murua Escobar, Georg Fuellen, Saleh M Ibrahim, Markus Tiedge, Simone Baltrusch, Robert Jaster, Rüdiger Köhling, Christian Junghanss
During aging, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can accumulate mutations leading to increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS were described to activate formerly quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Mutations in mtDNA were shown to enhance the risk for myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. However, the complex relationship between mtDNA variations, ROS and aging of the hematopoietic system is not fully understood.Herein, three mouse strains with mtDNA polymorphisms in genes of respiratory chain complexes I (ND4), III (CYTB) and IV (COX3) were compared to a reference strain during aging...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Masayuki Tsukasaki, Koki Hamada, Kazuo Okamoto, Kazuki Nagashima, Asuka Terashima, Noriko Komatsu, Stephanie J Win, Tadashi Okamura, Takeshi Nitta, Hisataka Yasuda, Josef M Penninger, Hiroshi Takayanagi
Osteoclasts are the exclusive bone-resorbing cells that have a central role in bone homeostasis as well as bone destruction in cancer and autoimmune disease. Both mouse and human genetic studies have clearly proven that receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL; encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene) and its receptor RANK are essential for osteoclastogenesis. Although there have been several reports on RANKL-independent osteoclastogenesis, previous studies have never provided in vivo evidence showing RANKL can be substituted by other molecules using RANKL- or RANK-deficient genetic backgrounds...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Maria Podbielska, Arabinda Das, Amena W Smith, Ashok Chauhan, Swapan K Ray, Jun Inoue, Mitsuyoshi Azuma, Kenkichi Nozaki, Edward L Hogan, Naren L Banik
Activated microglia release pro-inflammatory factors and calpain into the extracellular milieu, damaging surrounding neurons. However, mechanistic links to progressive neurodegeneration in disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain obscure. We hypothesize that persistent damaged/dying neurons may also release cytotoxic factors and calpain into the media, which then activate microglia again. Thus, inflammation, neuronal damage, and microglia activation, i.e., bi-directional interaction between neurons and microglia, may be involved in the progressive neurodegeneration...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Naying Chu, Guodong Yao, Yuan Liu, Maosheng Cheng, Takashi Ikejima
Compound 8 (C8) is a newly synthesized bis-benzimidazole derivative and exerts significant anti-tumor activity in vitro. Previous studies demonstrated that C8 induced apoptosis and autophagy in human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. However, cytotoxicity study on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) showed that C8 exhibited less toxicity in normal cells. In this study, the molecular mechanism of C8 on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was investigated. The results showed that C8 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and triggered both apoptotic and autophagic cell death...
September 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Vinicius Paula Venancio, Marcella Camargo Marques, Mara Ribeiro Almeida, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Fernando Barbosa, Maria Lourdes Pires Bianchi, Cleni Mara Marzocchi-Machado, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes
Chrysobalanus icaco L. is an underexplored plant found in tropical areas around the globe. Currently, there is no apparent information regarding the effects C. icaco fruits may exert in vivo or potential role in health promotion. This study aimed at providing evidence regarding the in vivo influence of this fruit on antigenotoxicity, antimutagenicity, and oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d C. icaco fruit for 14 d. Doxorubicin (DXR, 15 mg/kg bw, ip) was used for DNA damaging and as an oxidant to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jianhui Chang, Yi Luo, Yingying Wang, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
One of the major health risks to astronauts is radiation on long-duration space missions. Space radiation from sun and galactic cosmic rays consists primarily of 85% protons, 14% helium nuclei and 1% high-energy high-charge (HZE) particles, such as oxygen (16O), carbon, silicon, and iron ions. HZE particles exhibit dense linear tracks of ionization associated with clustered DNA damage and often high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Therefore, new knowledge of risks from HZE particle exposures must be obtained...
2016: PloS One
Huaxiao Wen, Langyue Yuan, Chenxi Wei, Yun Zhao, Yan Qian, Ping Ma, Shumao Ding, Xu Yang, Xianliang Wang
Formaldehyde and benzene are the two major indoor air pollutants due to their prevalence and toxicity. This study aimed to explore the toxic effect on the spleen and relevant immune responses of Balb/c mice caused by exposure to a combination of formaldehyde and benzene. Balb/c mice were divided randomly into five groups (n=9/group): blank control group (Ctrl); solvent ([corn] Oil) control; formaldehyde only (FA, 3mg/m(3)); benzene only (BZ, 150mg/kg BW); and, formaldehyde+benzene group (FA+BZ). Exposures were performed for 8h/day, 5 day/week, for 2 weeks...
July 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Chenxi Wei, Huaxiao Wen, Langyue Yuan, Cliona M McHale, Hui Li, Kun Wang, Junlin Yuan, Xu Yang, Luoping Zhang
Formaldehyde (FA) is a human leukemogen and is hematotoxic in human and mouse. The biological plausibility of FA-induced leukemia is controversial because few studies have reported FA-induced bone marrow (BM) toxicity, and none have reported BM stem/progenitor cell toxicity. We sought to comprehensively examine FA hematoxicity in vivo in mouse peripheral blood, BM, spleen and myeloid progenitors. We included the leukemogen and BM toxicant, benzene (BZ), as a positive control, separately and together with FA as co-exposure occurs frequently...
June 23, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Lu Lu, Yue-Ying Wang, Jun-Ling Zhang, De-Guan Li, Ai-Min Meng
Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression...
June 8, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marijana Buač, Slavko Mojsilović, Dušan Mišić, Dejan Vuković, Olivera Savić, Olivera Valčić, Dragana Marković, Dragan Gvozdić, Vesna Ilić, Natalija Fratrić
In this work we studied if circulating immune complexes (CIC) of calves with bronchopneumonia have the capacity to modulate function of peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy cattle. CIC of three month old calves (6 healthy and 6 diseased) were isolated by PEG precipitation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and granulocytes from healthy calves and cows were the CIC responder cells in in vitro tests. The most remarkable increase of adhesiveness to polystyrene and ROS synthesis (assessed by NBT test) was detected in cows' granulocytes stimulated with CIC of diseased calves...
June 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
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