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Effect of ROS on peripheral blood cells

Manosij Ghosh, Sonali Sinha, Manivannan Jothiramajayam, Aditi Jana, Anish Nag, Anita Mukherjee
ZnO-np has immense potential and application in cosmetic and health care sectors. Hence it was imperative to assess the toxicity/safety of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of ZnO-np in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro and in Swiss albino male mice in vivo for cyto-genotoxicity and oxidative damage. In vitro results showed that ZnO-nps were weakly genotoxic, induced significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and was capable of ROS generation, leading to apoptosis...
September 19, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Christin Kretzschmar, Catrin Roolf, Katrin Timmer, Anett Sekora, Gudrun Knübel, Hugo Murua Escobar, Georg Fuellen, Saleh M Ibrahim, Markus Tiedge, Simone Baltrusch, Robert Jaster, Rüdiger Köhling, Christian Junghanss
During aging, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can accumulate mutations leading to increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROS were described to activate formerly quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Mutations in mtDNA were shown to enhance the risk for myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. However, the complex relationship between mtDNA variations, ROS and aging of the hematopoietic system is not fully understood.Herein, three mouse strains with mtDNA polymorphisms in genes of respiratory chain complexes I (ND4), III (CYTB) and IV (COX3) were compared to a reference strain during aging...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Masayuki Tsukasaki, Koki Hamada, Kazuo Okamoto, Kazuki Nagashima, Asuka Terashima, Noriko Komatsu, Stephanie J Win, Tadashi Okamura, Takeshi Nitta, Hisataka Yasuda, Josef M Penninger, Hiroshi Takayanagi
Osteoclasts are the exclusive bone-resorbing cells that have a central role in bone homeostasis as well as bone destruction in cancer and autoimmune disease. Both mouse and human genetic studies have clearly proven that receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL; encoded by the Tnfsf11 gene) and its receptor RANK are essential for osteoclastogenesis. Although there have been several reports on RANKL-independent osteoclastogenesis, previous studies have never provided in vivo evidence showing RANKL can be substituted by other molecules using RANKL- or RANK-deficient genetic backgrounds...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Maria Podbielska, Arabinda Das, Amena W Smith, Ashok Chauhan, Swapan K Ray, Jun Inoue, Mitsuyoshi Azuma, Kenkichi Nozaki, Edward L Hogan, Naren L Banik
Activated microglia release pro-inflammatory factors and calpain into the extracellular milieu, damaging surrounding neurons. However, mechanistic links to progressive neurodegeneration in disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remain obscure. We hypothesize that persistent damaged/dying neurons may also release cytotoxic factors and calpain into the media, which then activate microglia again. Thus, inflammation, neuronal damage, and microglia activation, i.e., bi-directional interaction between neurons and microglia, may be involved in the progressive neurodegeneration...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Naying Chu, Guodong Yao, Yuan Liu, Maosheng Cheng, Takashi Ikejima
Compound 8 (C8) is a newly synthesized bis-benzimidazole derivative and exerts significant anti-tumor activity in vitro. Previous studies demonstrated that C8 induced apoptosis and autophagy in human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. However, cytotoxicity study on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) showed that C8 exhibited less toxicity in normal cells. In this study, the molecular mechanism of C8 on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was investigated. The results showed that C8 inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and triggered both apoptotic and autophagic cell death...
September 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Vinicius Paula Venancio, Marcella Camargo Marques, Mara Ribeiro Almeida, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Fernando Barbosa, Maria Lourdes Pires Bianchi, Cleni Mara Marzocchi-Machado, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes
Chrysobalanus icaco L. is an underexplored plant found in tropical areas around the globe. Currently, there is no apparent information regarding the effects C. icaco fruits may exert in vivo or potential role in health promotion. This study aimed at providing evidence regarding the in vivo influence of this fruit on antigenotoxicity, antimutagenicity, and oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d C. icaco fruit for 14 d. Doxorubicin (DXR, 15 mg/kg bw, ip) was used for DNA damaging and as an oxidant to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jianhui Chang, Yi Luo, Yingying Wang, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
One of the major health risks to astronauts is radiation on long-duration space missions. Space radiation from sun and galactic cosmic rays consists primarily of 85% protons, 14% helium nuclei and 1% high-energy high-charge (HZE) particles, such as oxygen (16O), carbon, silicon, and iron ions. HZE particles exhibit dense linear tracks of ionization associated with clustered DNA damage and often high relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Therefore, new knowledge of risks from HZE particle exposures must be obtained...
2016: PloS One
Huaxiao Wen, Langyue Yuan, Chenxi Wei, Yun Zhao, Yan Qian, Ping Ma, Shumao Ding, Xu Yang, Xianliang Wang
Formaldehyde and benzene are the two major indoor air pollutants due to their prevalence and toxicity. This study aimed to explore the toxic effect on the spleen and relevant immune responses of Balb/c mice caused by exposure to a combination of formaldehyde and benzene. Balb/c mice were divided randomly into five groups (n=9/group): blank control group (Ctrl); solvent ([corn] Oil) control; formaldehyde only (FA, 3mg/m(3)); benzene only (BZ, 150mg/kg BW); and, formaldehyde+benzene group (FA+BZ). Exposures were performed for 8h/day, 5 day/week, for 2 weeks...
July 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Chenxi Wei, Huaxiao Wen, Langyue Yuan, Cliona M McHale, Hui Li, Kun Wang, Junlin Yuan, Xu Yang, Luoping Zhang
Formaldehyde (FA) is a human leukemogen and is hematotoxic in human and mouse. The biological plausibility of FA-induced leukemia is controversial because few studies have reported FA-induced bone marrow (BM) toxicity, and none have reported BM stem/progenitor cell toxicity. We sought to comprehensively examine FA hematoxicity in vivo in mouse peripheral blood, BM, spleen and myeloid progenitors. We included the leukemogen and BM toxicant, benzene (BZ), as a positive control, separately and together with FA as co-exposure occurs frequently...
June 23, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Lu Lu, Yue-Ying Wang, Jun-Ling Zhang, De-Guan Li, Ai-Min Meng
Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI), which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marijana Buač, Slavko Mojsilović, Dušan Mišić, Dejan Vuković, Olivera Savić, Olivera Valčić, Dragana Marković, Dragan Gvozdić, Vesna Ilić, Natalija Fratrić
In this work we studied if circulating immune complexes (CIC) of calves with bronchopneumonia have the capacity to modulate function of peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy cattle. CIC of three month old calves (6 healthy and 6 diseased) were isolated by PEG precipitation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and granulocytes from healthy calves and cows were the CIC responder cells in in vitro tests. The most remarkable increase of adhesiveness to polystyrene and ROS synthesis (assessed by NBT test) was detected in cows' granulocytes stimulated with CIC of diseased calves...
June 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Jin-Biao Liu, Li Zhou, Yi-Zhong Wang, Xu Wang, Yu Zhou, Wen-Zhe Ho, Jie-Liang Li
Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) mediated systemic inflammation plays a critical role in neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major component in green tea, on LPS-mediated inflammation and neurotoxicity. LPS treatment of macrophages induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). However, EGCG pretreatment of macrophages significantly inhibited LPS-mediated induction of these cytokines. In addition, EGCG significantly diminished LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs)...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Kun-Lin Chen, Yuan-Yuan Fu, Min-Yan Shi, Hui-Xia Li
Heat stress can weaken the immune system and even increase livestock's susceptibility to disease. MicroRNA (miR) is short non-coding RNA that functions in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and some phenotypes. Our recent study found that miR-181a is highly expressed in the serum of heat-stressed Holstein cows, but the potential function of miR-181a is still not clarified. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from Holstein cows' peripheral blood, were used to investigate the effects of miR-181a inhibitor on heat stress damage...
September 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Hua Guo, Jing Zhang, Mary Boudreau, Jie Meng, Jun-jie Yin, Jian Liu, Haiyan Xu
BACKGROUND: Administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to mice could result in their distribution and accumulation in multiple organs, with notable prominence in liver, lungs, and kidneys. However, how AgNPs transport through blood vesicular system to reach the target organs is unclear, and the precise differences in the mechanisms of toxicity between AgNPs and silver ions still remain elusive. In the present research, the pathological changes on these target organs with a focus on inter-endothelial junction was investigated to gain a new insight of AgNPs toxicity by comparing the mechanisms of action of AgNPs and AgNO3...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
I O Shymanskyy, O O Lisakovska, A O Mazanova, V M Riasniy, M M Veliky
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin D3 and its combined action with vitamin E in the correction of the impairments of phagocyte function caused by chronic glucocorticoid administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phagocytic activity was assessed by the ability of peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes to capture FITC-labeled Escherichia coli using flow cytometry. Metabolic activity of neutrophils was measured cytochemically as nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test...
April 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
M Albenzio, A Santillo, M G Ciliberti, L Figliola, M Caroprese, R Marino, A N Polito
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Xianli He, Falin Qu, Feng Zhou, Xingchun Zhou, Yibing Chen, Xu Guo, Jibin Li, Qichao Huang, Yefa Yang, Zhuomin Lyu, Hongxin Zhang, Jinliang Xing
Compelling epidemiological evidences indicate a significant association between leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and incidence risk of several malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether leukocyte mtDNA content affect prognosis of HCC patients and underlying mechanism has never been explored. In our study, leukocyte mtDNA content was measured in 618 HCC patients and its prognostic value was analyzed. Moreover, we detected the immunophenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma concentrations of several cytokines in 40 HCC patients and assessed the modulating effects of mtDNA content on immunosuppression in cell models...
April 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Xinwei Yang, Weijie Yao, Haotian Shi, Haolong Liu, Yangfan Li, Yanbin Gao, Renhui Liu, Liping Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Paeoniflorin (PF) is the principal bioactive component of Paeonia lactiflora Pall., which an included in Tang Luo Ning recipe, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine based on Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction. PF is also widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of blood-arthralgia disease including diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), but its underlying molecular mechanism of neuroprotective effects is not yet well understood. Diabetic hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress in Schwann cells, an important component of the peripheral nervous system, has been proposed as a unifying mechanism for DPN...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
G Marrali, P Salamone, F Casale, G Fuda, P Cugnasco, C Caorsi, A Amoroso, A Calvo, L Lopiano, D Cocito, A Chiò
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immunomediated condition affecting the peripheral nervous system where probably macrophages are the primary effector cells for demyelination. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalyzed by the NOX family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enzymes, can induce peroxidation and are potentially injurious to myelin. Our aim was to assess the activity of NOX2, an isoform of NOX, in a series of CIDP patients and to analyze the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) on NOX2...
May 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Anursara Pongjanta, Kanjana Pangjit, Somdet Srichairatanakool
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is characterized by an imbalance between the antioxidant defense systems and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The excess of ROS can damage biomolecules and leading to several chronic conditions and diseases such as diabetes, antherosclerosis, ischemic injury, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Plant extracts and their constituents as a natural source of antioxidants have been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic Rhang Dang (entilago denticulata Willd) leaves extract...
January 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
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