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Human and gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792248/metataxonomic-analysis-of-individuals-at-bmi-extremes-and-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-bmi
#1
Casey T Finnicum, Stieneke Doornweerd, Conor V Dolan, Justin M Luningham, Jeffrey J Beck, Gonneke Willemsen, Erik A Ehli, Dorret I Boomsma, Richard G Ijzerman, Gareth E Davies, Eco J C de Geus
OBJECTIVE: The human gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with a number of host phenotypes, including obesity and a number of obesity-associated phenotypes. This study is aimed at further understanding and describing the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity-associated measurements obtained from human participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Here, we utilize genetically informative study designs, including a four-corners design (extremes of genetic risk for BMI and of observed BMI; N = 50) and the BMI monozygotic (MZ) discordant twin pair design (N = 30), in order to help delineate the role of host genetics and the gut microbiota in the development of obesity...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790949/fecal-microbiota-composition-changes-after-a-body-weight-loss-diet-in-beagle-dogs
#2
A Salas, I Jeusette, I Castillo, C L Manuelian, C Lionnet, N Iraculis, N Sanchez, S Fernández, L L Vilaseca, C Torre
In developed countries, dogs and cats frequently suffer from obesity. Recently, gut microbiota composition in humans has been related to obesity and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition, and gut microbiota composition in obese Beagle dogs after a 17-week body weight (BW) loss program. A total of six neutered adult Beagle dogs with an average initial BW of 16.34 ± 1.52 kg and BCS of 7.8 ± 0.1 points (9-point scale) were restrictedly fed with a hypocaloric, low-fat and high-fiber dry-type diet...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790376/plateau-hypoxia-attenuates-the-metabolic-activity-of-intestinal-flora-to-enhance-the-bioavailability-of-nifedipine
#3
Juanhong Zhang, Yuyan Chen, Yuemei Sun, Rong Wang, Junmin Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Nifedipine is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and its pharmacokinetics and metabolism may be influenced by microorganisms. If gut microbes are involved in the metabolism of nifedipine, plateau hypoxia may regulate the bioavailability and the therapeutic effect of nifedipine by altering the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We herein demonstrated for the first time that gut flora is involved in the metabolism of nifedipine by in vitro experiments. In addition, based on the results of 16S rRNA analysis of feces in rats after acute plateau, we first confirmed that the plateau environment could cause changes in the number and composition of intestinal microbes...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789365/structural-alteration-of-gut-microbiota-during-the-amelioration-of-human-type-2-diabetes-with-hyperlipidemia-by-metformin-and-a-traditional-chinese-herbal-formula-a-multicenter-randomized-open-label-clinical-trial
#4
Xiaolin Tong, Jia Xu, Fengmei Lian, Xiaotong Yu, Yufeng Zhao, Lipeng Xu, Menghui Zhang, Xiyan Zhao, Jian Shen, Shengping Wu, Xiaoyan Pang, Jiaxing Tian, Chenhong Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Linhua Wang, Bing Pang, Feng Chen, Zhiping Peng, Jing Wang, Zhong Zhen, Chao Fang, Min Li, Limei Chen, Liping Zhao
Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786466/mineralo-organic-nanoparticles-in-health-and-disease-an-overview-of-recent-findings
#5
Jan Martel, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Hsin-Hsin Peng, John D Young
We observed earlier that mineralo-organic nanoparticles form in human body fluids when the concentrations of calcium, carbonate and phosphate exceed saturation. The particles have been shown to represent mineral precursors in developing bones and teeth as well as in ectopic calcification and kidney stones. Recent studies suggest that the mineral particles may also be involved in other physiological processes, including immune tolerance against the gut microbiota and food antigens. We review here the involvement of mineralo-organic nanoparticles in physiological and pathological processes and discuss recent findings that reveal novel and unexpected roles for these particles in the human body...
May 22, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784864/group-iia-secreted-phospholipase-a-2-in-human-serum-kills-commensal-but-not-clinical-enterococcus-faecium-isolates
#6
Fernanda L Paganelli, Helen L Leavis, Samantha He, Nina M van Sorge, Christine Payré, Gérard Lambeau, Rob J L Willems, Suzan H M Rooijakkers
Human innate immunity employs cellular and humoral mechanisms to facilitate rapid killing of invading bacteria. The direct killing of bacteria by human serum is mainly attributed to the activity of the complement system that forms pores in Gram-negative bacteria. Although Gram-positive bacteria are considered resistant to serum killing, we here uncover that normal human serum effectively kills Enterococcus faecium. Comparison of a well-characterized collection of commensal and clinical E. faecium isolates revealed that human serum specifically kills commensal E...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782468/potential-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-als-pathogenesis-and-possible-novel-therapeutic-strategies
#7
Letizia Mazzini, Luca Mogna, Fabiola De Marchi, Angela Amoruso, Marco Pane, Irene Aloisio, Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Francesca Gaggìa, Ausiliatrice Lucenti, Enrica Bersano, Roberto Cantello, Diana Di Gioia, Giovanni Mogna
BACKGROUND: Recent preclinical studies suggest that dysfunction of gastrointestinal tract may play a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis through a modification of the gut microbiota brain axis. Our study is the first focused on microbiota analysis in ALS patients. AIM: Our aim was to study the main human gut microbial groups and the overall microbial diversity in ALS and healthy subjects. Moreover we have examined the influence of a treatment with a specific bacteriotherapy composed of Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius) acting on the gastrointestinal barrier...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#8
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781709/bidirectional-interactions-between-dietary-curcumin-and-gut-microbiota
#9
Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound with a long history of use as an herbal remedy, dietary spice and food-coloring agent. Despite curcumin possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, it exhibits extremely poor bioavailability, which makes its pharmacology intriguing and also hinders its clinical application. In recent years, there is ample evidence supporting the associations between the alteration of gut microbiota and many diseases. Interestingly, after oral administration, curcumin shows its preferential distribution and accumulation in the intestine...
May 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780377/the-gut-microbiota-of-marine-fish
#10
REVIEW
Sian Egerton, Sarah Culloty, Jason Whooley, Catherine Stanton, R Paul Ross
The body of work relating to the gut microbiota of fish is dwarfed by that on humans and mammals. However, it is a field that has had historical interest and has grown significantly along with the expansion of the aquaculture industry and developments in microbiome research. Research is now moving quickly in this field. Much recent focus has been on nutritional manipulation and modification of the gut microbiota to meet the needs of fish farming, while trying to maintain host health and welfare. However, the diversity amongst fish means that baseline data from wild fish and a clear understanding of the role that specific gut microbiota play is still lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779028/dietary-changes-involving-bifidobacterium-longum-and-other-nutrients-delays-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#11
Yuko Iwashita, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Kazuki Kawakami, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yu Iwashita, Toru Mima, Shigeo Negi, Kaoru Kubo, Koichi Tomoda, Toshitaka Odamaki, Takashi Shigematsu
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that prebiotic and/or probiotic treatments ameliorate kidney function in humans and animals by improving the gut environment. However, the gut microbiota and kidney disease interactions remain to be determined. This study investigated whether synbiotics modulate the gut microbiota and ameliorate kidney function using a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As uremic toxins are associated with CKD-related mineral and bone disorder, the secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between synbiotics and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775902/type-1-diabetes-through-the-lens-of-human-genome-and-metagenome-interplay
#12
REVIEW
Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Hakimeh Moghaddas Sani, Yalda Rahbar Saadat, Abolfazl Barzegari, Yadollah Omidi
Diabetes is a genetic- and epigenetic-related disease from which a large population worldwide suffers. Some genetic factors along with various mutations related to the immune system for disease mechanism(s) have contrastively been determined. However, sometimes mechanisms have not been fully managed for the clarification of the initiation and/or progression of diseases to help patients. In the recent years, due to familiarity with the role of gut microbiota in the health, it has been found that the changes of the microbial balance in the industrialized societies can cause a battery of modern diseases, for which we have no specific definition of how they emerge...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773876/early-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-in-pigs-disrupts-microbiome-composition-and-functionality-principally-at-the-ileum-mucosa
#13
Héctor Argüello, Jordi Estellé, Sara Zaldívar-López, Ángeles Jiménez-Marín, Ana Carvajal, Mª Asunción López-Bascón, Fiona Crispie, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Luis Morera, Juan J Garrido
Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen which successfully infects animal species for human consumption such as swine. The pathogen has a battery of virulence factors which it uses to colonise and persist within the host. The host microbiota may play a role in resistance to, and may also be indirectly responsible from some of the consequences of, Salmonella infection. To investigate this, we used 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing to determine the changes in the gut microbiota of pigs in response to infection by Salmonella Typhimurium at three locations: ileum mucosa, ileum content and faeces...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773467/human-microbiome-restoration-and-safety
#14
REVIEW
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Charles Nkufi Tango, Byong H Lee, Deog-Hwan Oh
The human gut microbiome consists of many bacteria which are in symbiotic relationship with human beings. The gut microbial metabolism, as well as the microbial-host co-metabolism, has been found to greatly influence health and disease. Factors such as diet, antibiotic use and lifestyle have been associated with alterations in the gut microbial community and may result in several pathological conditions. For this reason, several strategies including fecal microbiota transplant and probiotic administration have been applied and proven to be feasible and effective in restoring the gut microbiota in humans...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772287/probiotics-and-nutraceuticals-as-a-new-frontier-in-obesity-prevention-and-management
#15
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n=15, in each)...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771341/the-effect-of-splenda-on-gut-microbiota-of-humans-could-be-much-more-detrimental-than-in-animals-and-deserves-more-extensive-research
#16
Xiaofa Qin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771153/nature-derived-microbiota-exposure-as-a-novel-immunomodulatory-approach
#17
Noora Nurminen, Jake Lin, Mira Grönroos, Riikka Puhakka, Lenka Kramna, Heli K Vari, Hanna Viskari, Sami Oikarinen, Marja Roslund, Anirudra Parajuli, Iiris Tyni, Ondrej Cinek, Olli Laitinen, Heikki Hyöty, Aki Sinkkonen
AIM:  Current attempts to modulate the human microbiota and immune responses are based on probiotics or human-derived bacterial transplants. We investigated microbial modulation by soil and plant-based material. MATERIALS & METHODS: We performed a pilot study in which healthy adults were exposed to the varied microbial community of a soil- and plant-based material. RESULTS: The method was safe and feasible; exposure was associated with an increase in gut microbial diversity...
May 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769378/food-starch-structure-impacts-gut-microbiome-composition
#18
Frederick J Warren, Naoki M Fukuma, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Allan T Lisle, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison, Michael J Gidley
Starch is a major source of energy in the human diet and is consumed in diverse forms. Resistant starch (RS) escapes small intestinal digestion and is fermented in the colon by the resident microbiota, with beneficial impacts on colonic function and host health, but the impacts of the micro- and nanoscale structure of different physical forms of food starch on the broader microbial community have not been described previously. Here, we use a porcine in vitro fermentation model to establish that starch structure dramatically impacts microbiome composition, including the key amylolytic species, and markedly alters both digestion kinetics and fermentation outcomes...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765359/comparing-microbiome-sampling-methods-in-a-wild-mammal-fecal-and-intestinal-samples-record-different-signals-of-host-ecology-evolution
#19
Melissa R Ingala, Nancy B Simmons, Claudia Wultsch, Konstantinos Krampis, Kelly A Speer, Susan L Perkins
The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763437/postnatal-colonization-with-human-infant-type-bifidobacterium-species-alters-behavior-of-adult-gnotobiotic-mice
#20
Berkley Luk, Surabi Veeraragavan, Melinda Engevik, Miriam Balderas, Angela Major, Jessica Runge, Ruth Ann Luna, James Versalovic
Accumulating studies have defined a role for the intestinal microbiota in modulation of host behavior. Research using gnotobiotic mice emphasizes that early microbial colonization with a complex microbiota (conventionalization) can rescue some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in mice that grow to adulthood completely devoid of bacteria (germ-free mice). However, the human infant and adult microbiomes vary greatly, and effects of the neonatal microbiome on neurodevelopment are currently not well understood...
2018: PloS One
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