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Human and gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139477/a-dietary-flavone-confers-communicable-protection-against-colitis-through-nlrp6-signaling-independently-of-inflammasome-activation
#1
K Radulovic, S Normand, A Rehman, A Delanoye-Crespin, J Chatagnon, M Delacre, N Waldschmitt, L F Poulin, J Iovanna, B Ryffel, P Rosenstiel, M Chamaillard
Flavones represent a class of polyphenols that are found in many plant-derived food sources. Herein, we provide evidence that the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effect of the flavone apigenin relies on the regulation of the gut microbiota by the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6 (Nlrp6). When challenged by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water, mice were protected against colitis upon cohousing with apigenin-treated animals. In contrast, the protective effect was lost in the absence of Nlrp6...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138485/evaluating-the-impact-of-domestication-and-captivity-on-the-horse-gut-microbiome
#2
Jessica L Metcalf, Se Jin Song, James T Morton, Sophie Weiss, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Frédéric Joly, Claudia Feh, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, Amnon Amir, Eske Willerslev, Rob Knight, Valerie McKenzie, Ludovic Orlando
The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly modified...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#3
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135961/probiotic-prebiotic-and-brain-development
#4
REVIEW
Tomás Cerdó, Alicia Ruíz, Antonio Suárez, Cristina Campoy
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135690/microbiota-and-hdl-metabolism
#5
Kazuhiro Nakaya, Katsunori Ikewaki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accumulating evidence has provided new insights regarding potentially effective therapeutic options targeting modulation of HDL metabolism, resulting in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The gut microbiota has now been convincingly linked to host health, but its impact on host lipid metabolism, especially HDL metabolism, remains poorly understood. This review focuses on the recent progress in establishing associations between gut microbiota and host HDL metabolism...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135334/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-its-consequence-on-the-gut-microbiome-a-rat-model
#6
Phyllis E Mann, Kevin Huynh, Giovanni Widmer
The biological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal include shifts in hormonal regulation in preparation for parturition and lactation, and changes in energy metabolism. In women, studies have also shown that during pregnancy there is a reduction in bacterial species richness in the gut. In the current experiment rats were used to model the interaction of diet, reproductive status, and intestinal bacterial microbiota during pregnancy and lactation. In Experiment 1 rats were exposed to either standard chow or high-fat chow (60%) and were divided into two groups: unmated (NULL) or mated (RE)...
November 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134744/acute-oral-sodium-propionate-supplementation-raises-resting-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-oxidation-in-fasted-humans
#7
Edward S Chambers, Claire S Byrne, Karen Aspey, Yanjie Chen, Saadiyah Khan, Douglas J Morrison, Gary Frost
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, have been suggested to modulate energy metabolism. Previous work using rodent models have demonstrated that oral supplementation of the SCFA propionate raises resting energy expenditure (REE) by promoting lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral sodium propionate on REE and substrate metabolism in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers (9 females and 9 males; Age: 25±1 y; Body Mass Index: 24...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133348/non-pathogenic-colonization-with-chlamydia-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-as-oral-vaccination-for-inducing-transmucosal-protection
#8
Luying Wang, Cuiming Zhu, Tianyuan Zhang, Qi Tian, Nu Zhang, Sandra Morrison, Richard Morrison, Min Xue, Guangming Zhong
Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. We now report that gastrointestinal Chlamydia muridarum is able to induce robust transmucosal protection in mice. C. muridarum colonization in the gastrointestinal tract correlated with both a shortened course of C. muridarum genital infection and stronger protection against subsequent genital tract challenge infection. Mice pre-inoculated intragastrically with C. muridarum became highly resistant to subsequent C. muridarum infection in the genital tract, resulting in prevention of pathology in the upper genital tract...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133215/myocardial-infarction-and-gut-microbiota-an-incidental-connection
#9
REVIEW
Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Abolfazl Barzegari, Marisol Zuluaga, Didier Letourneur, Graciela Pavon-Djavid
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the main cause of cardiovascular crises that entails serious concerns in mortality, morbidity, and cost to the society. The main therapeutic goal of modern cardiology is to develop novel approaches to minimize inflammation, myocardial necrosis/apoptosis, and enhance cardiac repair after MI. Though MI can be affected by genetic and environmental factors, the search for targeting lifestyle factors has been of greater interest. One such potential factor is the microbiota, the human intestinal microbial community...
November 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#10
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132736/clinical-effects-of-probiotics-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-a-systematic-review
#11
Stephanie Van Biervliet, Dimitri Declercq, Shawn Somerset
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by a build-up of thick, intransient mucus linings of the digestive and respiratory mucosa, which disrupts digestive system functioning and microbiota composition. In view of the potential for probiotics to enhance microbiota composition in other contexts, this study investigated the current evidence for probiotics as an adjunct to usual therapy for CF. Electronic clinical databases were interrogated for human randomised, controlled, intervention trials (1985-2015) testing the effects of probiotics on clinical endpoints in CF were reviewed...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132532/emerging-topics-in-gastroenterology
#12
REVIEW
Gretchen Irwin, Laura Mayans, Rick Kellerman
The bacteria and fungi in the human gut make up a community of microorganisms that lives in symbiosis with humans, engaging in numerous diverse interactions that influence health. This article outlines the current knowledge on emerging topics in gastroenterology, including microbiome and probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and microscopic colitis.
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132405/identifying-predictive-features-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-before-during-and-after-primary-antibiotic-treatment
#13
Sepideh Pakpour, Amit Bhanvadia, Roger Zhu, Abhimanyu Amarnani, Sean M Gibbons, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm, Laura A Martello
BACKGROUND: Colonization by the pathogen Clostridium difficile often occurs in the background of a disrupted microbial community. Identifying specific organisms conferring resistance to invasion by C. difficile is desirable because diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on the human microbiota have the potential to provide more precision to the management and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of adult patients diagnosed with their first CDI...
November 13, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131106/gut-microbiota-dependent-modulation-of-energy-metabolism
#14
Christina N Heiss, Louise E Olofsson
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the host's energy balance. It increases the host's ability to harvest energy from the digested food, and produces metabolites and microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolites and microbial products act as signaling molecules that modulate appetite, gut motility, energy uptake and storage, and energy expenditure. Several findings suggest that the gut microbiota can affect the development of obesity...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130220/-current-research-progress-and-thinking-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#15
Ning Li, Hongliang Tian
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130176/assessing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-autoinducer-effects-on-mammalian-epithelial-cells
#16
Jake Everett, Rebecca Gabrilska, Kendra P Rumbaugh, Elena Vikström
The human mucosal environment in the gut is rich with interactions between microbiota and mammalian epithelia. Microbes such as the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa may use quorum sensing to communicate with other microorganisms and mammalian cells to alter gene expression. Here, we present methodologies to evaluate the effects of P. aeruginosa N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) on Caco-2 cell monolayers. First, we describe a method for assessing barrier function and permeability of epithelial cells when exposed to 3O-C12-HSL by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular flow using fluorescently labeled dextran...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129355/a-metagenomic-approach-to-dissect-the-genetic-composition-of-enterotypes-in-han-chinese-and-two-muslim-groups
#17
Jing Li, Ruiqing Fu, Yajun Yang, Hans-Peter Horz, Yaqun Guan, Yan Lu, Haiyi Lou, Lei Tian, Shijie Zheng, Hongjiao Liu, Meng Shi, Kun Tang, Sijia Wang, Shuhua Xu
Distinct enterotypes have been observed in the human gut but little is known about the genetic basis of the microbiome. Moreover, it is not clear how many genetic differences exist between enterotypes within or between populations. In this study, both the 16S rRNA gene and the metagenomes of the gut microbiota were sequenced from 48 Han Chinese, 48 Kazaks, and 96 Uyghurs, and taxonomies were assigned after de novo assembly. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified by referring to data from the Human Microbiome Project...
November 9, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126267/identification-of-universal-gut-microbial-biomarkers-of-common-human-intestinal-diseases-by-meta-analysis
#18
Leonardo Mancabelli, Christian Milani, Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Francesca Turroni, Deborah Cocconi, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Intestinal diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and pseudomembranous colitis (CDI), are among the most common diseases in humans and may lead to more serious pathologies, e.g. colorectal cancer (CRC). Next Generation Sequencing has in recent years allowed the identification of correlations between intestinal bacteria and diseases, although formulation of universal gut microbial biomarkers for such diseases is only in its infancy. In the current study, we selected and reanalyzed a total of 3048 public datasets obtained from 16S rRNA profiling of individuals affected by CD, UC, CDI and CRC...
November 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124388/measuring-the-impact-of-olive-pomace-enriched-biscuits-on-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-metabolic-activity-in-mildly-hypercholesterolaemic-subjects
#19
Lorenza Conterno, Francesca Martinelli, Matteo Tamburini, Francesca Fava, Andrea Mancini, Maddalena Sordo, Massimo Pindo, Stefan Martens, Domenico Masuero, Urska Vrhovsek, Claudia Dal Lago, Gabriele Ferrario, Mario Morandini, Kieran Tuohy
PURPOSE: Olive pomace is a major waste product of olive oil production but remains rich in polyphenols and fibres. We measured the potential of an olive pomace-enriched biscuit formulation delivering 17.1 ± 4.01 mg/100 g of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives, to modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota. METHODS: In a double-blind, controlled parallel dietary intervention 62 otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic (total plasma cholesterol 180-240 mg/dl) subjects were randomly assigned to eat 90 g of olive pomace-enriched biscuit (olive-enriched product, OEP) or an isoenergetic control (CTRL) for 8 weeks...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123529/t-cell-mediated-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-are-candidates-for-therapeutic-tolerance-induction-with-heat-shock-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Ariana Barbera Betancourt, Qingkang Lyu, Femke Broere, Alice Sijts, Victor P M G Rutten, Willem van Eden
Failing immunological tolerance for critical self-antigens is the problem underlying most chronic inflammatory diseases of humans. Despite the success of novel immunosuppressive biological drugs, the so-called biologics, in the treatment of diseases such rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes, none of these approaches does lead to a permanent state of medicine free disease remission. Therefore, there is a need for therapies that restore physiological mechanisms of self-tolerance. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have shown disease suppressive activities in many models of experimental autoimmune diseases through the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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