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Human and gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454190/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-epilobium-angustifolium-aqueous-extract-on-lncap-cell-proliferation-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#1
Jakub P Piwowarski, Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak, Iwona Stanisławska, Wojciech Bielecki, Robert Wrzesien, Sebastian Granica, Katarzyna Krupa, Anna K Kiss
Epilobium sp. are commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia and inflammation. It is suggested that a dominating constituent, oenothein B, is responsible for the extracts therapeutic effects. Several bioactivities were established for extracts and oenothein B in various in vitro models, but due to the questionable bioavailability of this dimeric macrocyclic ellagitannin, their significance in the in vivo effects remains unresolved. We have thus focused our attention on a complex comparative investigation of the in vitro and in vivo activities of phytochemically characterized Epilobium angustifolium aqueous extract and oenothein B on prostate cancer cells proliferation...
April 28, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448616/abundance-profiling-of-specific-gene-groups-using-precomputed-gut-metagenomes-yields-novel-biological-hypotheses
#2
Konstantin Yarygin, Alexander Tyakht, Andrey Larin, Elena Kostryukova, Sergei Kolchenko, Vilgelm Bitner, Dmitry Alexeev
The gut microbiota is essentially a multifunctional bioreactor within a human being. The exploration of its enormous metabolic potential provides insights into the mechanisms underlying microbial ecology and interactions with the host. The data obtained using "shotgun" metagenomics capture information about the whole spectrum of microbial functions. However, each new study presenting new sequencing data tends to extract only a little of the information concerning the metabolic potential and often omits specific functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444600/antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern-of-indigenous-lactobacilli-isolated-from-curd-and-human-milk-samples
#3
Chetan Sharma, Sachin Gulati, Nishchal Thakur, Brij Pal Singh, Sanjolly Gupta, Simranpreet Kaur, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Anil Kumar Puniya, Jatinder Pal Singh Gill, Harsh Panwar
The gut microbiota plays a vital role in host well-being and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have gained an overwhelming attention as health promoter. This perception has evolved from traditional dairy products to a money-spinning market of probiotics. The safety of probiotics is coupled to their intended use and LAB may act as pool of antimicrobial resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in food matrix or in gastrointestinal tract, which could be detrimental to host. This study evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB isolated from curd (20) and human milk (11) samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444239/the-influence-of-social-conditions-across-the-life-course-on-the-human-gut-microbiota-a-pilot-project-with-the-wisconsin-longitudinal-study
#4
Pamela Herd, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Kerryann DiLoreto, Karen Jacques, John Stevenson, Federico Rey, Carol Roan
Objective: To test the feasibility of collecting and integrating data on the gut microbiome into one of the most comprehensive longitudinal studies of aging and health, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS). The long-term goal of this integration is to clarify the contribution of social conditions in shaping the composition of the gut microbiota late in life. Research on the microbiome, which is considered to be of parallel importance to human health as the human genome, has been hindered by human studies with nonrandomly selected samples and with limited data on social conditions over the life course...
April 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444190/biological-aging-and-the-human-gut-microbiota
#5
Vincent J Maffei, Sangkyu Kim, Eugene Blanchard, Meng Luo, S Michal Jazwinski, Christopher M Taylor, David A Welsh
The human gastrointestinal microbiota plays a key homeostatic role in normal functioning of physiologic processes commonly undermined by aging. We used a previously validated 34-item frailty index (FI34) to identify changes in gut microbiota community structure associated with biological age of community-dwelling adults. Stool 16S rRNA cDNA libraries from 85 subjects ranging in age (43-79) and FI34 score (0-0.365) were deep sequenced, denoised, and clustered using DADA2. Subject biological age but not chronological age correlated with a decrease in stool microbial diversity...
April 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443284/fecal-short-chain-fatty-acid-variations-by-breastfeeding-status-in-infants-at-4%C3%A2-months-differences-in-relative-versus-absolute-concentrations
#6
Sarah L Bridgman, Meghan B Azad, Catherine J Field, Andrea M Haqq, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, David S Wishart, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Our gut microbiota provide a number of important functions, one of which is the metabolism of dietary fiber and other macronutrients that are undigested by the host. The main products of this fermentation process are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other intermediate metabolites including lactate and succinate. Production of these metabolites is dependent on diet and gut microbiota composition. There is increasing evidence for the role of SCFAs in host physiology and metabolic processes as well as chronic inflammatory conditions such as allergic disease and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442421/distinct-roles-for-dietary-lipids-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infection-on-atherosclerosis-progression-and-the-gut-microbiota
#7
Carolyn D Kramer, Alexandra M Simas, Xianbao He, Robin R Ingalls, Ellen O Weinberg, Caroline Attardo Genco
Mounting evidence in humans supports an etiological role for the microbiota in inflammatory atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by accumulation of inflammatory cells and lipids in vascular tissue. While retention of lipoprotein into the sub-endothelial vascular layer is believed to be the initiating stimulus leading to the development of atherosclerosis, activation of multiple pathways related to vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction sustain the process by stimulating recruitment of leukocytes and immune cells into the sub-endothelial layer...
April 22, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441565/gut-microbiota-small-molecules-modulate-host-cellular-functions
#8
Jacob M Luber, Aleksandar D Kostic
The human gut metagenome was recently discovered to encode vast collections of biosynthetic gene clusters with diverse chemical potential, almost none of which are yet functionally validated. Recent work elucidates common microbiome-derived biosynthetic gene clusters encoding peptide aldehydes that inhibit human proteases.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440278/an-insider-s-perspective-bacteroides-as-a-window-into-the-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Aaron G Wexler, Andrew L Goodman
Over the last decade, our appreciation for the contribution of resident gut microorganisms-the gut microbiota-to human health has surged. However, progress is limited by the sheer diversity and complexity of these microbial communities. Compounding the challenge, the majority of our commensal microorganisms are not close relatives of Escherichia coli or other model organisms and have eluded culturing and manipulation in the laboratory. In this Review, we discuss how over a century of study of the readily cultured, genetically tractable human gut Bacteroides has revealed important insights into the biochemistry, genomics and ecology that make a gut bacterium a gut bacterium...
April 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440064/synthetic-and-analytical-strategies-for-the-quantification-of-phenyl-%C3%AE-valerolactone-conjugated-metabolites-in-human-urine
#10
Nicoletta Brindani, Pedro Mena, Luca Calani, Iris Benzie, Siu-Wai Choi, Furio Brighenti, Franca Zanardi, Claudio Curti, Daniele Del Rio
SCOPE: The contribution of the gut microbiota to the metabolism of catechins and proanthocyanidins remains unclear. Phenyl-γ-valerolactones have been identified as the most representative metabolites of these dietary flavan-3-ols, but their accurate quantification has posed problems because of a lack of appropriate bioanalytical standards. This work aimed at synthesizing a novel set of sulphate- and glucuronide-conjugated phenyl-γ-valerolactones and at developing an analytical platform using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS for their quantification in urine...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439299/substance-p-enhances-lactic-acid-and-tyramine-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-and-promotes-its-cytotoxic-effect-on-intestinal-caco-2-tc7-cells
#11
Kelly Biaggini, Valérie Borrel, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Awa N'Diaye, Arthur Zébré, Maryse Bonnin-Jusserand, Guillaume Duflos, Marc Feuilloley, Djamel Drider, Pierre Déchelotte, Nathalie Connil
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, generally considered as a saprophytic bowel commensal, has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. This bacterium is capable of forming biofilms on various surfaces and its high level of antibiotic resistance contributes to its pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on E. faecalis, of Substance P (SP), an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in the gut and skin...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#12
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439034/teleosts-as-model-organisms-to-understand-host-microbe-interactions
#13
Emily A Lescak, Kathryn C Milligan-Myhre
Host-microbe interactions are influenced by complex host genetics and environment. Studies across animal taxa have aided our understanding of how intestinal microbiota influence vertebrate development, disease, and physiology. However, traditional mammalian studies can be limited by use of isogenic strains, husbandry constraints that result in small sample sizes and limited statistical power, reliance on indirect characterization of gut microbial communities from fecal samples, and concerns whether observations in artificial conditions are actually reflective of what occurs in the wild...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435856/dynamic-microbiome-evolution-in-social-bees
#14
Waldan K Kwong, Luis A Medina, Hauke Koch, Kong-Wah Sing, Eunice Jia Yu Soh, John S Ascher, Rodolfo Jaffé, Nancy A Moran
The highly social (eusocial) corbiculate bees, comprising the honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees, are ubiquitous insect pollinators that fulfill critical roles in ecosystem services and human agriculture. Here, we conduct wide sampling across the phylogeny of these corbiculate bees and reveal a dynamic evolutionary history behind their microbiota, marked by multiple gains and losses of gut associates, the presence of generalist as well as host-specific strains, and patterns of diversification driven, in part, by host ecology (for example, colony size)...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435675/microbiome-effects-on-immunity-health-and-disease-in-the-lung
#15
REVIEW
Shakti D Shukla, Kurtis F Budden, Rachael Neal, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434196/role-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-crosstalk-in-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#16
Haijun Liu, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Weiping Jia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and has become one of the greatest threats to global health. Bariatric surgery was initially designed to achieve weight loss and subsequently was noted to induce improvements or remission of type 2 diabetes. Currently, these bariatric operations such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, the specific mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery has remained largely unknown...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#17
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#18
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425490/urinary-and-fecal-metabonomics-study-of-the-protective-effect-of-chaihu-shu-gan-san-on-antibiotic-induced-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-rats
#19
Meng Yu, Hong-Mei Jia, Chao Zhou, Yong Yang, Li-Li Sun, Zhong-Mei Zou
Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota dysbiosis and their host metabolic phenotype alteration is an important factor in human disease development. A traditional Chinese herbal formula, Chaihu-Shu-Gan-San (CSGS), has been effectively used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate whether CSGS modulates the host metabolic phenotype under the condition of gut microbiota dysbiosis. The metabonomics studies of biochemical changes in urine and feces of antibiotic-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis rats after treatment with CSGS were performed using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#20
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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