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Human and gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341125/gut-microbiota-and-probiotics-novel-immune-system-modulators-in-myasthenia-gravis
#1
REVIEW
Elena Rinaldi, Alessandra Consonni, Elena Guidesi, Marina Elli, Renato Mantegazza, Fulvio Baggi
Gut microorganisms (microbiota) live in symbiosis with the host and influence human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune development and function. The microbiota prevents pathogen infection to the host, and in turn the host provides a niche for survival. The alteration of gut bacteria composition (dysbiosis) could contribute to the development of immune-mediated diseases by influencing the immune system activation and driving the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in order to promote or counteract immune reactions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338841/the-starch-utilization-system-assembles-around-stationary-starch-binding-proteins
#2
Hannah H Tuson, Matthew H Foley, Nicole M Koropatkin, Julie S Biteen
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt) is a prominent member of the human gut microbiota with an extensive capacity for glycan harvest. This bacterium expresses a five-protein complex in the outer membrane, called the starch utilization system (Sus), which binds, degrades, and imports starch into the cell. Sus is a model system for the many glycan-targeting polysaccharide utilization loci found in Bt and other members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Our previous work has shown that SusG, a lipidated amylase in the outer membrane, explores the entire cell surface but diffuses more slowly as it interacts with starch...
January 12, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337072/valorization-of-brewer-s-spent-grain-to-prebiotic-oligosaccharide-production-xylanase-catalyzed-hydrolysis-in-vitro-evaluation-with-probiotic-strains-and-in-a-batch-human-fecal-fermentation-model
#3
Mursalin Sajib, Peter Falck, Roya R R Sardari, Sindhu Mathew, Carl Grey, Eva Nordberg Karlsson, Patrick Adlercreutz
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) accounts for around 85% of the solid by-products from beer production. BSG was first extracted to obtain water-soluble arabinoxylan (AX). Using subsequent alkali extraction (0.5 M KOH) it was possible to dissolve additional AX. In total, about 57% of the AX in BSG was extracted with the purity of 45-55%. After comparison of nine xylanases, Pentopan mono BG, a GH11 enzyme, was selected for hydrolysis of the extracts to oligosaccharides with minimal formation of monosaccharides. Growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (ATCC 15703) was promoted by the enzymatic hydrolysis to arabinoxylooligosaccharides, while Lactobacillus brevis (DSMZ 1264) utilized only unsubstituted xylooligosaccharides...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336192/how-mass-spectrometric-approaches-applied-to-bacterial-identification-have-revolutionized-the-study-of-human-gut-microbiota
#4
Grégory Dubourg, Hervé Chaudet, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult
Describing the human hut gut microbiota is one the most exciting challenges of the 21st century. Currently, high-throughput sequencing methods are considered as the gold standard for this purpose, however, they suffer from several drawbacks, including their inability to detect minority populations. The advent of mass-spectrometric (MS) approaches to identify cultured bacteria in clinical microbiology enabled the creation of the culturomics approach, which aims to establish a comprehensive repertoire of cultured prokaryotes from human specimens using extensive culture conditions...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333864/non-digestible-carbohydrates-in-infant-formula-as-substitution-for-human-milk-oligosaccharide-functions-effects-on-microbiota-and-gut-maturation
#5
Renate Akkerman, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs...
January 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331731/deoxynivalenol-gut-microbiota-and-immunotoxicity-a-potential-approach
#6
REVIEW
Yuxiao Liao, Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is the most frequent mycotoxin in grains and grain products. DON contamination in fodder and food is a serious threat for health, since it impairs the immune and gastrointestinal systems of both human and animals. Gut microbiota seems to play a more and more important part in human and animals' health according to related researches. Previous studies implied some associations among gut microbiota, DON and immune system. For example, DON affects immune system as well as the composition and abundance of gut microbiota, and the latter influences immune system as well...
January 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#7
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326279/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-heart-failure
#8
REVIEW
Takeshi Kitai, W H Wilson Tang
Accumulating evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the gut microbiota and host diseases. In addition to alterations in the gut microbial composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent technological developments of molecular and biochemical analyses enable us to detect and characterize the gut microbiota via assessment and classification of its genomes and corresponding metabolites. These advances have provided emerging data supporting the role of gut microbiota in various physiological activities including host metabolism, neurological development, energy homeostasis, and immune regulation...
January 16, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325896/gut-flora-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-accelerates-endothelial-cell-senescence-and-vascular-aging-through-oxidative-stress
#9
Yilang Ke, Dang Li, Mingming Zhao, Changjie Liu, Jia Liu, Aiping Zeng, Xiaoyun Shi, Si Cheng, Bing Pan, Lemin Zheng, Huashan Hong
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), gut microbiota-dependent metabolites, has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between TMAO and vascular aging. Here, we observed a change in TMAO during the aging process and the effects of TMAO on vascular aging and endothelial cell (EC) senescence. We analyzed age-related plasma levels of TMAO in young adults (18-44 years old), older adults (≥65 years old), and 1-month-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old and 10-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and age-matched senescence-accelerated mouse resistance 1 (SAMR1) models...
January 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#10
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324223/navigating-the-microbiota-seas-triangulation-finds-a-way-forward
#11
Connor E Rosen, Noah W Palm
Identifying members of the intestinal microbiota that play causal roles in shaping human disease susceptibility has been an ongoing challenge. In their recent paper in Nature, Surana and Kasper (2017) present a new strategy that may help "triangulate" causal and therapeutically useful bacteria from the human gut.
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319802/functional-analysis-of-arginine-decarboxylase-gene-spea-of-bacteroides-dorei-by-markerless-gene-deletion
#12
Mikiyasu Sakanaka, Yuta Sugiyama, Misaki Nara, Aya Kitakata, Shin Kurihara
Polyamine concentrations in the intestine are regulated by their biosynthesis by hundreds of gut microbial species and these polyamines are involved in host health and disease. However, polyamine biosynthesis has not been sufficiently analyzed in major members of the human gut microbiota, possibly owing to a lack of gene manipulation systems. In this study, we successfully performed markerless gene deletion in Bacteroides dorei, one of the major members of the human gut microbiota. The combination of a thymidine kinase gene (tdk) deletion mutant and a counter-selection marker tdk, which has been applied in other Bacteroides species, was used for the markerless gene deletion...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315980/probiotics-or-pro-healers-the-role-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-tissue-repair
#14
Jovanka Lukic, Vivien Chen, Ivana Strahinic, Jelena Begovic, Hadar Lev-Tov, Stephen C Davis, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Irena Pastar
Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms, known to exert numerous positive effects on human health, primarily in the battle against pathogens. Probiotics have been associated with improved healing of intestinal ulcers, and healing of infected cutaneous wounds. This manuscript reviews the latest findings on probiotics related to their pro-healing properties on gut epithelium and skin. Proven mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their beneficial effects include direct killing of pathogens, competitive displacement of pathogenic bacteria, reinforcement of epithelial barrier, induction of fibroblasts and epithelial cells' migration and function...
January 8, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315906/antiobesity-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene
#15
REVIEW
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. However, its treatment remains a challenge. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which involves the dysfunction of neuropeptides, hormones, and inflammatory adipokines from the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. An understanding of the mechanisms and signal interactions in the crosstalk between organs and tissue in the coordination of whole-body energy metabolism would be helpful to provide therapeutic and putative approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and related complications...
January 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313897/influence-of-fruit-and-invertebrate-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-wild-white-faced-capuchins-cebus-capucinus
#16
Elizabeth K Mallott, Katherine R Amato, Paul A Garber, Ripan S Malhi
OBJECTIVES: Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313353/simulated-digestion-and-fermentation-in-vitro-by-human-gut-microbiota-of-polysaccharides-from-bee-collected-pollen-of-chinese-wolfberry
#17
Wangting Zhou, Yamei Yan, Jia Mi, Hongcheng Zhang, Lu Lu, Qing Luo, Xiaoying Li, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Youlong Cao
Digestion and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from bee collected pollen of Chinese wolfberry (WBPPS) were investigated in the present study. It was found that WBPPS was mainly consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 0.38: 0.09: 0.17: 0.64: 0.22: 0.67: 0.08: 1.03, respectively. WBPPS was not affected by human saliva. The fraction A (molecular weight 1340 kDa) of WBPPS was not broken down in simulated gastric and small intestinal juices, while the small fraction B (molecular weight 523 kDa) of WBPPS was degraded...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312822/effect-of-dark-sweet-cherry-powder-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-biomarkers-of-gut-health-in-obese-db-db-mice
#18
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Nara N Lage, Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Stephen Talcott, Boon Chew, Scot E Dowd, Jorge R Kawas, Giuliana D Noratto
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311667/ecological-plasticity-in-the-gastrointestinal-microbiomes-of-ethiopian-chlorocebus-monkeys
#19
Pål Trosvik, Eli K Rueness, Eric J de Muinck, Amera Moges, Addisu Mekonnen
Human activities can cause habitat degradation that may alter the types and quality of available food resources and thus influence the microbiomes of wild animal populations. Furthermore, seasonal shifts in food availability may cause adaptive responses in the gut microbiome to meet the need for different metabolic capabilities. Here, we demonstrate local-scale population structure in the gastrointestinal microbiotas of Chlorocebus monkeys, in southern Ethiopia, in response to varying degrees of human encroachment...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311617/scfas-strongly-stimulate-pyy-production-in-human-enteroendocrine-cells
#20
P Larraufie, C Martin-Gallausiaux, N Lapaque, J Dore, F M Gribble, F Reimann, H M Blottiere
Peptide-YY (PYY) and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) play important roles in the regulation of food intake and insulin secretion, and are of translational interest in the field of obesity and diabetes. PYY production is highest in enteroendocrine cells located in the distal intestine, mirroring the sites where high concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by gut microbiota. We show here that propionate and butyrate strongly increased expression of PYY but not GCG in human cell line and intestinal primary culture models...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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