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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634733/dynamic-properties-of-human-tympanic-membrane-after-exposure-to-blast-waves
#1
Warren G Engles, Xuelin Wang, Rong Z Gan
Blast overpressure causes dynamic damage to middle ear components, and tympanic membrane (TM) rupture is the most frequent middle ear injury. However, it is unclear how the blast waves change mechanical properties of the TM and affect sound transmission through the ear. This paper reports the current study on dynamic properties of the TM after exposure to blast waves by using acoustic loading and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). The TM specimens were prepared from human temporal bones following exposures to blast overpressure...
June 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634088/duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-neurocognition-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Emre Bora, Berna Yalincetin, Berna Binnur Akdede, Koksal Alptekin
Neurocognitive impairment is a well-established feature of first-episode psychosis (FEP). Neurotoxicity hypothesis of psychosis suggests that untreated psychosis before the initiation of first effective treatment is associated with loss of acquired cognitive abilities. However, the outcome of the studies investigating the relationship between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and cognitive impairment in FEP remains inconclusive. No previous meta-analysis investigating the relationship between DUP and cognitive impairment in FEP has been published...
June 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631640/concept-map-as-an-adjunct-tool-to-teach-pathology
#3
Shivayogi R Bhusnurmath, Bharti Bhusnurmath, Shefali Goyal, Safina Hafeez, Ashraf Abugroun, John Okpe
CONTEXT: Concept maps (CMs) were tested for their effectiveness in teaching pathology in a conceptual manner. AIMS: To correlate the quality of CMs drawn by students with their performance on tests involving clinical problem-solving. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Students were taught "how, why, and so what" about CMs at the start of the course. Each student drew one CM every week and a minimum of ten throughout the course and submitted them for evaluation and corrections...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630519/strategies-for-improving-learner-metacognition-in-health-professional-education
#4
REVIEW
Melissa S Medina, Ashley N Castleberry, Adam M Persky
Metacognition is an essential skill in critical thinking and self-regulated, lifelong learning. It is important for learners to have skills in metacognition because they are used to monitor and regulate reasoning, comprehension, and problem-solving, which are fundamental components/outcomes of pharmacy curricula. Instructors can help learners develop metacognitive skills within the classroom and experiential setting by carefully designing learning activities within courses and the curriculum. These skills are developed through intentional questioning, modeling techniques, and reflection...
May 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630458/the-value-of-instability-an-investigation-of-intra-subject-variability-in-brain-activity-among-obese-adolescent-girls
#5
L O Bauer, R J Houston
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the value of intra-subject variability (ISV) as a metric for revealing differences in cognition and brain activation associated with an obese versus lean body mass. METHODS: Ninety-six adolescents with a lean body mass (BMI %-ile=5-85), and 92 adolescents with an obese body mass (BMI %-ile >=95), performed two tasks (Stroop and Go/NoGo) challenging response inhibition skills. The standard deviations and averages of their reaction time and P300 electroencephalographic responses to task stimuli were computed across trials...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629417/use-of-mobile-and-cordless-phones-and-change-in-cognitive-function-a-prospective-cohort-analysis-of-australian-primary-school-children
#6
Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Geza Benke, Catherine L Smith, Mary Redmayne, Christina Dimitriadis, Anna Dalecki, Skye Macleod, Malcolm R Sim, Rodney J Croft, Rory Wolfe, Jordy Kaufman, Michael J Abramson
BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have suggested an association between children's use of mobile phones (MPs)/cordless phones (CPs) and development of cognitive function. We evaluated possible longitudinal associations between the use of MPs and CPs in a cohort of primary school children and effects on their cognitive function. METHODS: Data on children's socio-demographics, use of MPs and CPs, and cognitive function were collected at baseline (2010-2012) and follow-up (2012-2013)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627983/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-a-problem-solving-tool-in-differentiation-of-cerebellopontine-angle-schwannomas-and-meningiomas
#7
Atul Mishra, Bejoy Thomas, T R Kapilamoorthy
Background and purpose Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle can be differentiated by the presence of foci of blooming on susceptibility weighted imaging. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, magnetic resonance imaging with susceptibility weighted imaging sequence in addition to other routine sequences was done in 73 patients. All the cases were studied for the presence of foci of blooming within the tumor on susceptibility weighted imaging. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis in all cases...
June 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626443/eye-movements-reveal-optimal-strategies-for-analogical-reasoning
#8
Michael S Vendetti, Ariel Starr, Elizabeth L Johnson, Kiana Modavi, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning refers to the process of drawing inferences on the basis of the relational similarity between two domains. Although this complex cognitive ability has been the focus of inquiry for many years, most models rely on measures that cannot capture individuals' thought processes moment by moment. In the present study, we used participants' eye movements to investigate reasoning strategies in real time while solving visual propositional analogy problems (A:B::C:D). We included both a semantic and a perceptual lure on every trial to determine how these types of distracting information influence reasoning strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626442/influence-of-cognitive-functioning-on-age-related-performance-declines-in-visuospatial-sequence-learning
#9
Melanie Krüger, Mark R Hinder, Rohan Puri, Jeffery J Summers
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how age-related performance differences in a visuospatial sequence learning task relate to age-related declines in cognitive functioning. Method: Cognitive functioning of 18 younger and 18 older participants was assessed using a standardized test battery. Participants then undertook a perceptual visuospatial sequence learning task. Various relationships between sequence learning and participants' cognitive functioning were examined through correlation and factor analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626440/executive-function-in-adolescence-associations-with-child-and-family-risk-factors-and-self-regulation-in-early-childhood
#10
Donna Berthelsen, Nicole Hayes, Sonia L J White, Kate E Williams
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625495/assessing-the-effect-of-an-intensive-2-week-surgical-training-and-innovation-program-for-high-school-students
#11
Brian Labadie, Roshan M Patel, Jessica Gandy Labadie, Christina Hwang, Zhamshid Okhunov, Jaime Landman
OBJECTIVE: The summer surgery program (SSP) was founded in 2012 as an educational program for students at the critical juncture between high school and college to engender interest in medicine, science, and innovation. This program has a distinct emphasis on innovation and problem solving based on real-life operative challenges identified by students during surgical observation in the operating room. The effect of the SSP regarding postsecondary education and career goals was evaluated by participants using a follow-up questionnaire...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625355/meta-reasoning-monitoring-and-control-of-thinking-and-reasoning
#12
REVIEW
Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A Thompson
Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving...
June 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619881/problem-solving-strategy-can-help-prevent-depression-in-low-income-mothers
#13
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618848/the-stroke-caregiving-trajectory-in-relation-to-caregiver-depressive-symptoms-burden-and-intervention-outcomes
#14
Rachel Graf, Jennifer LeLaurin, Magda Schmitzberger, I Magaly Freytes, Tatiana Orozco, Stuti Dang, Constance R Uphold
BACKGROUND: Caregiver depression and burden have a detrimental effect on stroke survivors' rehabilitation and are contributors to stroke survivors' hospital readmission and institutionalization. The stroke caregiving trajectory is unique compared to other illnesses, and the effect of length of caregiving on stroke caregiver outcomes is poorly understood. Interventions can improve caregiver outcomes, but the optimal timing of these interventions is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the relationship between: (1) length of caregiving and stroke caregiver depressive symptoms and burden, and (2) length of caregiving and amount of change in depressive symptoms and burden following the Resources and Education for Stroke Caregivers' Understanding and Empowerment (RESCUE) intervention - an online and telephone problem-solving, education, and support intervention...
June 15, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616875/stakeholders-qualitative-perspectives-of-effective-telepractice-pedagogy-in-speech-language-pathology
#15
Megan S Overby
BACKGROUND: Academic programmes in speech-language pathology are increasingly providing telehealth/telepractice clinical education to students. Despite this growth, there is little information describing effective ways to teach it. AIMS: The current exploratory study analyzed the perceptions of speech-language pathology/therapy (SLP/SLT) faculty, student and SLP/SLT clinicians to ascertain effective pedagogical approaches for telepractice service delivery, rank the relative importance of telepractice skills and knowledge competencies, and define any pedagogical challenges to teaching them...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616424/evaluation-of-1-year-old-children-development-in-isfahan-city-and-its-effective-factors-using-ages-and-stages-questionnaire-in-2014
#16
Mehri Rejali, Soheila Pahlavni, Akbar Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Attention to the development of children as the future generation that leads to the upbringing of productive human resources is an important subject. Development has dimensions that a child should acquire the skills related to them in proper age. Otherwise, he may be affected by developmental delays. There are different factors influencing children's developmental delays and this study is carried out to evaluate the developmental conditions of 1-year-old children in the Isfahan and its effective factors...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614554/efficacy-of-a-maternal-depression-prevention-strategy-in-head-start-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Michael Silverstein, Yaminette Diaz-Linhart, Howard Cabral, William Beardslee, Mark Hegel, Winta Haile, Jenna Sander, Gregory Patts, Emily Feinberg
Importance: Low-income and minority mothers experience a disproportionate incidence of depression and lack access to treatment services. Development of prevention strategies in accessible community-based venues is a potentially important public health strategy. Objective: To determine the efficacy of a depression prevention strategy embedded in Head Start. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was performed from February 15, 2011, through May 9, 2016, at 6 Head Start agencies serving families at or below the federal poverty level...
June 14, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613951/the-fantasy-questionnaire-a-measure-to-assess-creative-and-imaginative-fantasy
#18
David Weibel, Corinna S Martarelli, Diego Häberli, Fred W Mast
This article reports the construction and validation of a comprehensive self-report measure of fantasy. Unlike previous measures of fantasy, which focus on psychopathology, we conceive fantasy as a trait with positive connotation. Principal component analysis (N = 318) and confirmatory factor analyses (N = 345) were conducted using 2 sociodemographically diverse samples. The results provided support for a 2-factor conceptualization of the construct, with the dimensions imaginative fantasy and creative fantasy...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612513/the-sequential-intercept-model-and-juvenile-justice-review-and-prospectus
#19
Kirk Heilbrun, Naomi E S Goldstein, David DeMatteo, Rebecca Newsham, Elizabeth Gale-Bentz, Lindsay Cole, Shelby Arnold
Behavioral health needs in justice-involved adolescents are an increasing concern, as it has been estimated that two-thirds of youths in the juvenile justice system now meet the criteria for one or more psychological disorders. This article describes the application of the Sequential Intercept Model (SIM), developed to describe five "points of interception" from standard prosecution into rehabilitation-oriented alternatives for adults (Munetz & Griffin, 2006), to juvenile justice. The five SIM intercepts are: (1) first contact with law enforcement or emergency services; (2) initial hearings and detention following arrest; (3) jails and courts (including problem-solving courts); (4) re-entry from jails, prisons and forensic hospitals; and (5) community corrections and community support, including probation and parole...
June 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611702/search-and-coherence-building-in-intuition-and-insight-problem-solving
#20
Michael Öllinger, Albrecht von Müller
Coherence-building is a key concept for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight problem solving. There are several accounts that address certain aspects of coherence-building. However, there is still no proper framework defining the general principles of coherence-building. We propose a four-stage model of coherence-building. The first stage starts with spreading activation restricted by constraints. This dynamic is a well-defined rule based process. The second stage is characterized by detecting a coherent state...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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