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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933030/the-association-of-drd2-with-insight-problem-solving
#1
Shun Zhang, Jinghuan Zhang
Although the insight phenomenon has attracted great attention from psychologists, it is still largely unknown whether its variation in well-functioning human adults has a genetic basis. Several lines of evidence suggest that genes involved in dopamine (DA) transmission might be potential candidates. The present study explored for the first time the association of dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) with insight problem solving. Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering DRD2 were genotyped in 425 unrelated healthy Chinese undergraduates, and were further tested for association with insight problem solving...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933004/policy-implications-of-achievement-testing-using-multilevel-models-the-case-of-brazilian-elementary-schools
#2
Igor G Menezes, Victor R Duran, Euclides J Mendonça Filho, Tainã J Veloso, Stella M S Sarmento, Christine L Paget, Kai Ruggeri
Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the twentieth century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB) that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension) and Mathematics (problem solving), as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932853/variations-in-cognitive-abilities-across-the-life-course-cross-sectional-evidence-from-understanding-society-the-uk-household-longitudinal-study
#3
Elise Whitley, Ian J Deary, Stuart J Ritchie, G David Batty, Meena Kumari, Michaela Benzeval
BACKGROUND: Populations worldwide are aging. Cognitive decline is an important precursor of dementia, illness and death and, even within the normal range, is associated with poorer performance on everyday tasks. However, the impact of age on cognitive function does not always receive the attention it deserves. METHODS: We have explored cross-sectional associations of age with five cognitive tests (word recall, verbal fluency, subtraction, number sequence, and numerical problem solving) in a large representative sample of over 40,000 men and women aged 16 to 100 living in the UK...
November 2016: Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929315/pathways-from-maternal-effortful-control-to-child-self-regulation-the-role-of-maternal-emotional-support
#4
Selin Zeytinoglu, Susan D Calkins, Margaret M Swingler, Esther M Leerkes
This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928748/pupillary-response-to-complex-interdependent-tasks-a-cognitive-load-theory-perspective
#5
Ritayan Mitra, Karen S McNeal, Howard D Bondell
Pupil dilation is known to indicate cognitive load. In this study, we looked at the average pupillary responses of a cohort of 29 undergraduate students during graphical problem solving. Three questions were asked, based on the same graphical input. The questions were interdependent and comprised multiple steps. We propose a novel way of analyzing pupillometry data for such tasks on the basis of eye fixations, a commonly used eyetracking parameter. We found that pupil diameter increased during the solution process...
December 7, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928733/developing-approaches-to-competence-away-from-the-metaphor-of-competence-as-a-hidden-object
#6
Patrick Byers
Assessments of linguistic ability amongst inner city African American children in the 1960's and cross-cultural assessments of problem solving skills amongst participants without formal education in several contexts around the world have both demonstrated the need for investigators to distinguish the possible existence of some form of competency from the matter of whether evidence of that competency can be elicited with a particular assessment tool. In both of the previously mentioned cases, the evidence suggests that participants had the competencies in question and failed to demonstrate them (at least partially) as a result of the nature of the assessment context...
December 7, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928183/ismp-medication-error-report-analysis-reporting-and-second-order-problem-solving-can-turn-short-term-fixes-into-long-term-remedies-fifty-hospital-employees-given-insulin-instead-of-influenza-vaccine-reminder-eliminating-ratio-expressions-strength-confusion
#7
Michael R Cohen, Judy L Smetzer
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural-safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were receivedthrough the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program...
November 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926793/information-seeking-when-problem-solving-perspectives-of-public-health-professionals
#8
Kristine Newman, Maureen Dobbins, Jennifer Yost, Donna Ciliska
OBJECTIVES: Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings...
December 7, 2016: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924290/data-on-multicultural-education-and-diagnostic-information-profiling-culture-learning-styles-and-creativity
#9
Andino Maseleno, Glenn Hardaker, Noraisikin Sabani, Nabilah Suhaili
This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923730/are-neurocognitive-factors-associated-with-repetition-of-self-harm-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Angharad N de Cates, Karen Rees, Fabrice Jollant, Benjamin Perry, Karina Bennett, Katie Joyce, Eimear Leyden, Catherine Harmer, Keith Hawton, Kees van Heeringen, Matthew R Broome
BACKGROUND: Prediction of self-harm is limited clinically. Early identification of individuals likely to repeat self-harm could improve outcomes and reduce suicide risk. Various neurocognitive deficits have been found in people who self-harm, but the ability of these to predict repetition has yet to be established AIMS: Identify neurocognitive factors that may predict repetition of self-harm. METHODS: Systematic narrative review of English language publications assessing neurocognitive functioning and self-harm repetition, searching multiple databases from inception to March 2015...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922780/community-matrons-as-problem-solvers-for-people-living-with-multi-co-morbid-disease
#11
Sue Randall, Colin Thunhurst, Gill Furze
Working with patients in their own homes gives community matrons an advantage of seeing patients in the context of their everyday lives. This allows comprehensive assessment of need with an aim of promoting health or promoting stability for people living with chronic disease. Complex issues are resolved through problem-solving and this can result in patients being maintained in their own homes and thus in reduced unplanned hospitalisation. Data were collected from participants using semi-structured interviews and audio diaries...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922556/using-the-nursing-process-to-identify-and-treat-angioedema-a-case-study
#12
Tracey A Hotta
The nursing process is the essential core of practice for registered nurses, independent of what field of nursing you have chosen. You learn it in nursing school and use it until you are no longer practicing. It is designed to train nurses how to develop a nursing care plan through critical thinking. Over the years it becomes a routine way of problem solving, but it is sometimes good to go back to the basics to remember the ground work. The focus of this article is to review the steps of the nursing process when faced with a complication, using our critical thinking skills...
October 2016: Plastic Surgical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921218/from-problem-solving-to-problem-definition-scrutinizing-the-complex-nature-of-clinical-practice
#13
Sayra Cristancho, Lorelei Lingard, Glenn Regehr
In medical education, we have tended to present problems as being singular, stable, and solvable. Problem solving has, therefore, drawn much of medical education researchers' attention. This focus has been important but it is limited in terms of preparing clinicians to deal with the complexity of the 21st century healthcare system in which they will provide team-based care for patients with complex medical illness. In this paper, we use the Soft Systems Engineering principles to introduce the idea that in complex, team-based situations, problems usually involve divergent views and evolve with multiple solution iterations...
December 5, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918855/best-practice-for-community-based-management-of-postnatal-depression-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#14
Sara Dixon, Jaya A R Dantas
Postnatal depression (PND) is a common disorder that can be profoundly disabling for affected mothers and their infants. We reviewed published articles on the community-based management of postnatal depression (PND) in developing countries. Our aim was to propose recommendations to help women with PND. Various databases were searched for English articles from 2000 - 2014. Twelve articles met the selection criteria. We found that interventions involving cognitive behavioural therapy, infant stimulation, and problem solving can improve outcomes for PND...
December 5, 2016: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917688/congenital-thumb-anomalies-and-the-consequences-for-daily-life-patients-long-term-experience-after-corrective-surgery-a-qualitative-study
#15
I K Carlsson, L B Dahlin, H-E Rosberg
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to explore patients' long-term experience of a congenital hand problem, and the consequences for daily life. METHOD: Fifteen participants with a median age 24 years (17-55 years), born with thumb hypoplasia/aplasia or thumb duplication were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Although the mobility and strength in the thumb/hand(s) varied within the group, hand function was generally described as good...
December 5, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917564/mind-the-gap-in-clinical-trials-a-participatory-action-analysis-with-citizen-collaborators
#16
Amy Price, Su May Liew, Jo Kirkpatrick, Jazmin Price, Taylor Lopreto, Yasmin Nelken
What are the strengths, gaps, expectations, and barriers to research engagement in clinical trials as communicated through social media? Clinical trials test treatments to provide reliable information for safety and effectiveness. Trials are building blocks in which what is learned in earlier research can be used to improve treatments, compare alternatives, and improve quality of life. For 20 years, the percentages of clinical trials volunteers have decreased whereas the costs of running clinical trials have multiplied...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917517/student-evaluation-team-focus-groups-increase-students-satisfaction-with-the-overall-course-evaluation-process
#17
Katharina Brandl, Jess Mandel, Babbi Winegarden
CONTEXT: Most medical schools use online systems to gather student feedback on the quality of their educational programmes and services. Online data may be limiting, however, as the course directors cannot question the students about written comments, nor can students engage in mutual problem-solving dialogue with course directors. We describe the implementation of a student evaluation team (SET) process to permit course directors and students to gather shortly after courses end to engage in feedback and problem solving regarding the course and course elements...
December 5, 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917141/neural-basis-of-working-memory-enhancement-after-acute-aerobic-exercise-fmri-study-of-preadolescent-children
#18
Ai-Guo Chen, Li-Na Zhu, Jun Yan, Heng-Chan Yin
Working memory lies at the core of cognitive function and plays a crucial role in children's learning, reasoning, problem solving, and intellectual activity. Behavioral findings have suggested that acute aerobic exercise improves children's working memory; however, there is still very little knowledge about whether a single session of aerobic exercise can alter working memory's brain activation patterns, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Therefore, we investigated the effect of acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on working memory and its brain activation patterns in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on working memory in these children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916371/errors-in-bladder-catheterization-are-residents-ready-for-complex-scenarios
#19
Bridget R O'Connell-Long, Rebecca D Ray, Jay N Nathwani, Rebekah M Fiers, Carla M Pugh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether junior surgical residents had successfully mastered bladder catheterization. Our hypothesis was that surgical residents would be overly confident in their abilities and underestimate the potential for case complexity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PGY 2-4 surgery residents (n = 44) were given 15 min. to complete three of four bladder catheterization simulations. Participants reported their mastery by rating confidence using a 5-point Likert scale...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914794/modeling-the-secondary-drying-stage-of-freeze-drying-development-and-validation-of-an-excel-based-model
#20
Ekneet K Sahni, Michael J Pikal
Although several mathematical models of primary drying have been developed over the years, with significant impact on the efficiency of process design, models of secondary drying have been confined to highly complex models. The simple-to-use Excel-based model developed here is, in essence, a series of steady state calculations of heat and mass transfer in the 2 halves of the dry layer where drying time is divided into a large number of time steps, where in each time step steady state conditions prevail. Water desorption isotherm and mass transfer coefficient data are required...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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