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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820675/on-the-role-of-situational-stressors-in-the-disruption-of-global-neural-network-stability-during-problem-solving
#1
Mengting Liu, Chad E Forbes, Rachel C Amey
When individuals are placed in stressful situations, they are likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive capacity over and above situational demands. Despite this, individuals may still persevere and ultimately succeed in these situations. Little is known, however, about neural network properties that instantiate success or failure in both neutral and stressful situations, particularly with respect to regions integral for problem-solving processes that are necessary for optimal performance on more complex tasks...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#2
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816629/a-cascade-model-of-mentorship-for-frontline-health-workers-in-rural-health-facilities-in-eastern-uganda-processes-achievements-and-lessons
#3
Judith Ajeani, Richard Mangwi Ayiasi, Moses Tetui, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Gertrude Namazzi, Ronald Muhumuza Kananura, Suzanne Namusoke Kiwanuka, Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya
BACKGROUND: There is increasing demand for trainers to shift from traditional didactic training to innovative approaches that are more results-oriented. Mentorship is one such approach that could bridge the clinical knowledge gap among health workers. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the experiences of an attempt to improve health-worker performance in maternal and newborn health in three rural districts through a mentoring process using the cascade model. The paper further highlights achievements and lessons learnt during implementation of the cascade model...
August 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815260/-improving-the-teaching-quality-by-multiple-tools-and-technology-in-oral-histopathology-experimental-course
#4
Zhen Tian, Li-Zhen Wang, Yu-Hua Hu, Chun-Ye Zhang, Jiang Li
PURPOSES: Oral histopathology is a course which needs to be combined with theory and practice closely. Experimental course plays an important role in teaching oral histopathology. Here, we aim to explore a series of effective measures to improve the teaching quality of experimental course and tried to train observation, thinking, analysis and problem solving skills of dental students. METHODS: We re-edited and updated the experimental textbook "guidelines of experimental course of oral histopathology", and published the reference book for experimental course--"color pocket atlas of oral histopathology: experiment and diadactic teaching"...
April 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813187/twelve-steps-two-factors-coping-strategies-moderate-the-association-between-craving-and-daily-12-step-use-in-a-college-recovery-community
#5
Richard P Wiebe, Amanda M Griffin, Yao Zheng, Kitty S Harris, H Harrington Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Affiliating with 12-step groups appears to reduce relapse risk. By relying on between-person designs, extant research has been unable to examine daily mechanisms through which 12-step group affiliation contributes to recovery. OBJECTIVES: To examine the daily use and factor structure of the 12 steps and intrapersonal predictors and moderators of 12-step use. To determine whether the 12 steps were used in response to daily craving and, if so, which steps and in what contexts...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812985/interventions-to-support-integrated-psychological-care-and-holistic-health-outcomes-in-paediatrics
#6
REVIEW
Roz Shafran, Sophie D Bennett, Mhairi McKenzie Smith
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a 'holistic' and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs. Such holistic approaches are characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the symptoms of a disease. Holistic approaches can impact on mental and physical health and are cost-effective. Several psychological interventions have demonstrated efficacy in improving holistic health outcomes, for example Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Behavioural Therapies and Problem Solving Therapies...
August 16, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812836/understanding-internal-accountability-in-nigeria-s-routine-immunization-system-perspectives-from-government-officials-at-the-national-state-and-local-levels
#7
Daniel J Erchick, Asha S George, Chukwunonso Umeh, Chizoba Wonodi
BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage in Nigeria has remained low, and studies have identified a lack of accountability as a barrier to high performance in the immunization system. Accountability lies at the heart of various health systems strengthening efforts recently launched in Nigeria, including those related to immunization. Our aim was to understand the views of health officials on the accountability challenges hindering immunization service delivery at various levels of government...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806606/imbalance-between-abstract-and-concrete-repetitive-thinking-modes-in-schizophrenia
#8
Pierre Maurage, Pierre Philippot, Delphine Grynberg, Dominique Leleux, Benoît Delatte, Camille Mangelinckx, Jan-Baptist Belge, Eric Constant
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive thoughts can be divided in two modes: abstract/analytic (decontextualized and dysfunctional) and concrete/experiential (problem-focused and adaptive). They constitute a transdiagnostic process involved in many psychopathological states but have received little attention in schizophrenia, as earlier studies only indexed increased ruminations (related to dysfunctional repetitive thoughts) without jointly exploring both modes. This study explored the two repetitive thinking modes, beyond ruminations, to determine their imbalance in schizophrenia...
July 1, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806582/beck-s-cognitive-theory-and-the-response-style-theory-of-depression-in-adolescents-with-and-without-mild-to-borderline-intellectual-disability
#9
Martine M Weeland, Karin S Nijhof, R Otten, Ignace P R Vermaes, Jan K Buitelaar
AIM: This study tests the validity of Beck's cognitive theory and Nolen-Hoeksema's response style theory of depression in adolescents with and without MBID. METHODS: The relationship between negative cognitive errors (Beck), response styles (Nolen-Hoeksema) and depressive symptoms was examined in 135 adolescents using linear regression. RESULTS: The cognitive error 'underestimation of the ability to cope' was more prevalent among adolescents with MBID than among adolescents with average intelligence...
August 11, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804939/assessing-the-application-of-knowledge-in-clinical-problem-solving-the-structured-professional-reasoning-exercise
#10
M P Escudier, M J Woolford, J A Tricio
INTRODUCTION: Clinical reasoning is a fundamental and core clinical competence of healthcare professionals. The study aimed to investigate the utility of the Structured Professional Reasoning Exercise (SPRE), a new competence assessment method designed to measure dental students' clinical reasoning in simulated scenarios, covering the clinical areas of Oral Disease, Primary Dental Care and Restorative Dentistry, Child Dental Health and Dental Practice and Clinical Governance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 313 year-5 students sat for the assessment...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803226/nursing-students-and-faculty-members-experiences-of-comfort-during-transition-to-context-based-learning
#11
Vivian Puplampu
There is evidence supporting student-centered learning (SCL) as an effective pedagogy to prepare professionals to work in the evolving health care system of the twenty-first century. SCL has many benefits, among them that it helps students to learn to work in teams and develop problem-solving, critical thinking and communication skills. The focus on the student means that the teacher's power is decreased. This, along with openness of the approach, can make the transition to SCL a challenge. This study used an exploratory descriptive qualitative design to explore how comfortable nursing students and faculty members were in a context-based learning (CBL) program, a version of SCL...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803192/early-life-secondhand-smoke-exposure-assessed-by-hair-nicotine-biomarker-may-reduce-children-s-neurodevelopment-at-2years-of-age
#12
Nur Nadia Mohamed, See Ling Loy, Poh Ying Lim, Abdullah Al Mamun, Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) can affect fetal brain development as well as subsequent neurodevelopment. This study aimed to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure with children's neurodevelopment at 2years of age. Among 107 mother-child pairs from a Malaysia prospective cohort, prenatal and postnatal SHS exposure was determined based on maternal and child hair nicotine concentrations. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal levels of nicotine in maternal and children's' hair with children's neurodevelopment...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799688/developing-a-program-for-enhancing-youth-hiv-treatment-adherence-and-risk-reduction
#13
Warunee Fongkaew, Warawan Udomkhamsuk, Nongkran Viseskul, Marisa Guptaruk
Youth living with HIV face difficult and challenging situations that decrease their adherence to antiretroviral medications. In this study, we developed a pilot program to enhance HIV treatment adherence and risk reduction among youth living with HIV based on collaboration with a community hospital involving a multi-disciplinary healthcare team. Participants were 25 youth living with HIV/AIDS, 18 caregivers, and 12 healthcare providers. The action research process comprised a preliminary stage and four phases of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation...
August 11, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798009/preliminary-evaluation-of-a-brief-web-and-mobile-phone-intervention-for-men-with-depression-men-s-positive-coping-strategies-and-associated-depression-resilience-and-work-and-social-functioning
#14
Andrea Susan Fogarty, Judy Proudfoot, Erin Louise Whittle, Janine Clarke, Michael J Player, Helen Christensen, Kay Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified that men experiencing depression do not always access appropriate health services. Web-based interventions represent an alternative treatment option for men, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, and have potential for wide dissemination. However, men do not access Web-based programs at the same rate as women. Programs with content explicitly tailored to men's mental health needs are required. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the applicability of Man Central, a new Web and mobile phone intervention for men with depression...
August 10, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796973/the-role-of-social-cue-utilization-and-closing-the-loop-communication-in-the-performance-of-ad-hoc-dyads
#15
Daniel J Yee, Mark W Wiggins, Ben J Searle
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether social cue utilization impacts the performance of ad hoc dyads through its relationship with closing the loop, a communication process whereby team members respond more frequently to initiating statements made by others. BACKGROUND: There lacks unequivocal experimental evidence for any single cognitive-based process that might predict the performance of ad hoc teams. METHOD: Using a quasi-experimental design, 80 participants were classified into 40 dyads based on their levels of social cue utilization and attempted a team problem-solving task...
September 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796067/factors-associated-with-bystander-behaviors-of-korean-youth-in-school-bullying-situations-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Seung Ae Yang, Dong Hee Kim
The behaviors of bystanders can have important effects on their peers. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial and contextual factors associated with 3 types of bystander behavior (bully followers, outsiders, and defenders of victims) among Korean youth. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among 416 7th and 8th-grade students from 1 middle school in Korea. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Korean version of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and measurements of relationships with friends and teachers, empathy, concerns about being bullied, attitudes toward bullying, and bystander behaviors were all used in the assessment...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795831/problem-solving-therapy-for-suicide-prevention-in-veterans-with-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Sean M Barnes, Lindsey L Monteith, Georgia R Gerard, Adam S Hoffberg, Beeta Y Homaifar, Lisa A Brenner
OBJECTIVE: Develop and test the acceptability and feasibility of Problem-Solving Therapy for Suicide Prevention (PST-SP), a group intervention aimed at improving problem solving and preventing suicide, among Veterans with hopelessness and moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH METHOD: Following treatment development, 16 U.S. Veterans with moderate-to-severe TBI and a Beck Hopelessness Scale score ≥4 participated in an acceptability and feasibility pilot study of PST-SP at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
August 10, 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795061/a-multi-agent-based-approach-for-prehospital-emergency-management
#18
Reza Safdari, Jaleh Shoshtarian Malak, Niloofar Mohammadzadeh, Azimeh Danesh Shahraki
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate an architecture to automate the prehospital emergency process to categorize the specialized care according to the situation at the right time for reducing the patient mortality and morbidity. METHODS: Prehospital emergency process were analyzed using existing prehospital management systems, frameworks and the extracted process were modeled using sequence diagram in Rational Rose software. System main agents were identified and modeled via component diagram, considering the main system actors and by logically dividing business functionalities, finally the conceptual architecture for prehospital emergency management was proposed...
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794621/counseling-for-health-behavior-change-in-people-with-copd-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Marie T Williams, Tanja W Effing, Catherine Paquet, Carole A Gibbs, Hayley Lewthwaite, Lok Sze Katrina Li, Anna C Phillips, Kylie N Johnston
Counseling has been suggested as a promising approach for facilitating changes in health behavior. The aim of this systematic review of counseling interventions for people with COPD was to describe: 1) counseling definitions, 2) targeted health behaviors, 3) counseling techniques and 4) whether commonalities in counseling techniques were associated with improved health behaviors. Ten databases were searched for original randomized controlled trials which included adults with COPD, used the term "counseling" as a sole or component of a multifaceted intervention and were published in the previous 10 years...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792612/problems-and-solutions-for-patients-with-fibromyalgia-building-new-helping-relationships
#20
Pilar Montesó-Curto, Montserrat García-Martinez, Sara Romaguera, María Luisa Mateu, María Teresa Cubí-Guillén, Lidia Sarrió-Colas, Anna Núria Llàdser, Stephen Bradley, María Luisa Panisello-Chavarria
AIM: To identify the main biological, psychological and sociological problems and potential solutions for patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia by use of Group Problem-Solving Therapy. BACKGROUND: Group Problem-Solving Therapy is a technique for identifying and solving problems, increasing assertiveness, self-esteem and eliminating negative thoughts. DESIGN: Qualitative phenomenological interpretive design: Group Problem-Solving Therapy sessions conducted with patients suffering fibromyalgia were studied; participants recruited via the Rheumatology Department at a general hospital and associations in Catalonia, Spain with sessions conducted in nearby university setting...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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