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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922186/characterization-of-the-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-il-1%C3%AE-on-butyrate-oxidation-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#1
Megan Johnstone, Natalie Bennett, Cynthia Standifer, Alexis Smith, Anna Han, Ahmed Bettaieb, Jay Whelan, Dallas R Donohoe
Cancer, in part, is driven, by alterations in cellular metabolism that promote cell survival and cell proliferation. Identifying factors that influence this shift in cellular metabolism in cancer cells is important. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been reported to be elevated in colorectal cancer patients. While much is known towards the effect of dietary nutrients on regulating inflammation and the inflammatory response, which includes cytokines such as IL-1β, far less is understood how cytokines impact nutrient fate to alter cancer cell metabolism...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920956/grassland-productivity-in-response-to-nutrient-additions-and-herbivory-is-scale-dependent
#2
Erica A H Smithwick, Douglas C Baldwin, Kusum J Naithani
Vegetation response to nutrient addition can vary across space, yet studies that explicitly incorporate spatial pattern into experimental approaches are rare. To explore whether there are unique spatial scales (grains) at which grass response to nutrients and herbivory is best expressed, we imposed a large (∼3.75 ha) experiment in a South African coastal grassland ecosystem. In two of six 60 × 60 m grassland plots, we imposed a scaled sampling design in which fertilizer was added in replicated sub-plots (1 × 1 m, 2 × 2 m, and 4 × 4 m)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920781/inoculation-of-schizolobium-parahyba-with-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-increases-wood-yield-under-field-conditions
#3
Martha V T Cely, Marco A Siviero, Janaina Emiliano, Flávia R Spago, Vanessa F Freitas, André R Barazetti, Erika T Goya, Gustavo de Souza Lamberti, Igor M O Dos Santos, Admilton G De Oliveira, Galdino Andrade
Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920763/microbial-activity-response-to-solar-radiation-across-contrasting-environmental-conditions-in-salar-de-huasco-northern-chilean-altiplano
#4
Klaudia L Hernández, Beatriz Yannicelli, Lasse M Olsen, Cristina Dorador, Eduardo J Menschel, Verónica Molina, Francisco Remonsellez, Martha B Hengst, Wade H Jeffrey
In high altitude environments, extreme levels of solar radiation and important differences of ionic concentrations over narrow spatial scales may modulate microbial activity. In Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude wetland in the Andean mountains, the high diversity of microbial communities has been characterized and associated with strong environmental variability. Communities that differed in light history and environmental conditions, such as nutrient concentrations and salinity from different spatial locations, were assessed for bacterial secondary production (BSP, (3)H-leucine incorporation) response from short-term exposures to solar radiation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#5
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920374/urban-driven-phenotypic-changes-empirical-observations-and-theoretical-implications-for-eco-evolutionary-feedback
#6
REVIEW
Marina Alberti, John Marzluff, Victoria M Hunt
Emerging evidence that cities drive micro-evolution raises the question of whether rapid urbanization of Earth might impact ecosystems by causing systemic changes in functional traits that regulate urban ecosystems' productivity and stability. Intraspecific trait variation-variation in organisms' morphological, physiological or behavioural characteristics stemming from genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity-has significant implications for ecological functions such as nutrient cycling and primary productivity...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920202/the-translational-significance-of-the-neurovascular-unit-a-mini-review
#7
Heather L McConnell, Cymon N Kersch, Randall L Woltjer, Edward A Neuwelt
The mammalian brain is supplied with blood by specialized vasculature that is structurally and functionally distinct from that of the periphery. A defining feature of this vasculature is a physical blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB separates blood components from the brain microenvironment, regulating the entry and exit of ions, nutrients, macromolecules, and energy metabolites. Over the last two decades, physiological studies of cerebral blood flow dynamics have demonstrated that substantial intercellular communication occurs between cells of the vasculature and the neurons and glia that abut the vasculature...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920198/effects-of-breeder-age-strain-and-eggshell-temperature-on-nutrient-metabolism-of-broiler-embryos
#8
A Nangsuay, R Meijerhof, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
Breeder age and broiler strain influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen through yolk size and eggshell conductance, and the effects of these egg characteristics on nutrient metabolism might be influenced by eggshell temperature (EST). This study aims to determine effects of breeder age, strain, and EST on nutrient metabolism of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using four batches of in total 4,464 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920195/efficacy-of-1-3-diacylglycerol-as-a-fat-emulsifier-in-low-density-diet-for-broilers
#9
S D Upadhaya, J W Park, J H Park, I H Kim
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of 1,3-diacylglycerol (DAG) as an emulsifier in a low-density diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old male 308 Ross broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 5 treatments: Control, fed a basal diet (CON), basal diet minus 100 kcal ME diet (LE), T1 (LE + 0.075% 1,3-DAG), T2 (LE + 0.10% 1,3-DAG), and T3 (LE + 0.15% 1,3-DAG)...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919544/dual-effect-of-soluble-materials-in-pretreated-lignocellulose-on-simultaneous-saccharification-and-co-fermentation-process-for-the-bioethanol-production
#10
Lei Qin, Xia Li, Li Liu, Jia-Qing Zhu, Qi-Man Guan, Man-Tong Zhang, Wen-Chao Li, Bing-Zhi Li, Ying-Jin Yuan
In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary...
November 29, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919515/sexual-dimorphism-of-the-tibia-in-contemporary-greek-cypriots-and-cretans-forensic-applications
#11
E K Kranioti, J G García-Donas, P S Almeida Prado, X P Kyriakou, H C Langstaff
Sex estimation is an essential step in the identification process of unknown heavily decomposed human remains as it eliminates all possible matches of the opposite sex from the missing person's database. Osteometric methods constitute a reliable approach for sex estimation and considering the variation of sexual dimorphism between and within populations; standards for specific populations are required to ensure accurate results. The current study aspires to contribute osteometric data on the tibia from contemporary Greek-Cypriots to assist the identification process...
November 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919429/new-insights-into-plant-nutrient-signaling-and-adaptation-to-fluctuating-environments
#12
EDITORIAL
Xiangdong Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919261/caf%C3%A3-a-multicomponent-audit-and-feedback-intervention-to-improve-implementation-of-healthy-food-policy-in-primary-school-canteens-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Sze Lin Yoong, Nicole Nathan, Luke Wolfenden, John Wiggers, Kathryn Reilly, Christopher Oldmeadow, Rebecca Wyse, Rachel Sutherland, Tessa Delaney, Peter Butler, Lisa Janssen, Sarah Preece, Christopher M Williams
BACKGROUND: The implementation of nutrition policies in schools has been recommended as a strategy to improve child dietary intake. Internationally, research suggests that the majority of schools do not implement these policies. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, the NSW Healthy School Canteen Policy requires that school canteens prohibit the sale of 'red' foods (i.e. foods that are typically nutrient poor and high in energy, such as confectionary and deep-fried foods) and 'banned'drinks (i...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918615/top-down-control-of-methane-emission-and-nitrogen-cycling-by-waterfowl
#14
R Scott Winton, Curtis J Richardson
Aquatic herbivores impose top-down control on the structure of wetland ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of herbivory on methane (CH4 ) and nitrogen (N) are poorly known. To investigate the top-down effects of waterfowl on wetland biogeochemistry, we implemented exclosure experiments in a major waterfowl overwintering wetland in the southeastern United States over two growing seasons. We found that herbivory inhibited the oxidation of CH4 , leading to a mean increase in emission by 230% over control plots, and prevented nitrification, as indicated by low nitrate availability and undetectable emissions of nitrous oxide...
November 4, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918575/high-serum-adiponectin-level-is-a-risk-factor-for-anemia-in-japanese-men-a-prospective-observational-study-of-1-029-japanese-subjects
#15
Kei Kohno, Hiroto Narimatsu, Yosuke Shiono, Ikuko Suzuki, Yuichi Kato, Ri Sho, Katsumi Otani, Kenichi Ishizawa, Hidetoshi Yamashita, Isao Kubota, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Takeo Kato, Akira Fukao, Takamasa Kayama
Erythroid abnormalities including anemia and polycythemia are often observed in the general clinical setting. Because recent studies reported that adiponectin negatively affects hematopoiesis, we performed a prospective observational study to assess the relationship between anemia and adiponectin, as well as other parameters, in 1029 Japanese subjects (477 men and 552 women) 40 years of age and older. Body measurements, blood tests, and nutrition intake studies were performed at baseline, and 5 to 7 years later (follow-up)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918426/do-health-claims-and-front-of-pack-labels-lead-to-a-positivity-bias-in-unhealthy-foods
#16
Zenobia Talati, Simone Pettigrew, Helen Dixon, Bruce Neal, Kylie Ball, Clare Hughes
Health claims and front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) may lead consumers to hold more positive attitudes and show a greater willingness to buy food products, regardless of their actual healthiness. A potential negative consequence of this positivity bias is the increased consumption of unhealthy foods. This study investigated whether a positivity bias would occur in unhealthy variations of four products (cookies, corn flakes, pizzas and yoghurts) that featured different health claim conditions (no claim, nutrient claim, general level health claim, and higher level health claim) and FoPL conditions (no FoPL, the Daily Intake Guide (DIG), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), and the Health Star Rating (HSR))...
December 2, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918205/dietary-inclusion-of-different-multi-strain-complex-probiotics-on-performance-in-broilers
#17
B Balamuralikrishnan, S I Lee, I H Kim
1. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of two different complex probiotic supplementations on the growth performance, meat quality, excreta microflora, nutrient retention, blood metabolic profile and noxious gas emissions in broilers. 2. A total of 612 conventional healthy 1-d-old Ross 308 broilers with body weight of 41 ± 0.3 g were randomly divided into 3 treatments with 12 replicate cages, with 17 broilers in each cage and fed with the following diets: CON-Basal diet, T1-CON + Probiotic A, T2-CON + Probiotic B...
December 5, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918085/ppar%C3%AE-promotes-cancer-cell-glut1-transcription-repression
#18
Mengli You, Jianhua Jin, Qian Liu, QingGang Xu, Juanjuan Shi, Yongzhong Hou
Abundant nutrient availability including glucose and amino acids plays an important role in maintaining cancer cell energetic and biosynthetic pathways. As a nuclear receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) regulates inflammation and cancer progression, however, it is still unclear the interaction of PPARα with the cancer cell glucose metabolism. Here we found that PPARα reduced Glut1 (Glucose transporter 1) protein and gene levels in HCT-116, SW480, HeLa, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918073/dominant-mycorrhizal-association-of-trees-alters-carbon-and-nutrient-cycling-by-selecting-for-microbial-groups-with-distinct-enzyme-function
#19
Tanya E Cheeke, Richard P Phillips, Edward R Brzostek, Anna Rosling, James D Bever, Petra Fransson
While it is well established that plants associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi cycle carbon (C) and nutrients in distinct ways, we have a limited understanding of whether varying abundance of ECM and AM plants in a stand can provide integrative proxies for key biogeochemical processes. We explored linkages between the relative abundance of AM and ECM trees and microbial functioning in three hardwood forests in southern Indiana, USA. Across each site's 'mycorrhizal gradient', we measured fungal biomass, fungal : bacterial (F : B) ratios, extracellular enzyme activities, soil carbon : nitrogen ratio, and soil pH over a growing season...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918057/functional-bioactive-biochemical-and-physicochemical-properties-of-the-dolichos-lablab-bean
#20
Hosam M Habib, Serah W Theuri, Ehab E Kheadr, Fedah E Mohamed
The underutilized Kenyan variety of Dolichos lablab bean seeds serves as a good source of nutrients. This study was undertaken for the first time to address the limited knowledge regarding the bioactive, biochemical, physicochemical, and functional properties of Dolichos lablab beans. Proximate analysis, mineral, total and free amino acid profiles, total protein, total dietary and profile of fiber, carotenoids and fat soluble vitamins, total phenolics, and total flavonoids were evaluated. The results clearly show that Dolichos lablab beans contain many health-promoting components, such as fiber, proteins, minerals, and numerous phytochemicals endowed with useful biological activities, that allow it to contribute in a relevant way to the daily intake of these nutrients...
December 5, 2016: Food & Function
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