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alkaline phosphate

F Genest, L Seefried
Risk for subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures is considered increased in patients with hypophosphatasia (HPP). Evaluating a large cohort of HPP patients, we could for the first time quantify the prevalcence and identify both morphometric features as well as predisposing factors for this complication of severe HPP. INTRODUCTION: Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures have been associated with both, long-term antiresorptive treatment and metabolic bone disorders, specifically Hypophosphatasia (HPP)...
May 17, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir, Haffsah Iqbal, Moazzam Ali, Farasat Iqbal, Kashif Ijaz, Faiza Sharif, Asma Tufail Shah, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Muhammad Yar, Shifang Luan, Ather Farooq Khan, Ihtesham-Ur-Rehman
The success of a dental implant relies on the presence of an optimal alveolar ridge. The aim of this study was to fabricate HPMC crosslinked chitosan based scaffolds for alveolar bone repair. Our results indicated that HPMC crosslinked CH/BG foams presented better morphological structure (132-90.5 μm) and mechanical responses (0.451 MPa with 100 mg BG) as confirmed by SEM analysis and fatigue testing respectively. Cytotoxicity analysis at day 2, 4 and 8 demonstrated that all composites were non-toxic and supported cellular viability...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
F Wang, Y Zhou, J Zhou, M Xu, W Zheng, W Huang, W Zhou, Y Shen, K Zhao, Y Wu, D Zou
This study compared the osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of iliac and alveolar origins (I-BMSCs and Al-BMSCs, respectively), which were transplanted in combination with β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in peri-implant bone defects to investigate the osseointegration between dental implants and tissue-engineered bone in dogs. Specifically, I-BMSCs and Al-BMSCs were cultured, characterized, and seeded on β-TCP and subjected to immunoblotting analyses and alkaline phosphatase activity assays...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Romina Schröder, Laura Besch, Hannah Pohlit, Martin Panthöfer, Wilfried Roth, Holger Frey, Wolfgang Tremel, Ronald E Unger
We have previously described a promising alternative to conventional synthetic bone biomaterials using vaterite, a metastable CaCO3 polymorph, that increases the local Ca2+ concentration in vitro and leads to an over-saturation of phosphate, the primary bone mineral. This stimulates a natural bone-like mineralization in a short period of time. In this study, sterile and endotoxin-free vaterite particles were synthesized in a nearly quantitative yield. The 500-1000 nm vaterite particles did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects as measured by MTT, LDH or crystal violet assays on the human osteoblast cell line (MG-63) exposed to concentrations up to 500 μg/ml vaterite up to 72 hr...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Christine Knabe, Doaa Adel-Khattab, Wolf-Dietrich Hübner, Fabian Peters, Tom Knauf, Barbara Peleska, Dirk Barnewitz, Antje Genzel, Roderik Kusserow, Florian Sterzik, Michael Stiller, Christian Müller-Mai
Compared to the currently clinically available bone grafting materials for alveolar ridge augmentation, there is a great demand for bioactive bone substitutes with higher resorbability, which enhance osteogenesis at the same time. This has prompted the development of a silicon-doped rapidly resorbable calcium alkali orthophosphate (Si-CAOP) and silicon-doped β-tricalcium phosphate (Si-TCP). This study evaluated the effect of these two particulate graft materials as compared to the currently clinically used β-TCP on bone formation and osteogenic marker expression after 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of implantation in critical size defects in the sheep scapula...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
M L Mei, E C M Lo, C H Chu
Unlike other fluoride-based caries preventive agents, silver diamine fluoride (SDF) can simultaneously prevent and arrest coronal and root dentine caries. The profound clinical success of SDF has drawn many clinicians and researchers to study the mechanism of SDF in arresting dentine caries. This critical review discusses how silver and fluoride contribute to caries arrest, in terms of their effects on bacteria as well as on the mineral and organic content of dentine. Silver interacts with bacterial cell membrane and bacterial enzymes, which can inhibit bacterial growth...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Burcu Volkan, Ali Fettah, Ali İşlek, Soner Sertan Kara, Nezahat Kurt, Atilla Çayır
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with celiac disease (CD) and to evaluate the association between vitamin K levels and osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children with CD and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were prospectively included in the study. BMD was measured, and serum anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, 25-hydroxy vitamin D and K2, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and parathormone were assayed in all subjects...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Gulcihan Gulseren, Gulistan Tansik, Ruslan Garifullin, Ayse B Tekinay, Mustafa O Guler
Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is a major component of the dentin matrix playing crucial role in hydroxyapatite deposition during bone mineralization, making it a prime candidate for the design of novel materials for bone and tooth regeneration. The bioactivity of DPP-derived proteins is controlled by the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the serine residues. Here an enzyme-responsive peptide nanofiber system inducing biomineralization is demonstrated. It closely emulates the structural and functional properties of DPP and facilitates apatite-like mineral deposition...
May 10, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ai-Zhen Xu, Li Zhang, Hui-Hui Zeng, Ru-Ping Liang, Jian-Ding Qiu
A fluorometric method is described for the determination of the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It relies on the competition between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and pyrophosphate (PPi) for the coordination sites on the surface of CePO4 :Tb nanorods. The green fluorescence of the CePO4 :Tb is reduced in the presence of AuNPs due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), but can be restored on addition of PPi due to the stronger affinity of PPi to the CePO4 :Tb. In the presence of ALP, PPi is hydrolyzed to form phosphate which has much weaker affinity for the CePO4 :Tb...
May 9, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Maha F Abdel-Ghany, Miriam F Ayad, Mariam M Tadros
Stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for determination of empagliflozin (EGF). EGF was subjected to oxidation, wet heat, photo-degradation, acid hydrolysis and alkali hydrolysis. The alkaline degradation pathway was subjected to a kinetics study as the major product obtained after stress conditions. Arrhenius plots were constructed and the activation energies of the degradation process were calculated. HPLC was used for the kinetic study as it enabled simultaneous determination of EGF and the degradation product while the spectrofluorimetric assay was applied to content uniformity testing due to its higher sensitivity and lower limit of detection (LOD)...
May 7, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Maria Llop, W A Sifuentes, S Bañón, C Macia-Villa, M J Perez-Elías, M Rosillo, S Moreno, M Vázquez, J L Casado
The prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fracture in HIV-infected patients over 50 was 20%, associated with older age, male sex, longer time since HIV diagnosis, and tubular renal alterations. Vertebral fractures were independent of osteoporosis at lumbar spine, and were not predicted by the use of the FRAX equation. PURPOSE: Vertebral fractures (VF) are the hallmark of osteoporotic fractures. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic VF and associated factors in HIV-infected patients over 50 years, and the role of FRAX equation...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Lilluck F Alacapa, Mark Anthony Santiago Sandoval, Coralie Therese D Dimacali, Nathaniel Jr S Orillaza
A 64-year-old woman had fragility fractures which caused her to have gross deformities and confined her to bed. These were initially ascribed to vitamin D deficiency. However, despite correction of the deficiency, she did not improve. A review of previous records already showed glucosuria in the absence of diabetes, but this finding was overlooked. Eight years into the disease, it was realised that the glucosuria despite normal blood sugar could also mean that the patient was losing other substances needed for proper bone formation...
May 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Xi Yang, Shihong Shen, Li Guo, Jidong Tan, Henxin Lei, Jianghan Wu, Lei Zhao, Tao Xiong, Youshen Wu, Yilong Cheng, Yanfeng Zhang
The development of inexpensive and highly efficient enzyme-responsive polymers has significantly contributed to targeted drug delivery systems. Here, a superamphiphile with a capability of fluorescent dissociation sensing is designed. It is constructed with negatively charged adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and negatively charged fluorescein diphosphate (FDP), which are used as fluorescence detection, and a cationic diblock copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)113 -b-poly(2-dimethyl-aminoethyl methacrylate)70 ...
May 7, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ashok Kumar, Gaobing Wu, Zuo Wu, Ziduo Liu
A novel glyA gene was screened from a marine bacterium, Idiomarina loihiensis encoding a thermo-stable serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT; 418 AA; 45.4 kDa). The activities of wild type (WT) and mutants were analyzed against d-phenylserine using pyrodoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) as cofactor under optimized conditions. Based on homology modelling and molecular docking, several residues were found that may be able to improve the activity of WT-SHMT. Site directed mutagenesis was conducted. The activity and thermostability of the wild type SHMT was improved by two variants H61G and G132P, which showed a noteworthy change in the thermo-stability and activity as compared to WT...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Talib Hussain, Gehad M Subaiea, Hina Firdous
Background: Medicinal herbs are significantly effective against a variety of liver disorders and Trapa natans was traditionally used for the treatment of anti-inflammatory, pain disorder, and various types of hepatic ailment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of T. natans fruit peel extract against antitubercular drugs (isoniazid + rifampicin [INH + RIF])-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Liver toxicity was induced by INH + RIF at a dose level of 50 mg/kg each, intraperitoneally...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
C Thongprayoon, P Acharya, C Acharya, J Chenbhanich, T Bathini, B Boonpheng, K Sharma, K Wijarnpreecha, P Ungprasert, M L Gonzalez Suarez, W Cheungpasitporn
The incidence of hypocalcemia and bone mineral density (BMD) changes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on denosumab remains unclear. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the incidence of denosumab-associated hypocalcemia and effects of denosumab on BMD in ESRD patients. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database from inception through November 2017 to identify studies evaluating incidence of denosumab-associated hypocalcemia and changes in serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and BMD from baseline to post-treatment course of denosumab in ESRD patients...
April 30, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Ke Sun, Mengyi Qiu, Lanfang Han, Jie Jin, Ziying Wang, Zezhen Pan, Baoshan Xing
Phosphorus (P) in biochar serves as both a P source for plant growth and a contributor to water eutrophication, thus prioritizing the efficient management of P in biochar. This study employed solid- and solution- state 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction analyses to explore the impact of feedstock and heating treatment temperature (HTT) on P species of biochars. The effects of ambient temperature, coexisting anions, pH and nutrient solution on P release were also investigated to study the effect of various environmental factors on P release from biochars...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Seong U Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Hyoyoung Mun, Yuseon Noh, Min-Gon Kim
We here report an enhanced colorimetric method using enzymatic amplification with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate (BCIP) precipitation for the ultrasensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 through immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-selective filtration. We constructed a sensor by conjugating biotinylated anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody and streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (STA-AP) to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The large E. coli O157:H7-conjugates complexes did not penetrate through the pore and remained on the membrane filter surface...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rajesh Kumar Kante, Sandeep Vemula, Maheswara Reddy Mallu, Srinivasa Reddy Ronda
Recombinant proteins are revolutionizing present day therapeutics. They are generally expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies in the E. coli and mis-folding, loss of protein, high cost of down streaming are the hurdles in their recovery. For the first time, we are reporting the refolding with simultaneous purification of rhASP in E. coli using a single step utilizing Protein Folding - strong anion exchange chromatography (PF-SAX). The purification method is also standardized for optimal concentration of solution additives, pH and mobile phase composition...
April 30, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Jong-Hwan Park, Jim J Wang, Ran Xiao, Baoyue Zhou, Ronald D Delaune, Dong-Cheol Seo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of crawfish char (CFC) derived at different pyrolysis temperature and to evaluate its adsorption characteristics on phosphate. Phosphate adsorption by CFC occurred rapidly at the beginning of the reaction, and the time to reach equilibrium was dependent on the pyrolysis temperature. Maximum adsorption capacities of phosphate by CFC at different pyrolysis temperatures were high in order of CFC800 (70.9 mg/g) > CFC600 (56.8 mg/g) > CFC400 (47...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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