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alkaline phosphate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333858/mineral-and-base-catalyzed-hydrolysis-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-a-potential-major-fate-controlling-sink-in-soil-and-aquatic-environments
#1
Yida Fang, Erin Kim, Timothy J Strathmann
The ubiquitous occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in aquatic and soil environments poses significant risks to human health and ecosystems. Here, we report on the hydrolysis of six OPFRs and three structural analogues in the absence and presence of metal (hydr)oxide minerals. Eight of the target compounds showed marked degradation in alkaline solutions (pH 9-12) with half-lives ranging from 0.02 - 170 d. Kinetics follow a second-order rate law with apparent rate constants for base-catalyzed hydrolysis (kB) ranging from 0...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331918/dna-damage-in-marine-rock-oyster-saccostrea-cucullata-exposed-to-environmentally-available-pahs-and-heavy-metals-along-the-arabian-sea-coast
#2
Subhodeep Sarker, Deepti Vashistha, Munmun Saha Sarker, A Sarkar
Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331041/effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-the-healing-of-sites-grafted-with-coagulum-deproteinized-bovine-bone-and-biphasic-ceramic-made-of-hydroxyapatite-and-%C3%AE-tricalcium-phosphate-in-vivo-study-in-rats
#3
Guilherme J P L de Oliveira, Maurício A T Aroni, Marcell C Medeiros, Elcio Marcantonio, Rosemary A C Marcantonio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of biomaterial graft areas (i.e., coagulum, deproteinized bovine bone, and biphasic ceramics comprising hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety rats were divided into two groups according to laser irradiation use (λ 808 nm, 100 mW, φ ∼600 μm, seven sessions with 28 J of irradiation dose in total): a laser group and a control group...
January 13, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328971/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-sensing-of-hg2-based-on-thymine-hg2-thymine-interaction-and-signal-amplification-of-alkaline-phosphatase-catalyzed-silver-deposition
#4
Aigui Xu, Long Chao, Hongbo Xiao, Yuyun Sui, Jia Liu, Qingji Xie, Shouzhuo Yao
We report an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for Hg2+ detection, on the basis of two Hg2+-specific oligonucleotide probes (a thiolated capture probe and a biotinated signal probe), "terminal" signal amplification of alkaline phosphatase catalyzed deposition of silver and in situ microliter-droplet anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The thiolated capture probe is immobilized on an Au-plated glassy carbon electrode, and the biotinated signal probe is then attached to the electrode surface through the thymine-Hg2+-thymine interaction in the presence of Hg2+...
January 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325889/early-cell-response-of-osteogenic-cells-on-differently-modified-implant-surfaces-sequences-of-cell-proliferation-adherence-and-differentiation
#5
Sebastian Blatt, Andreas Max Pabst, Eik Schiegnitz, Marco Hosang, Thomas Ziebart, Christian Walter, Bilal Al-Nawas, Marcus Oliver Klein
OBJECTIVES: Osseointegration of dental implants is a crucial prerequisite for long-term survival. Therefore, surface modifications are needed to interact with the extracellular environment and to trigger osteogenic cell responses such as cell proliferation, adherence, and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate different surface modifications in vitro over 2 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Commercially available cells from a human osteogenic cell line (HHOB-c) were cultivated on the following surfaces: titanium with smooth surfaces (polished titanium (P), machined titanium (M), polyetheretherketone (Peek)), titanium with rough and hydrophilised surfaces (acid etched titanium (A), sandblasted acid etched titanium (SA and SA2), sandblasted acid etched hydrophilised (SAH), titanium plasma painted titanium (TPS)), titanium with calcium phosphate-containing surfaces (titanium plasma painted calcium phosphate modified titanium (TPS-CaP), sandblasted calcium phosphate modified titanium (S-CaP), sandblasted acid etched calcium phosphate modified titanium (SA-CaP)), and zirconium-oxide (yttrium amplified zirconium (Z), yttrium amplified Ca2+ delivering zirconium (Z-Ca))...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325202/interfacial-mineral-fusion-and-tubule-entanglement-as-a-means-to-harden-a-bone-augmentation-material
#6
Erik A B Hughes, Sophie C Cox, Megan E Cooke, Owen G Davies, Richard L Williams, Thomas J Hall, Liam M Grover
A new bone augmenting material is reported, which is formed from calcium-loaded hydrogel-based spheres. On immersion of these spheres in a physiological medium, they become surrounded with a sheath of precipitate, which ruptures due to a build-up in osmotic pressure. This results in the formation of mineral tubes that protrude from the sphere surface. When brought into close contact with one another, these spheres become fused through the entanglement and subsequent interstitial mineralization of the mineral tubules...
January 11, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323781/soil-phosphorus-does-not-keep-pace-with-soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-accumulation-following-woody-encroachment
#7
Yong Zhou, Thomas W Boutton, X Ben Wu
Soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles are strongly interlinked and controlled through biological processes, and the phosphorus cycle is further controlled through geochemical processes. In dryland ecosystems, woody encroachment often modifies soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stores, although it remains unknown if these three elements change proportionally in response to this vegetation change. We evaluated proportional changes and spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations following woody encroachment by taking spatially-explicit soil cores to a depth of 1...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316652/a-cuprous-oxide-thin-film-non-enzymatic-glucose-sensor-using-differential-pulse-voltammetry-and-other-voltammetry-methods-and-a-comparison-to-different-thin-film-electrodes-on-the-detection-of-glucose-in-an-alkaline-solution
#8
Yifan Dai, Alireza Molazemhosseini, Kevin Abbasi, Chung Chiun Liu
A cuprous oxide (Cu₂O) thin layer served as the base for a non-enzymatic glucose sensor in an alkaline medium, 0.1 NaOH solution, with a linear range of 50-200 mg/dL using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the formation of the cuprous oxide layer on the thin gold film sensor prototype. Quantitative detection of glucose in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and undiluted human serum was carried out. Neither ascorbic acid nor uric acid, even at a relatively high concentration level (100 mg/dL in serum), interfered with the glucose detection, demonstrating the excellent selectivity of this non-enzymatic cuprous oxide thin layer-based glucose sensor...
January 6, 2018: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311711/association-of-bap-with-urinary-albumin-excretion-in-postmenopausal-but-not-premenopausal-non-ckd-japanese-women
#9
Etsuko Ozaki, Shinsuke Yamada, Nagato Kuriyama, Daisuke Matsui, Isao Watanabe, Teruhide Koyama, Yasuo Imanishi, Masaaki Inaba, Yoshiyuki Watanabe
We investigated whether the phosphate (Pi) load in the circulation causes renal damage in non-CKD women. This cross-sectional study included 1,094 non-CKD Japanese women. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 as a parameter for the Pi load, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) as a bone metabolic marker, and the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) as an early marker for renal damage were measured. Postmenopausal women exhibited significantly higher levels of serum Pi, FGF-23, BAP, and UACR and significantly lower eGFR than premenopausal women...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306060/alkaline-phosphatase-labeled-sers-active-sandwich-immunoassay-for-detection-of-escherichia-coli
#10
Akif Goktug Bozkurt, Guluzar Gorkem Buyukgoz, Mehmet Soforoglu, Ugur Tamer, Zekiye Suludere, Ismail Hakki Boyaci
In this study, a sandwich immunoassay method utilizing enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) detection was developed using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). For this purpose, spherical magnetic gold coated core-shell nanoparticles (MNPs-Au) and rod shape gold nanoparticles (Au-NRs) were synthesized and modified for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of E. coli from the solution. In order to specify the developed method to ALP activity, Au-NRs were labeled with this enzyme...
December 21, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296275/consortium-inoculum-of-five-thermo-tolerant-phosphate-solubilizing-actinomycetes-for-multipurpose-biofertilizer-preparation
#11
Arusha P Nandimath, Dilip D Karad, Shantikumar G Gupta, Arun S Kharat
Background and Objectives: Alkaline pH of the soil facilitates the conversion of phosphate present in phosphate fertilizer applied in the field to insoluble phosphate which is not available to plants. Problem of soluble phosphate deficiency arises, primarily due to needless use of phosphate fertilizer. We sought to biofertilizer with the thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes consortium that could convert insoluble phosphate to soluble phosphate at wider temperature range...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290009/the-ph-dependent-activation-mechanism-of-ser102-in-escherichia-coli-alkaline-phosphatase-a-theoretical-study
#12
Hao Zhang, Ling Yang, Wanjian Ding, Yingying Ma
The accepted catalytic mechanism of alkaline phosphatases was established on the hypothesis that Mg-coordinated water is a readily available hydroxide ion that functions as a general base and accepts a proton from the Ser102 hydroxyl group. The roles of the two distinctive residues Asp153 and Lys328 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (ECAP), which distinguish it from the mammalian enzymes, are elusive. Based on the crystal structures of ECAP in the absence and presence of inorganic phosphate, we have investigated the activation of Ser102 for nucleophilic attack and the subsequent formation of a covalent phosphoseryl intermediate using hybrid density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP functional...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286447/simultaneous-mapping-and-quantitation-of-ribonucleotides-in-human-mitochondrial-dna
#13
Katrin Kreisel, Martin K M Engqvist, Anders R Clausen
Established approaches to estimate the number of ribonucleotides present in a genome are limited to the quantitation of incorporated ribonucleotides using short synthetic DNA fragments or plasmids as templates and then extrapolating the results to the whole genome. Alternatively, the number of ribonucleotides present in a genome may be estimated using alkaline gels or Southern blots. More recent in vivo approaches employ Next-generation sequencing allowing genome-wide mapping of ribonucleotides, providing the position and identity of embedded ribonucleotides...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280098/dual-slag-filters-for-enhanced-phosphorus-removal-from-domestic-waste-water-performance-and-mechanisms
#14
Minyu Zuo, Gunno Renman, Jon Petter Gustafsson, Wantana Klysubun
The phosphorus (P) removal of five combinations of dual filters consisting of blast furnace slag (BFS), argon oxygen decarburisation slag (AOD) and electric arc furnace slag (EAF) was evaluated in column experiments with domestic waste water. The columns were fed with waste water for 24 days. The column with only EAF had the best P removal performance (above 93% throughout the experiment). The speciation of the bound P was evaluated by P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. In all five columns, the main P species of the slag packed in the outlet chamber was amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279122/ulvan-chitosan-polyelectrolyte-complexes-as-matrices-for-enzyme-induced-biomimetic-mineralization
#15
Mamoni Dash, Sangram K Samal, Andrea Morelli, Cristina Bartoli, Heidi A Declercq, Timothy E L Douglas, Peter Dubruel, Federica Chiellini
Polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) of chitosan and ulvan were fabricated to study alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mediated formation of apatitic minerals. Scaffolds of the PEC were subjected to ALP and successful mineral formation was studied using SEM, Raman and XRD techniques. Investigation of the morphology via SEM shows globular structures of the deposited minerals, which promoted cell attachment, proliferation and extracellular matrix formation. The PEC and their successful calcium phosphate based mineralization offers a greener route of scaffold fabrication towards developing resorbable materials for tissue engineering...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275851/biocompatibility-and-osteogenic-calcification-potential-of-casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-fluoride
#16
Alaa E Dawood, David J Manton, Peter Parashos, Rebecca H Wong, William Singleton, James A Holden, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Eric C Reynolds
INTRODUCTION: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and CPP-ACP with fluoride (CPP-ACFP) have been shown to provide bioavailable ions to promote mineralization. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the materials' biocompatibility and osteogenic/calcification potential for endodontic applications. METHODS: Human and mouse osteoblast-like and fibroblast-like cell lines were incubated with 0.05%-3.0% w/v CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP, and toxicity, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase, interleukin (IL)-1α, and IL-6 production, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and osteopontin production, and mineralization/calcification were determined...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273238/fast-and-accurate-enzyme-activity-measurements-using-a-chip-based-microfluidic-calorimeter
#17
Morten M C H van Schie, Kourosh Honarmand Ebrahimi, Wilfred R Hagen, Peter-Leon Hagedoorn
Recent developments in microfluidic and nanofluidic technologies have resulted in development of new chip-based microfluidic calorimeters with potential use in different fields. One application would be the accurate high-throughput measurement of enzyme activity. Calorimetry is a generic way to measure activity of enzymes, but unlike conventional calorimeters, chip-based calorimeters can be easily automated and implemented in high-throughput screening platforms. However, application of chip-based microfluidic calorimeters to measure enzyme activity has been limited due to problems associated with miniaturization such as incomplete mixing and a decrease in volumetric heat generated...
December 20, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248717/cd-doped-sb2o4-nanostructures-modified-glassy-carbon-electrode-for-efficient-detection-of-melamine-by-electrochemical-approach
#18
Mohammed M Rahman, Jahir Ahmed
Cadmium doped antimony oxide (Cd-doped Sb2O4) nanostructures (CAO-NSs) were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in alkaline phase at low temperature to detect the melamine from aqueous solution. The calcined CAO-NSs were characterized systematically by FE-SEM, EDS, UV/Vis., FTIR spectroscopy, powder XRD, and XPS techniques. The glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with the CAO-NSs and sensing performance towards the selective melamine was explored by the electrochemical approach in phosphate buffer solution...
December 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244957/hypercementosis-associated-with-enpp1-mutations-and-gaci
#19
V Thumbigere-Math, A Alqadi, N I Chalmers, M B Chavez, E Y Chu, M T Collins, C R Ferreira, K FitzGerald, R I Gafni, W A Gahl, K S Hsu, M S Ramnitz, M J Somerman, S G Ziegler, B L Foster
Mineralization of bones and teeth is tightly regulated by levels of extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pyrophosphate (PPi). Three regulators that control pericellular concentrations of Pi and PPi include tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), progressive ankylosis protein (ANK), and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1). Inactivation of these factors results in mineralization disorders affecting teeth and their supporting structures. This study for the first time analyzed the effect of decreased PPi on dental development in individuals with generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) due to loss-of-function mutations in the ENPP1 gene...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244613/kinetics-study-on-recombinant-alkaline-phosphatase-and-correlation-with-the-fluorescent-signal-generated
#20
Vanessa Susini, Veronica Lucia Rossi, Antonio Sanesi, Laurent Drazek
Alkaline phosphatase (AP) (EC 3.1.3.1) is one of the most used enzymes in immunoassays. In VIDAS® assays (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) AP catalyses the hydrolysis of 4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) in 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) producing a fluorescent signal. This work introduces an original method of characterization of the kinetics parameter Km, Vmax and Kcat of AP embedded in VIDAS® assays. Assessment of such constants allows us to predict the fluorescent signal generated for given amounts of enzyme and its associated substrate; in the particular case of VIDAS®, it has been estimated that 0...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
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