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Evidence Based Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223132/homelessness-and-emergency-medicine-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Bisan A Salhi, Melissa H White, Stephen R Pitts, David W Wright
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the demographics, prevalence, and clinical characteristics, and evidence-based management of homeless persons in the Emergency Department (ED). Where appropriate, we highlight knowledge gaps and suggest directions for future research. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search following databases: PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar for articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2016...
December 9, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221893/cardioprotective-effect-of-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Andrzej Ciszewski
Due to the wide interaction between the respiratory and the circulatory systems, influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The review summarizes the results of recent studies and meta-analyses demonstrating that in this group of high-risk patients both vaccinations have potentially beneficial properties. However, in the era of Evidence Base Medicine, there is still a lack of randomized prospective clinical trials, especially those evaluating the effect of pneumococcal vaccination...
December 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221525/peer-reviewed-veterinary-journals-from-arabic-speaking-countries-a-systematic-review
#3
Kristen M Robertson, Jacquelyn E Bowser, Joshua Bernstein, Basil H Aboul-Enein
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diseases of foodborne and zoonotic origin in Arabic-speaking countries highlights the importance of collaboration between human and animal health professionals. However, accessibility of research and evidence-based practices in these countries is not well characterized. This brief report determines the availability of professional veterinary journals within the Arabic-speaking region. METHODS: An electronic search using 6 databases assessed for publication period, activity status, and available languages incorporated all aspects of veterinary medicine and specialties...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221470/potential-diagnostic-markers-of-olanzapine-efficiency-for-acute-psychosis-a-focus-on-peripheral-biogenic-amines
#4
A E Taraskina, R F Nasyrova, A M Zabotina, D N Sosin, К А Sosina, E E Ershov, M N Grunina, E M Krupitsky
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are now widely used in many fields of medicine, and the identification of biomarkers that predict antipsychotic efficacy and adverse reactions is a growing area of psychiatric research. Monoamine molecules of the peripheral bloodstream are possible prospective biomarkers based on a growing body of evidence indicating that they may reflect specific changes in neurotransmitters in the brain. The aim of this study was to detect peripheral biogenic amine indicators of patients with acute psychosis and to test the correlations between the biological measures studied and the psychopathological status of the patients...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221302/the-society-for-translational-medicine-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-mechanical-ventilation-management-for-patients-undergoing-lobectomy
#5
REVIEW
Shugeng Gao, Zhongheng Zhang, Alessandro Brunelli, Chang Chen, Chun Chen, Gang Chen, Haiquan Chen, Jin-Shing Chen, Stephen Cassivi, Ying Chai, John B Downs, Wentao Fang, Xiangning Fu, Martínez I Garutti, Jianxing He, Jie He, Jian Hu, Yunchao Huang, Gening Jiang, Hongjing Jiang, Zhongmin Jiang, Danqing Li, Gaofeng Li, Hui Li, Qiang Li, Xiaofei Li, Yin Li, Zhijun Li, Chia-Chuan Liu, Deruo Liu, Lunxu Liu, Yongyi Liu, Haitao Ma, Weimin Mao, Yousheng Mao, Juwei Mou, Calvin Sze Hang Ng, René H Petersen, Guibin Qiao, Gaetano Rocco, Erico Ruffini, Lijie Tan, Qunyou Tan, Tang Tong, Haidong Wang, Qun Wang, Ruwen Wang, Shumin Wang, Deyao Xie, Qi Xue, Tao Xue, Lin Xu, Shidong Xu, Songtao Xu, Tiansheng Yan, Fenglei Yu, Zhentao Yu, Chunfang Zhang, Lanjun Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xun Zhang, Xiaojing Zhao, Xuewei Zhao, Xiuyi Zhi, Qinghua Zhou
Patients undergoing lobectomy are at significantly increased risk of lung injury. One-lung ventilation is the most commonly used technique to maintain ventilation and oxygenation during the operation. It is a challenge to choose an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy to minimize the lung injury and other adverse clinical outcomes. In order to understand the available evidence, a systematic review was conducted including the following topics: (I) protective ventilation (PV); (II) mode of mechanical ventilation [e...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219876/effectiveness-of-patient-centered-interventions-on-falls-in-the-acute-care-setting-compared-to-usual-care-a-systematic-review
#6
Donna Avanecean, Dawn Calliste, Teresita Contreras, Yeogyeong Lim, Aileen Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: Unintentional falls during hospitalization remain a concern for healthcare institutions globally despite implementation of various improvement strategies. Although the incidence of falls has been of heightened focus for many years and numerous studies have been done evaluating different approaches for fall prevention, fall rates remain high in acute care settings. Patient fall risk scales tend to address only particular intrinsic and extrinsic factors but do not adequately assess a patient's current fall risk status, subsequently warranting more patient-centered risk assessments and interventions...
December 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218478/the-rejuvenating-effect-and-tolerability-of-an-auto-cross-linked-hyaluronic-acid-on-d%C3%A3-colletage-a-pilot-prospective-study
#7
Andrea Alessandrini, Kseniya Tretyakova
BACKGROUND: A novel auto-cross-linked hyaluronic acid formulation (HA-ACP) has been proposed as a treatment for skin rejuvenation. This prospective pilot study aims to assess its tolerability and performance in the treatment of skin aging of the décolletage. METHODS: Fifteen women (mean age 49.0 ± 8.0  (range 30-65)) who complained about the appearance of their décolletage were prospectively enrolled and treated with three sets of HA-ACP (IAL-SYSTEM ACP®) intradermal injections, administered three weeks apart...
December 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218477/safety-and-efficacy-of-facial-fat-grafting-under-local-anesthesia
#8
Xiaorong Ma, Liming Wu, Tianxiang Ouyang, Wenjia Ge, Jingwen Ke
BACKGROUND: Facial fat grafting under local anesthesia has been widely performed in outpatient departments and private settings in China. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of facial fat grafting under local anesthesia. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted on 155 patients who underwent facial fat grafting. The clinical data were recorded. Preoperative and postoperative two-dimensional images were acquired to evaluate the effect of facial fat grafting on refining facial contouring, rejuvenation as well as deformity reconstruction...
December 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218476/google-trends-as-a-resource-for-informing-plastic-surgery-marketing-decisions
#9
Brittany Ward, Max Ward, Boris Paskhover
BACKGROUND: Celebrities have long influenced the medical decisions of the general population. By analyzing Google search data using Google Trends, we measured the impact of highly publicized plastic surgery-related events on the interest level of the general population in specific search terms. Additionally, we investigated seasonal and geographic trends around interest in rhinoplasties, which is information that physicians and small surgical centers can use to optimize marketing decisions...
December 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218474/superomedial-pedicle-vertical-scar-breast-reduction-objective-and-subjective-assessment-of-breast-symmetry-and-aesthetics
#10
Ofir Ron, Amir Inbal, Ehud Arad, Arik Zaretski, David Leshem, Ravit Yanko, Eyal Gur, Yoav Barnea
BACKGROUND: The superomedial vertical scar breast reduction (SVBR) described by Hall-Findlay is gaining popularity among surgeons worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate its long-term aesthetic outcome, the extent of quality of life improvement and the factors that influence patient satisfaction and reviewers' evaluation of aesthetic/surgical outcome. METHODS: In this historical prospective study, we included women who underwent SVBR at least one year prior to enrollment and responded to a quality of life questionnaire...
December 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218473/the-bidirectional-absorbable-no-drain-abdominoplasty
#11
Joseph B O'Connell
This article outlines the author's technique, and the concepts of Bidirectional, Absorbable, No-Drain Abdominoplasty (BAND-Abdominoplasty). The attendant advantages and disadvantages are reviewed in the context of a retrospective, 5-year, single surgeon series. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer...
December 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218265/the-role-of-imaging-and-radiation-oncology-core-for-precision-medicine-era-of-clinical-trial
#12
Ying Xiao, Mark Rosen
Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) services have been established for the quality assurance (QA) of imaging and radiotherapy (RT) for NCI's Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) for any trials that contain imaging or RT. The randomized clinical trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine. QA ensures data quality, preventing noise from inferior treatments obscuring clinical trial outcome. QA is also found to be cost-effective. IROC has made great progress in multi-institution standardization and is expected to lead QA standardization, QA science in imaging and RT and to advance quality data analysis with big data in the future...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217158/evidence-based-traditional-anti-diarrheal-medicinal-plants-and-their-phytocompounds
#13
REVIEW
Pooja Rawat, Pawan Kumar Singh, Vipin Kumar
Traditional medicines are an integral component of alternative health care systems used by millions of the people worldwide. Traditionally used herbals are multi-constituent medications, safety and efficacy of which is based on experiences of the practitioners, whereas modern drugs are single molecules, rigorously tested, structurally optimized and toxicologically cleared. Plants are being recognized as potential source of drug discovery and more than 80% of modern drugs are derived directly from natural sources (plants, microbes, cells etc...
December 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216493/intimate-partner-violence-against-women-circumstances-of-aggressions-and-oral-maxillofacial-traumas-a-medical-legal-and-forensic-approach
#14
Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Luzia Michelle Santos, Alysson Vinicius Porto Ferreira, Tomás Lucio Marques de Almeida Lima, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Sérgio d'Avila
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that frequently results in oral-maxillofacial traumas, generating high social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of women victims of IPV and determine the pattern of oral-maxillofacial traumas, according to a medical-legal and forensic perspective. An exploratory study of 1361 suspected cases of women victims of IPV was carried out based on database of an Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry of Northeastern Brazil during a period of 4 years...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215654/age-and-perceived-risks-and-benefits-of-preventive-genomic-screening
#15
Margaret Waltz, R Jean Cadigan, Anya E R Prince, Debra Skinner, Gail E Henderson
PurposeAs genome sequencing moves from research to clinical practice, sequencing technologies focused on "medically actionable" targets are being promoted for preventive screening despite the dearth of systematic evidence of risks and benefits and of criteria for selection of screening subjects. This study investigates researchers' and research participants' perceptions of these issues within the context of a preventive genomic screening study, GeneScreen.MethodsWe recorded researcher deliberations regarding age eligibility criteria and the risks and benefits of screening, and conducted interviews with 50 GeneScreen participants about their motivations for joining and their perceptions of risks and benefits...
December 7, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214583/prospects-of-pluripotent-and-adult-stem-cells-for-rare-diseases
#16
Javier García-Castro, Ilyas Singeç
Rare diseases are highly diverse and complex regarding molecular underpinning and clinical manifestation and afflict millions of patients worldwide. The lack of appropriate model systems with face and construct validity and the limited availability of live tissues and cells from patients has largely hampered the understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. As a consequence, there are no adequate treatment options available for the vast majority of rare diseases. Over the last decade, remarkable progress in pluripotent and adult stem cell biology and the advent of powerful genomic technologies opened up exciting new avenues for the investigation, diagnosis, and personalized therapy of intractable human diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214574/evidence-based-medicine-and-rare-diseases
#17
Simon Day
This chapter discusses the meaning of evidence-based medicine and where it relates to randomised controlled trials, but also where it does not. The need for good quality evidence is stressed through a discussion of high failure rates in drug development and arguments against access to unlicensed (and largely untested) treatments are set out (despite the good intentions of those who advocate such access to treatments).Good quality, reliable evidence does not always have to come from clinical trials. Other forms of evidence are discussed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214389/using-real-world-data-in-health-technology-assessment-hta-practice-a-comparative-study-of-five-hta-agencies
#18
Amr Makady, Ard van Veelen, Páll Jonsson, Owen Moseley, Anne D'Andon, Anthonius de Boer, Hans Hillege, Olaf Klungel, Wim Goettsch
BACKGROUND: Reimbursement decisions are conventionally based on evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), which often have high internal validity but low external validity. Real-world data (RWD) may provide complimentary evidence for relative effectiveness assessments (REAs) and cost-effectiveness assessments (CEAs). This study examines whether RWD is incorporated in health technology assessment (HTA) of melanoma drugs by European HTA agencies, as well as differences in RWD use between agencies and across time...
December 6, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214384/dispensability-of-annual-laboratory-follow-up-after-more-than-2%C3%A2-years-of-valproic-acid-use-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Rosanne W Meijboom, Koen P Grootens
BACKGROUND: The necessity of annual laboratory follow-up in patients treated with valproic acid (VPA) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the need for annual laboratory follow-up of liver enzymes, electrolytes, and full blood count (FBC) in patients treated with VPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic search in Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), MEDLINE, and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2016 to identify all published articles investigating or citing valproic acid, liver function disorders, electrolyte disorders, and FBC deviations...
December 6, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214336/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-early-postoperative-botulinum-toxin-a-injection-for-facial-scars
#20
Seo H Lee, Hyung J Min, Yang W Kim, Young W Cheon
BACKGROUND: Scars widen when the underlying musculature pulls apart suture lines, and scars oriented against relaxed skin tension lines are especially susceptible to these distraction forces. Because botulinum toxin A (BTA) induces complete muscle paralysis, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of BTA using both observer-dependent qualitative assessments and quantitative measurements to verify its beneficial effects on facial scarring. METHODS: Patients with vertical forehead lacerations, treated by primary closure, were randomly assigned to two groups: one (n = 15) received BTA injections within 5 days of primary closure and the other (n = 15) received no further treatment...
December 6, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
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