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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903636/spatiotopic-maps-during-dynamic-head-tilt
#1
Kyriaki Mikellidou, Marco Turi, David Charles Burr
Humans maintain a stable representation of the visual world effortlessly, despite constant movements of the eyes, head and body, across multiple planes. Whereas visual stability in the face of saccadic eye-movements has been intensely researched, fewer studies have investigated retinal image transformations induced by head movements, especially in the frontal plane. Unlike head rotations in the horizontal and sagittal planes, tilting the head in the frontal plane is only partially counteracted by torsional eye-movements, and consequently induces a distortion of the retinal image to which we seem to be completely oblivious...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892479/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-conjunctivochalasis-excision-on-tear-stability-and-contrast-sensitivity
#2
Weiqiang Qiu, Mingzhou Zhang, Ting Xu, Ziyuan Liu, Huibin Lv, Wei Wang, Xuemin Li
Conjunctivochalasis (CCh) disrupts tear flow and damages tear film stability. This study sought to evaluate the tear stability and contrast sensitivity of patients with CCh on whom CCh excision was performed. The study included 39 eyes from 39 patients; all patients had eyes with grade 2 or 3 CCh, underwent CCh excision, and were evaluated before and three months after the surgery. The evaluated variables included the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), the tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining, corneal surface irregularity, Schirmer's I test, the tear meniscus area (TMA), and contrast sensitivity...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891163/the-visual-system-of-harvestmen-opiliones-arachnida-chelicerata-a-re-examination
#3
Tobias Lehmann, Eva Lodde-Bensch, Roland R Melzer, Martina Metz
BACKGROUND: The visual systems in chelicerates are poorly understood, even though they show strong variation in eye and visual neuropil architecture, thus may provide valuable insights for the understanding of chelicerate phylogeny and eye evolution. Comparable morphological characters are desperately sought for reconstructions of the phylogeny of Chelicerata, especially with respect to Arachnida. So far, reliable data exist only for Pycnogonida, Xiphosura, Scorpiones, and Araneae. The few earlier studies of the organisation of the visual system in harvestmen are contradictory concerning the number, morphology, and position of the visual neuropils...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890246/treatment-of-dynamic-scapholunate-instability-dissociation-contribution-of-arthroscopy
#4
C Mathoulin
Scapholunate (SL) ligament injuries generally result from trauma to an extended, supinated wrist, leading to chronic instability that progresses toward osteoarthritis. They can occur together with distal radius fracture. These injuries can be difficult to diagnose, especially early on. Treating chronic SL ligament injuries before the onset of osteoarthritis is still a challenge for surgeons. Until recently, the recommended treatments consisted of open SL ligament reconstruction or repair procedures that reduce pain and improve pinch strength but also lead to wrist stiffness...
December 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888891/periorbital-scar-correction
#5
REVIEW
Christopher B Chambers, Kristen S Moe
Periorbital scarring with eyelid retraction can have serious visual effects and can lead to loss of vision or even loss of the eye. Understanding of eyelid anatomy and the delicate balance of its structural supports is critical for the identification of the eyelid disorder responsible for the cicatrix and helps to guide treatment. The 2-finger test and lateral distraction of the lid can also be of significant help in proper diagnosis of the underlying disorder. Proper reconstruction with respect to the anterior and posterior lamellae helps to ensure a favorable outcome...
February 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888520/identifying-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-interictal-resting-state-meg-source-space-networks
#6
Ida A Nissen, Cornelis J Stam, Jaap C Reijneveld, Ilse E C W van Straaten, Eef J Hendriks, Johannes C Baayen, Philip C De Witt Hamer, Sander Idema, Arjan Hillebrand
OBJECTIVE: In one third of patients, seizures remain after epilepsy surgery, meaning that improved preoperative evaluation methods are needed to identify the epileptogenic zone. A potential framework for such a method is network theory, as it can be applied to noninvasive recordings, even in the absence of epileptiform activity. Our aim was to identify the epileptogenic zone on the basis of hub status of local brain areas in interictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) networks. METHODS: Preoperative eyes-closed resting-state MEG recordings were retrospectively analyzed in 22 patients with refractory epilepsy, of whom 14 were seizure-free 1 year after surgery...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888184/amnion-assisted-conjunctival-epithelial-redirection-in-limbal-stem-cell-grafting
#7
Harminder S Dua, Ammar Miri, Mohamed S Elalfy, Anna Lencova, Dalia G Said
AIMS: To develop a technique using amniotic membrane (AM) to prevent admixture of conjunctival epithelial cells and limbal explant-derived corneal epithelial cells in patients undergoing limbal stem cell transplantation. To compare this technique with the current method of 'sequential sector conjunctival epitheliectomy' (SSCE). METHODS: 26 patients with total limbal stem cell deficiency who underwent ocular surface reconstruction with limbal stem cells transplantation were retrospectively studied...
November 25, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879599/total-human-eye-allotransplantation-developing-surgical-protocols-for-donor-and-recipient-procedures
#8
Edward H Davidson, Eric W Wang, Jenny Y Yu, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Dawn J Wang, Nikisha Richards, Maxine Miller, Joel S Schuman, Kia M Washington
BACKGROUND: Vascularized composite allotransplantation of the eye is an appealing, novel method for reconstruction of the nonfunctioning eye. The authors' group has established the first orthotopic model for eye transplantation in the rat. With advancements in immunomodulation strategies together with new therapies in neuroregeneration, parallel development of human surgical protocols is vital for ensuring momentum toward eye transplantation in actual patients. METHODS: Cadaveric donor tissue harvest (n = 8) was performed with orbital exenteration, combined open craniotomy, and endonasal approach to ligate the ophthalmic artery with a cuff of paraclival internal carotid artery, for transection of the optic nerve at the optic chiasm and transection of cranial nerves III to VI and the superior ophthalmic vein at the cavernous sinus...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876558/prevalidation-trial-for-a-novel-in-vitro-eye-irritation-test-using-the-reconstructed-human-cornea-like-epithelial-model-mctt-hce%C3%A2
#9
Hyeri Yang, Da-Eun Kim, Won-Hee Jang, Susun An, Sun-A Cho, Mi-Sook Jung, Ji Eun Lee, Kyung-Wook Yeo, Sang Bum Koh, Tae-Cheon Jeong, Mi-Jeong Kang, Young-Jin Chun, Su-Hyon Lee, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae
Here, we report the results of a prevalidation trial for an in vitro eye irritation test (EIT) using the reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium, MCTT HCE™. The optimal cutoff to determine irritation in the prediction model was established at 35% with the receiver operation characteristics(ROC) curve for 126 substances. Within-lab(WL) and between-lab(BL) reproducibility was tested for 20 reference substances by 3 participating laboratories. Viability data described by mean±SD or ±1/2 difference between duplicate wells, and scatter plots, demonstrated the WL/BL consistency...
November 19, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874845/collaboration-and-emotions-to-the-test-the-experience-of-file-volunteers-in-hospices
#10
Giulia Mascagni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study seeks to provide an in-depth analysis of care-based interaction in the experiences of volunteers working in lenitherapy (pain therapy) through the case study of hospices in Florence, Italy. METHOD: A qualitative method of data collection was chosen: the field research made use of open-ended questionnaires distributed to trained but unspecialised volunteers (V = 32) and to volunteers with hospital-based medical expertise (PV = 35) acting for the Italian Lenitherapy Foundation (FILe) and operating in hospices within the ex-ASL (Local Health Unit) of Florence...
November 22, 2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870353/eye-size-and-set-in-small-bodied-fossil-primates-a-three-dimensional-method
#11
Alfred L Rosenberger, Tim D Smith, Valerie B DeLeon, Anne M Burrows, Robert Schenck, Lauren B Halenar
We introduce a new method to geometrically reconstruct eye volume and placement in small-bodied primates based on the three-dimensional contour of the intraorbital surface. We validate it using seven species of living primates, with dry skulls and wet dissections, and test its application on seven species of Paleogene fossils of interest. The method performs well even when the orbit is damaged and incomplete, lacking the postorbital bar and represented only by the orbital floor. Eye volume is an important quantity for anatomic and metabolic reasons, which due to differences in eye set, or position within (or outside) the bony orbit, can be underestimated in living and fossil forms when calculated from aperture diameter...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870349/ontogeny-of-the-postorbital-region-in-tarsiers-and-other-primates
#12
Valerie B DeLeon, Timothy D Smith, Alfred L Rosenberger
Bony structure of the postorbital region is a key trait distinguishing major clades of primates. Strepsirrhines share a postorbital bar, and anthropoids share a complete postorbital septum. At issue is whether the partial postorbital septum of tarsiers unites living tarsiers more closely with anthropoids than with certain large-eyed Eocene fossils. Previously we reported incomplete postorbital closure in tarsiers at birth. In this article, we document comparative analyses of the postorbital region in a broad range of perinatal primates...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867710/intraocular-scattering-compensation-in-retinal-imaging
#13
Dimitrios Christaras, Harilaos Ginis, Alexandros Pennos, Pablo Artal
Intraocular scattering affects fundus imaging in a similar way that affects vision; it causes a decrease in contrast which depends on both the intrinsic scattering of the eye but also on the dynamic range of the image. Consequently, in cases where the absolute intensity in the fundus image is important, scattering can lead to a wrong estimation. In this paper, a setup capable of acquiring fundus images and estimating objectively intraocular scattering was built, and the acquired images were then used for scattering compensation in fundus imaging...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859046/defensive-traits-exhibit-an-evolutionary-trade-off-and-drive-diversification-in-ants
#14
Benjamin D Blanchard, Corrie S Moreau
Evolutionary biologists have long predicted that evolutionary trade-offs among traits should constrain morphological divergence and species diversification. However, this prediction has yet to be tested in a broad evolutionary context in many diverse clades, including ants. Here, we reconstruct an expanded ant phylogeny representing 82% of ant genera, compile a new family-wide trait database, and conduct various trait-based analyses to show that defensive traits in ants do exhibit an evolutionary trade-off...
November 9, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857312/reconstruction-of-the-optical-system-of-personalized-eye-models-by-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Han-Yin Sun, Chi-Hung Lee, Chun-Chao Chuang
This study presents a practical method for reconstructing the optical system of personalized eye models by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Monocular images were obtained from a young (20-year-old) healthy subject viewing at a near point (10 cm). Each magnetic resonance image was first analyzed using several commercial software to capture the profile of each optical element of the human eye except for the anterior lens surface, which could not be determined because it overlapped the ciliary muscle. The missing profile was substituted with a modified profile from a generic eye model...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855310/between-leg-differences-in-challenging-single-limb-balance-performance-one-year-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#16
Anna L Hatton, Kay M Crossley, Ross A Clark, Timothy S Whitehead, Hayden G Morris, Adam G Culvenor
Following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, reconstructive surgery (ALCR) is often performed to mechanically stabilise the knee, however functional deficits often persist long after surgery. Impaired single-limb standing balance has been observed in the ACLR limb compared to healthy individuals. However, it remains inconclusive as to whether these same balance deficits exist between the injured and contralateral uninjured limbs, during challenging balance tasks, and at a time when patients are permitted to return to sport...
November 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845202/the-synganglion-of-the-jumping-spider-marpissa-muscosa-arachnida-salticidae-insights-from-histology-immunohistochemistry-and-microct-analysis
#17
Philip O M Steinhoff, Andy Sombke, Jannis Liedtke, Jutta M Schneider, Steffen Harzsch, Gabriele Uhl
Jumping spiders are known for their extraordinary cognitive abilities. The underlying nervous system structures, however, are largely unknown. Here, we explore and describe the anatomy of the brain in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757) by means of paraffin histology, X-ray microCT analysis and immunohistochemistry as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. In the prosoma, the CNS is a clearly demarcated mass that surrounds the esophagus. The anteriormost neuromere, the protocerebrum, comprises nine bilaterally paired neuropils, including the mushroom bodies and one unpaired midline neuropil, the arcuate body...
November 11, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843896/surgical-reconstruction-of-ocular-surface-tumors-using-fibrin-sealant-tissue-adhesive
#18
Aline Roseane Queiroz de Paiva, Larissa Abreu de Azevedo Fraga, Virgínia Laura Lucas Torres
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical outcomes of ocular surface reconstruction in corneal-conjunctival tumors using fibrin tissue adhesive. METHODS: A prospective noncomparative study was performed between May 2013 and February 2015. Patients were submitted to routine surgical procedure for corneal-conjunctival tumor excision followed by amniotic membrane graft transplantation using fibrin tissue adhesive (Evicel®, Omrix Biopharmaceuticals Ltd., Israel). Results were assessed on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th postoperative days to analyze subjective complaints, adhesiveness and positioning of the graft, potential complications and recurrences...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836332/ocular-pyoderma-gangrenosum-a-systematic-review
#19
Angela S Gupta, Alex G Ortega-Loayza
BACKGROUND: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare, ulcerative cutaneous disorder. Ophthalmic involvement in PG is atypical, but can have devastating consequences. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize ocular PG to allow for earlier diagnosis and therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review summarizing this clinical variant. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science. Data were extracted and studies were qualitatively assessed and analyzed...
November 8, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836236/optimising-ballistic-facial-coverage-from-military-fragmenting-munitions-a-consensus-statement
#20
J Breeze, D C Tong, D Powers, N A Martin, A M Monaghan, D Evriviades, J Combes, G Lawton, C Taylor, A Kay, J Baden, B Reed, N MacKenzie, A J Gibbons, S Heppell, R F Rickard
VIRTUS is the first United Kingdom (UK) military personal armour system to provide components that are capable of protecting the whole face from low velocity ballistic projectiles. Protection is modular, using a helmet worn with ballistic eyewear, a visor, and a mandibular guard. When all four components are worn together the face is completely covered, but the heat, discomfort, and weight may not be optimal in all types of combat. We organized a Delphi consensus group analysis with 29 military consultant surgeons from the UK, United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to identify a potential hierarchy of functional facial units in order of importance that require protection...
November 8, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
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