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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156494/comparative-analysis-of-vestibular-ecomorphology-in-birds
#1
Roger B J Benson, Ethan Starmer-Jones, Roger A Close, Stig A Walsh
The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155129/nervonoylceramide-c24-1cer-a-lipid-biomarker-for-ocular-irritants-released-from-the-3d-reconstructed-human-cornea-like-epithelium-mctt-hce%C3%A2
#2
Miri Lee, Kyung-Mi Joo, Seunghye Choi, Su-Hyon Lee, Seol Yeong Kim, Young-Jin Chun, Dalwoong Choi, Kyung-Min Lim
Due to invasive and painful procedures during in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, in vitro alternative methods have been widely investigated. Recently, 3D reconstructed human cornea-like epitheliums (RhCE) garner a huge attention. RhCEs employ the tissue viability as a primary endpoint to determine ocular irritancy but additional biomarkers may improve its predictive capacity. Here, we explored lipid biomarkers for ocular irritants in MCTT HCE™ RhCE model. Three irritants; sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride and triton X-100 were selected to represent anionic, cationic and non-ionic detergent respectively...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133433/attention-priority-map-of-face-images-in-human-early-visual-cortex
#3
Ce Mo, Dongjun He, Fang Fang
Attention priority maps are topographic representations that are utilized for attention selection and guidance of task-related behavior during visual processing. Previous studies have identified attention priority maps of simple artificial stimuli in multiple cortical and subcortical areas, while investigating neural correlates of priority maps of natural stimuli is complicated by the complexity of their spatial structure and the difficulty of behaviorally characterizing their priority map. To overcome these challenges, we reconstructed the topographic representations of upright/invered face images from fMRI BOLD signals in human early visual areas V1-V3 based on a voxel-wise population receptive field model and behaviorally characterized the priority map as the first saccadic eye movement pattern when subjects performed a face matching task, relative to the condition in which subjects performed a phase-scrambled face matching task...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128534/development-of-gelatin-ascorbic-acid-cryogels-for-potential-use-in-corneal-stromal-tissue-engineering
#4
Li-Jyuan Luo, Jui-Yang Lai, Shih-Feng Chou, Yi-Jen Hsueh, David Hui-Kang Ma
To offer an ideal hospitable environment for corneal keratocyte growth, the carrier materials can be functionalized with incorporation of signaling molecules to regulate cell biological events. This study reports, for the first time, the development of gelatin/ascorbic acid (AA) cryogels for keratocyte carriers in vitro and in vivo. The cryogel samples were fabricated by blending of gelatin with varying amounts of AA (0-300 mg) and carbodiimide cross-linking via cryogelation technique. Hydrophilic AA content in the carriers was found to significantly affect cross-linking degree and pore dimension of cryogels, thereby dictating their mechanical and biological stability and AA release profile...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114939/three-dimensional-endoscopy-for-endoscopic-salvage-nasopharyngectomy-preliminary-report-of-experience
#5
Jimmy Yu Wai Chan, William Ignace Wei
BACKGROUND: Prospective, observational study to assess the efficacy of salvage nasopharyngectomy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) via the endoscopic endonasal approach using a three-dimensional (3D) high-definition endoscopic system. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2017, 30 patients with recurrent NPC were recruited. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and perioperative data were recorded. Instrument ergonomics and perceived advantages were assessed by the operating, assisting, and observing surgeons...
November 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102813/spontaneous-brain-oscillations-as-neural-fingerprints-of-working-memory-capacities-a-resting-state-meg-study
#6
Victor Oswald, Younes Zerouali, Aubrée Boulet-Craig, Maja Krajinovic, Caroline Laverdière, Daniel Sinnett, Pierre Jolicoeur, Sarah Lippé, Karim Jerbi, Philippe Robaey
Short-term storage and mental information manipulation capacities in the human brain are key to healthy cognition. These brain processes collectively known as working memory (WM) are associated with modulations of rhythmic brain activity across multiple brain areas and frequencies. Yet, it is not clear whether - and, if so, how-intrinsic resting-state neuronal oscillations are related to individual WM capacities, as measured by standard neuropsychological tests. We addressed this question by probing the correlation between resting-state brain activity, recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG), and verbal and visuo-spatial WM indices obtained from the standardized Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV)...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092247/off-axis-reference-beam-for-full-field-swept-source-oct-and-holoscopy
#7
Dierck Hillmann, Hendrik Spahr, Helge Sudkamp, Carola Hain, Laura Hinkel, Gesa Franke, Gereon Hüttmann
In numerous applications, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) suffers from a limited imaging depth due to signal roll-off, a limited focal range, and autocorrelation noise. Here, we propose a parallel full-field FD-OCT imaging method that uses a swept laser source and an area camera in combination with an off-axis reference, which is incident on the camera at a small angle. As in digital off-axis holography, this angle separates autocorrelation signals and the complex conjugated mirror image from the actual signal in Fourier space...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083355/neuromuscular-recovery-in-acl-reconstruction-with-bone-tendon-patellar-bone-and-semitendinosus-gracilis-autograft
#8
Andrea Pasquini, Marco Jacopetti, Francesco Pogliacomi, Ileana Ramazzina, Cosimo Costantino
OBJECTIVE: Several different types of grafts have been used in ACL rupture. The purpose of the study was to compare the recovery of lower limbs muscle strength and proprioception in athletes, who underwent ACL reconstruction with Bone-Patellar-Tendon-Bone (BPTB) versus semitendinosus and gracilis (HS) autografts. METHODS: We enrolled 30 male amateur athletes. Each patient was evaluated by isokinetic test, triaxial accelerometer test and balance test with stabilometric platform...
October 18, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082670/two-visual-systems-in-one-eyestalk-the-unusual-optic-lobe-metamorphosis-in-the-stomatopod-alima-pacifica
#9
Chan Lin, Thomas W Cronin
The compound eyes of adult stomatopod crustaceans have two to six ommatidial rows at the equator, called the midband, that are often specialized for color and polarization vision. Beneath the retina, this midband specialization is represented as enlarged optic lobe lamina cartridges and a hernia-like expansion in the medulla. We studied how the optic lobe transforms from the larvae, which possess typical crustacean larval compound eyes without a specialized midband, through metamorphosis into the adults with the midband in a two midband-row species Alima pacifica...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079859/evaluation-of-decellularized-porcine-jejunum-as-a-matrix-for-lacrimal-gland-reconstruction-in-vitro-for-treatment-of-dry-eye-syndrome
#10
Isobel Massie, Kristina Spaniol, Andreas Barbian, Gereon Poschmann, Kai Stühler, Gerd Geerling, Marco Metzger, Sonja Mertsch, Stefan Schrader
Purpose: Dry eye syndrome (DES) can cause blindness in severe cases, but mainly palliative treatments exist. A tissue-engineered lacrimal gland (LG) could provide a curative treatment. We aimed to evaluate decellularized porcine jejunum (SIS-Muc) as a scaffold for porcine LG epithelial cells. Methods: To evaluate SIS-Muc as a potential scaffold, basement membrane proteins in SIS-Muc and native LG were compared (immunohistochemistry [IHC]). Porcine LG epithelial cells cultured on plastic were characterized (immunocytochemistry), and their culture supernatant was compared with porcine tears (proteomics)...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073912/automatic-non-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy-screening-system-based-on-color-fundus-image
#11
Zhitao Xiao, Xinpeng Zhang, Lei Geng, Fang Zhang, Jun Wu, Jun Tong, Philip O Ogunbona, Chunyan Shan
BACKGROUND: Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Automatic detection of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is significant for clinical diagnosis, early screening and course progression of patients. METHODS: This paper introduces the design and implementation of an automatic system for screening non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy based on color fundus images. Firstly, the fundus structures, including blood vessels, optic disc and macula, are extracted and located, respectively...
October 26, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070473/-surgical-correction-of-conjunctival-sac-narrowing-after-orbital-implantation-using-polyester-fiber-heart-patches
#12
Bing-Song Dong, Cui-Hua Xie, Lin-Jiang Chen, Ke Xiong, Juan Yang
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of correcting conjunctival sac narrowing following orbital implantation using polyester fiber heart patches instead of the skin autograft. METHODS: Twelve patients of conjunctival sac narrowing after orbital implantation (including 3 with orbital implant exposure) admitted in Nanfang Hospital between 2012 and 2016 received surgical correction of the conjunctival sac using polyester fiber heart patches. During the surgery, the central conjunctival sac was opened, the exposed area was covered with suitable polyester fiber heart patches, and the palpebral margin was sutured...
October 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059312/conjunctival-melanoma-in-chinese-patients-local-recurrence-metastasis-mortality-and-comparisons-with-caucasian-patients
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Chuandi Zhou, Yuxin Wang, Renbing Jia, Xianqun Fan
Purpose: To evaluate the prognosis in Chinese patients with conjunctival melanoma and determine its predictors. Further, to explore the racial differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes between Chinese and Caucasian patients. Methods: This cohort study included 57 eyes of 57 consecutive patients with pathologically verified conjunctival melanoma between 1996 and 2016. Medical records were reviewed for factors associated with the local recurrence, metastasis, and tumor-related mortality...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045333/relationship-between-optic-nerve-head-drusen-volume-and-structural-and-functional-optic-nerve-damage
#14
Alon Skaat, Stephanie Muylaert, Rachel S Mogil, Rafael L Furlanetto, Camila F Netto, Rudrani Banik, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Robert Ritch, Sung Chul Park
PURPOSE: To assess the relationships between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) volume, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field (VF) loss. METHODS: Patients with ONHD and no other ocular or systemic conditions that can affect RNFL or VF were enrolled. Serial enhanced depth imaging (EDI) optical coherence tomography (OCT) B-scans of the optic nerve head (interval between scans, ~30 μm) were obtained from each participant. ONHD volume was calculated for each eye by delineating the ONHD masses in each OCT B-scan using 3-dimensional reconstruction software...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041652/method-of-single-step-full-parallax-synthetic-holographic-stereogram-printing-based-on-effective-perspective-images-segmentation-and-mosaicking
#15
Jian Su, Quan Yuan, Yingqing Huang, Xiaoyu Jiang, Xingpeng Yan
With the principle of ray-tracing and the reversibility of light propagation, a new method of single-step full parallax synthetic holographic stereogram printing based on effective perspective images' segmentation and mosaicking (EPISM) is proposed. The perspective images of the scene are first sampled by a virtual camera and the exposing images, which are called synthetic effective perspective images, are achieved using the algorithm of effective perspective images' segmentation and mosaicking according to the propagation law of light and the viewing frustum effect of human eyes...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041051/systematic-characterization-and-optimization-of-3d-light-field-displays
#16
Hekun Huang, Hong Hua
One of the key issues in conventional stereoscopic displays is the well-known vergence-accommodation conflict problem due to the lack of the ability to render correct focus cues for 3D scenes. Recently several light field display methods have been explored to reconstruct a true 3D scene by sampling either the projections of the 3D scene at different depths or the directions of the light rays apparently emitted by the 3D scene and viewed from different eye positions. These methods are potentially capable of rendering correct or nearly correct focus cues and addressing the vergence-accommodation conflict problem...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040119/prospective-clinical-trial-of-corneal-reconstruction-with-biomaterial-free-cultured-oral-mucosal-epithelial-cell-sheets
#17
Yu Jeong Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Jin Suk Ryu, Yun Hee Kim, Saewha Jeon, Joo Youn Oh, Ho Kyung Choung, Sang In Khwarg, Won Ryang Wee, Mee Kum Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of transplantation with biomaterial-free cultured oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets (COMECs) for ocular reconstruction in subjects with total limbal stem cell deficiency. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial (NCT02149732) was conducted in 8 subjects with total limbal stem cell deficiency after approval from the institutional review board of Seoul National University Hospital (H-0707-043-213) and the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea...
October 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040029/autologous-fat-transfer-with-seffi-superficial-enhanced-fluid-fat-injection-technique-in-periocular-reconstruction
#18
Benjamin Riesco, Cristina Abascal, Ana Duarte, Rocio Mariel Flores, Guillermina Rouaux, Raul Sampayo, Francesco Bernardini, Martin Devoto
PURPOSE: To evaluate the aesthetic and functional outcomes of autologous fat transfer using the SEFFI (superficial enhanced fluid fat injection) technique for reconstruction of the periocular area. METHODS: Autologous fat injections prepared with the 0.5 mL and 0.8 mL SEFFI technique were used in four patients for periocular rehabilitation. RESULTS: Case 1 (C1): A patient with left-sided progressive facial hemiatrophy underwent ipsilateral volumizing with 0...
October 17, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036067/analyzing-visual-search-observers-using-eye-tracking-data-for-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-images
#19
Zhengqiang Jiang, Mini Das, Howard C Gifford
Visual-search (VS) model observers have the potential to provide reliable predictions of human-observer performance in detection-localization tasks. The purpose of this work was to examine some characteristics of human gaze on breast images with the goal of informing the design of our VS observers. Using a helmet-mounted eye-tracking system, we recorded the movement of gaze from human observers as they searched for masses in sets of 2D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images. The masses in this study were of a single profile...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018761/using-stem-cell-biology-to-study-and-treat-ophthalmologic-and-oculoplastic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Albert Y Wu, Michael G Daniel
With the rapid growth of the stem cell biology field, the prospect of regenerative medicine across multiple tissue types comes closer to reality. Several groundbreaking steps paved the way for applying stem cell biology to the several subfields within ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. These steps include the use of stem cell transplants as well as studies of various ophthalmologic pathologies at the molecular level. The necessity of stem cell transplant is readily apparent, having already been used for several studies such as artificial lacrimal gland design and eyelid reconstruction...
April 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
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