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Cognitive development music training

Anne Conlin, Jane Lea, Manohar Bance, Neil Chadha, Shaun Kilty, Frederick Kozak, Julian Savage, Ravindar Sidhu, Joseph Chen, Brian D Westerberg
BACKGROUND: Mental practice, the cognitive rehearsal of a task in the absence of overt physical movement, has been successfully used in teaching complex psychomotor tasks including sports and music, and recently, surgical skills. The objectives of this study were, 1) To develop and evaluate a mental practice protocol for mastoidectomy 2) To assess the immediate impact of mental practice on a mastoidectomy surgical task among senior Otolaryngology─Head & Neck Surgery (OHNS) residents...
2016: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Richard Kunert, Roel M Willems, Peter Hagoort
The Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) is a recently developed measure of perceptual music skills which has been shown to have promising psychometric properties. In this paper we extend the evaluation of its brief version to three kinds of validity using an individual difference approach. The brief PROMS displays good discriminant validity with working memory, given that it does not correlate with backward digit span (r = .04). Moreover, it shows promising criterion validity (association with musical training (r = ...
2016: PloS One
Alexander Winkler-Schwartz, Khalid Bajunaid, Muhammad A S Mullah, Ibrahim Marwa, Fahad E Alotaibi, Jawad Fares, Marta Baggiani, Hamed Azarnoush, Gmaan Al Zharni, Sommer Christie, Abdulrahman J Sabbagh, Penny Werthner, Rolando F Del Maestro
OBJECTIVE: Current selection methods for neurosurgical residents fail to include objective measurements of bimanual psychomotor performance. Advancements in computer-based simulation provide opportunities to assess cognitive and psychomotor skills in surgically naive populations during complex simulated neurosurgical tasks in risk-free environments. This pilot study was designed to answer 3 questions: (1) What are the differences in bimanual psychomotor performance among neurosurgical residency applicants using NeuroTouch? (2) Are there exceptionally skilled medical students in the applicant cohort? and (3) Is there an influence of previous surgical exposure on surgical performance? DESIGN: Participants were instructed to remove 3 simulated brain tumors with identical visual appearance, stiffness, and random bleeding points...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Aniruddh D Patel
This article argues that music can be used in cross-species research to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to spoken language. This is because music and language share certain cognitive processing mechanisms and because music offers specific advantages for cross-species research. Music has relatively simple building blocks (tones without semantic properties), yet these building blocks are combined into rich hierarchical structures that engage complex cognitive processing. I illustrate this point with regard to the processing of musical harmonic structure...
July 1, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Julian O'Kelly, Rebeka Bodak
BACKGROUND: Case studies of people with Huntington's disease (HD) report that music therapy provides a range of benefits that may improve quality of life; however, no robust music therapy assessment tools exist for this population. OBJECTIVE: Develop and conduct preliminary psychometric testing of a music therapy assessment tool for patients with advanced HD. METHODS: First, we established content and face validity of the Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Advanced HD (MATA-HD) through focus groups and field testing...
2016: Journal of Music Therapy
Eva Dittinger, Mylène Barbaroux, Mariapaola D'Imperio, Lutz Jäncke, Stefan Elmer, Mireille Besson
On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning...
October 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Katri Saarikivi, Vesa Putkinen, Mari Tervaniemi, Minna Huotilainen
Previous research has demonstrated that musicians show superior neural sound discrimination when compared to non-musicians, and that these changes emerge with accumulation of training. Our aim was to investigate whether individual differences in executive functions predict training-related changes in neural sound discrimination. We measured event-related potentials induced by sound changes coupled with tests for executive functions in musically trained and non-trained children aged 9-11 years and 13-15 years...
July 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Magda Tsolaki, Stelios Zygouris, Ioulietta Lazarou, Ioannis Kompatsiaris, Leontios Chatzileontiadis, Constantinos Votis, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Anastasios Karakostas, Constantina Karagkiozi, Tatianna Dimitriou, Thasyvoulos Tsiatsios, Stavros Dimitriadis, Ioannis Tarnanas, Dimitris Dranidis, Panagiotis Bamidis
Our research is implementing high quality next generation services for the Prediction, Early Diagnosis, Monitoring, and Support of patients with Cognitive Impairment (Subjective Cognitive Impairment -SCI-, Mild Cognitive Impairment -MCI-, Mild Dementia) and Education and Training for all stakeholders. Prediction, Early Diagnosis and Monitoring: The first idea was to Research and Develop a novel System using motion detection devices, depth cameras, and intelligent objects of everyday use (ranging from cooking implements such as kitchen to furniture (e...
September 2015: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Reyna L Gordon, Hilda M Fehd, Bruce D McCandliss
Children's engagement in music practice is associated with enhancements in literacy-related language skills, as demonstrated by multiple reports of correlation across these two domains. Training studies have tested whether engaging in music training directly transfers benefit to children's literacy skill development. Results of such studies, however, are mixed. Interpretation of these mixed results is made more complex by the fact that a wide range of literacy-related outcome measures are used across these studies...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Wendy L Magee, Richard J Siegert, Steve M Taylor, Barbara A Daveson, Gemma Lenton-Smith
BACKGROUND: Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness (PDOC) describes a population where a consciousness disorder has persisted for at least four weeks post injury but is still under investigation. Complex motor, sensory, communication, and cognitive impairments cause challenges with diagnosis, assessment, and intervention planning. Developing sensitive, reliable, and valid measures is a central concern. The auditory modality is the most sensitive for identifying awareness; however, the current standardized behavioral measures fail to provide adequate screening and measurement of auditory responsiveness...
2016: Journal of Music Therapy
Daniel Müllensiefen, Peter Harrison, Francesco Caprini, Amy Fancourt
Musical abilities and active engagement with music have been shown to be positively associated with many cognitive abilities as well as social skills and academic performance in secondary school students. While there is evidence from intervention studies that musical training can be a cause of these positive relationships, recent findings in the literature have suggested that other factors, such as genetics, family background or personality traits, might also be contributing factors. In addition, there is mounting evidence that self-concepts and beliefs can affect academic performance independently of intellectual ability...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Nathan S Rose, Peter G Rendell, Alexandra Hering, Matthias Kliegel, Gavin M Bidelman, Fergus I M Craik
Prospective memory (PM) - the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities - is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Kirsten E Smayda, Bharath Chandrasekaran, W Todd Maddox
Long-term music training can positively impact speech processing. A recent framework developed to explain such cross-domain plasticity posits that music training-related advantages in speech processing are due to shared cognitive and perceptual processes between music and speech. Although perceptual and cognitive processing advantages due to music training have been independently demonstrated, to date no study has examined perceptual and cognitive processing within the context of a single task. The present study examines the impact of long-term music training on speech learning from a rigorous, computational perspective derived from signal detection theory...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Clément François, Jennifer Grau-Sánchez, Esther Duarte, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Nina Kraus, Dana L Strait
Musician children and adults demonstrate biological distinctions in auditory processing relative to nonmusicians. For example, musician children and adults have more robust neural encoding of speech harmonics, more adaptive sound processing, and more precise neural encoding of acoustically similar sounds; these enhancements may contribute to musicians' linguistic advantages, such as for hearing speech in noise and reading. Such findings have inspired proposals that the auditory and cognitive stimulation induced by musical practice renders musicians enhanced according to biological metrics germane to communication...
March 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Reyna L Gordon, Magdalene S Jacobs, C Melanie Schuele, J Devin McAuley
This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (1) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (2) comorbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (3) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development...
March 2015: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Rachel M Brown, Robert J Zatorre, Virginia B Penhune
In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability...
2015: Progress in Brain Research
Bruno Gingras, Henkjan Honing, Isabelle Peretz, Laurel J Trainor, Simon E Fisher
Advances in molecular technologies make it possible to pinpoint genomic factors associated with complex human traits. For cognition and behaviour, identification of underlying genes provides new entry points for deciphering the key neurobiological pathways. In the past decade, the search for genetic correlates of musicality has gained traction. Reports have documented familial clustering for different extremes of ability, including amusia and absolute pitch (AP), with twin studies demonstrating high heritability for some music-related skills, such as pitch perception...
March 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Brittany A Dunning, Marilee A Martens, Melissa K Jungers
Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual delay and an affinity for music. It has been previously shown that familiar music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS who have had music training. There is also evidence that unfamiliar, or novel, music may also improve cognitive recall. This study was designed to examine if a novel melody could also enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS, and to more fully characterize music training in this population. We presented spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and its group name to 44 individuals with WS, and then tested their immediate and delayed memory using both recall and multiple choice formats...
November 16, 2014: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Miriam D Lense, Nathan Dankner, Jennifer R Pryweller, Tricia A Thornton-Wells, Elisabeth M Dykens
Congenital amusia is defined by marked deficits in pitch perception and production. Though historically examined only in otherwise typically developing (TD) populations, amusia has recently been documented in Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder with a unique auditory phenotype including auditory sensitivities and increased emotional responsiveness to music but variable musical skill. The current study used structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine neural correlates of amusia in 17 individuals with WS (4 of whom met criteria for amusia)...
2014: Brain Sciences
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