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Locally advanced prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344704/-the-role-of-psma-pet-ct-in-patients-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
J von Hardenberg, K-A Büsing, P Nuhn, M Ritter
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging for the localization of prostate cancer is increasingly available in Germany. The advances and limitations in different disease stages are reviewed. As the clinical relevance of oligometastatic disease in primary cancer detected by PSMA PET-CT imaging is not yet completely understood, it should only be used in clinical trials. In recurrent prostate cancer after therapy with curative intent, PSMA PET-CT shows encouraging potential for the planning of salvage therapy...
January 17, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343242/stage-of-cancer-diagnoses-among-migrants-from-the-former-soviet-union-in-comparison-to-the-german-population-are-diagnoses-among-migrants-delayed
#2
An Bin Cho, Philipp Jaehn, Bernd Holleczek, Heiko Becher, Volker Winkler
BACKGROUND: In this study, we compared stage at diagnosis, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of most frequent cancer diagnoses between re-settlers (Aussiedler) from the former Soviet Union and the general population in the Saarland in Germany to assess possible delays in diagnosis of cancer among this migrant group. METHODS: Lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin and stomach cancer diagnoses among a cohort of 18,619 re-settlers living in the Saarland between 1990 and 2009 were identified by the federal state's cancer registry...
January 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339377/robust-antitumor-responses-result-from-local-chemotherapy-and-ctla-4-blockade
#3
Charlotte E Ariyan, Mary Sue Brady, Robert H Siegelbaum, Jian Hu, Danielle M Bello, Jamie Green, Charles Fisher, Robert A Lefkowitz, Katherine S Panageas, Melissa Pulitzer, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Christopher Tipton, Harlan Robins, Taha Merghoub, Jianda Yuan, Achim Jungbluth, Jorge Blando, Padmanee Sharma, Alexander Y Rudensky, Jedd D Wolchok, James P Allison
Clinical responses to immunotherapy have been associated with augmentation of preexisting immune responses, manifested by heightened inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. However, many tumors have a non-inflamed microenvironment, and response rates to immunotherapy in melanoma have been <50%. We approached this problem by utilizing immunotherapy (CTLA-4 blockade) combined with chemotherapy to induce local inflammation. In murine models of melanoma and prostate cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and CTLA-4 blockade induced a shift in the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment, with infiltrating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells increasing the CD8/Foxp3 T-cell ratio...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311125/molecular-biomarkers-in-the-clinical-management-of-prostate-cancer
#4
Aaron M Udager, Scott A Tomlins
Prostate cancer, one of the most common noncutaneous malignancies in men, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcome. Although the majority of patients harbor indolent tumors that are essentially cured by local therapy, subsets of patients present with aggressive disease or recur/progress after primary treatment. With this in mind, modern clinical approaches to prostate cancer emphasize the need to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment via personalized medicine. Advances in our understanding of prostate cancer pathogenesis, coupled with recent technologic innovations, have facilitated the development and validation of numerous molecular biomarkers, representing a range of macromolecules assayed from a variety of patient sample types, to help guide the clinical management of prostate cancer, including early detection, diagnosis, prognostication, and targeted therapeutic selection...
January 8, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299904/clinical-significance-of-serum-adipokines-according-to-body-mass-index-in-patients-with-clinically-localized-prostate-cancer-undergoing-radical-prostatectomy
#5
Minyong Kang, Seok Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of 7 circulating adipokines according to body mass index (BMI) in Korean men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two of 65 prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent RP between 2015 and 2016 were evaluated. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to their BMI: non-obese (<25 kg/m²) and obese (≥25 kg/m²)...
January 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297495/treatment-effects-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Andrew J Evans
Nonsurgical treatments for prostate cancer include androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), radiation therapy (RT), ablative therapies, chemotherapy, and newly emerging immunotherapies. These approaches can be used alone or in combination depending on the clinical scenario. ADT is typically reserved for high-risk locally or systemically advanced disease that is not amenable to curative surgery. Radiation therapy can be used instead of surgery as primary therapy with curative intent for low-intermediate-risk disease as well as for control of locally advanced disease not suitable for surgery...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297493/the-genomics-of-prostate-cancer-emerging-understanding-with-technologic-advances
#7
Mark A Rubin, Francesca Demichelis
With the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies and large whole-exome and genome studies in prostate and other cancers, our understanding of the landscape of genomic alterations has dramatically been refined. In additional to well-known alterations in genomic regions involving 8p, 8q, 10q23, common ETS translocations and androgen receptor amplifications, newer technology have uncovered recurrent mutations in SPOP, FOXA1, MED12, IDH and complex large scale genomic alterations (eg, chromoplexy). This review surveys the enhanced landscape of genomic alterations in clinically localized and advanced prostate cancer...
January 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288137/a-prospective-cohort-and-extended-comprehensive-cohort-design-provided-insights-about-the-generalizability-of-a-pragmatic-trial-the-protect-prostate-cancer-trial
#8
Jenny L Donovan, Grace J Young, Eleanor I Walsh, Chris Metcalfe, J Athene Lane, Richard M Martin, Marta K Tazewell, Michael Davis, Tim J Peters, Emma L Turner, Nicola Mills, Hanan Khazragui, Tarnjit K Khera, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy
OBJECTIVES: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) deliver robust internally valid evidence but generalizability is often neglected. Design features built into the ProtecT RCT of treatments for localized prostate cancer (PCa) provided insights into its generalizability. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cluster-randomization created a prospective study of PSA-testing and a comprehensive-cohort study including groups choosing treatment or excluded from the RCT, as well as those randomized...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288121/contemporary-incidence-outcomes-of-prostate-cancer-lymph-node-metastases
#9
Adrien N Bernstein, Jonathan E Shoag, Ron Golan, Joshua A Halpern, Edward M Schaeffer, Wei-Chun Hsu, Paul L Nguyen, Art Sedrakyan, Ronald C Chen, Scott E Eggener, Jim C Hu
PURPOSE: The incidence of localized prostate cancer has declined with shifts in prostate cancer screening. While recent population-based studies demonstrate a stable incidence of loco-regional prostate cancer, this categorized organ-confined, extra-prostatic and lymph node positive disease together. The contemporary incidence of prostate cancer with pelvic lymph node metastases (PLNM) however, remains unknown. METHODS: We used Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) from 2004 to 2014 to identify men diagnosed with prostate cancer...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286005/current-concepts-and-trends-in-the-treatment-of-bone-metastases-in-patients-with-advanced-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Miriam Hegemann, Moritz Maas, Steffen Rausch, Simon Walz, Jens Bedke, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer
Bone metastases have a major impact on quality of life and survival of patients with advanced prostate cancer. In the last decade, the development and approval of substances inhibiting the vicious cycle of bone metastases have enabled the reduction of complications caused by bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. These drugs have raised awareness of the importance of skeletal-related events which in the meantime represent an important end point also in trials using agents not specifically designed for bone lesions...
December 29, 2017: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285777/analogous-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-using-the-accucyte%C3%A2-cytefinder%C3%A2-system-and-iset-system-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-and-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#11
Emma E van der Toom, Vincent P Groot, Stephanie A Glavaris, Georgios Gemenetzis, Heather J Chalfin, Laura D Wood, Christopher L Wolfgang, Jean J M C H de la Rosette, Theo M de Reijke, Kenneth J Pienta
INTRODUCTION: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide important information on patient's prognosis and treatment efficacy. Currently, a plethora of methods is available for the detection of these rare cells. We compared the outcomes of two of those methods to enumerate and characterize CTCs in patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). First, the selection-free AccuCyte® - CyteFinder® system (RareCyte® , Inc., Seattle, WA) and second, the ISET system (Rarecells Diagnostics, France), a CTC detection method based on cell size-exclusion...
December 29, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280452/conventional-versus-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-for-localized-or-locally-advanced-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-along-with-therapeutic-implications
#12
REVIEW
Niloy R Datta, Emanuel Stutz, Susanne Rogers, Stephan Bodis
PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of conventional radiation therapy (CRT) and hypofractionated radiation therapy (HRT) for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (LLPCa). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 599 abstracts were extracted from 5 databases and screened in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Only phase III trials randomized between CRT and HRT in LLPCa with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up data were considered...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275834/re-morbidity-and-mortality-of-locally-advanced-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-analysis-comparing-radical-prostatectomy-versus-external-beam-radiation
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275414/a-prospective-audit-of-intermittent-anti-androgen-verses-pituitary-blockade-suggests-a-bipolar-androgen-type-strategy-may-be-safe-in-untreated-prostate-cancer
#14
Timothy Oliver, Peter Wilson, Wendy Ansell, Tim Philp, Frank Chinegwundoh, Jonathan Shamash, Greg Shaw, Amar Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: A locally advanced Gleason 4 + 4 prostate cancer patient who was on self-medication with intermittent anti-androgen monotherapy (iAAm) over 14 years suggested that raised testosterone was not dangerous and this suggestion needed investigating. PATIENTS: Others who were on AA continuously were recruited to ongoing audit of intermittent hormone therapy (IHT) and iAAm outcomes were compared with intermittent LHRH therapy (iLHRH or iMAB). RESULTS: Between 1994 and 2007, 111 patients sought IHT because of side effects of treatment...
December 22, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274670/prediction-of-organ-confined-disease-after-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-in-patients-with-clinically-locally-advanced-prostate-cancer
#15
Ho Won Kang, Hae Do Jung, Joo Yong Lee, Jong Kyou Kwon, Seong Uk Jeh, Kang Su Cho, Won Sik Ham, Young Deuk Choi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the preoperative predictive factors that could identify subsets of favorable patients who can be possibly cured with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) alone in locally advanced prostate cancer (LAPCa). Our study was designed to identify clinical predictors of pathologic organ-confined disease (pOCD) in RARP setting. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2013, clinicopathological and oncological data from 273 consecutive men undergoing robot-assisted RP with extended PLND for clinically LAPCa were reviewed in a single-institution, retrospectively...
December 20, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225870/prostate-cancer-infiltrating-the-bladder-sphincter-successfully-treated-with-electrochemotherapy-a-case-report
#16
Nina Klein, Enric Gunther, Stefan Zapf, Rachid El-Idrissi, Johannes Atta, Michael Stehling
We demonstrate feasibility and safety of Electrochemotherapy for treatment of a prostate cancer (PCa) with infiltration of the urethral sphincter. The patient remained continent and potent, toxicity was low, and 6 months of follow-up showed no cancer activity. We conclude that Electrochemotherapy should be further evaluated as treatment strategy for locally advanced PCa.
December 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204705/rankl-rank-opg-cytokine-receptor-system-mrna-expression-pattern-in-bph-primary-and-metastatic-prostate-cancer-disease
#17
Frank Christoph, Frank König, Steffen Lebentrau, Burkhard Jandrig, Hans Krause, Romy Strenziok, Martin Schostak
BACKGROUND: The cytokine system RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand), its receptor RANK and the antagonist OPG (osteoprotegerin) play a critical role in bone turnover. Our investigation was conducted to describe the gene expression at primary tumour site in prostate cancer patients and correlate the results with Gleason Score and PSA level. METHODS: Seventy-one samples were obtained from prostate cancer patients at the time of radical prostatectomy and palliative prostate resection (n = 71)...
December 4, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204106/morbidity-dynamics-in-proton-photon-or-photon-radiation-therapy-for-locally-advanced-prostate-cancer
#18
Evgeny V Khmelevsky, Irina N Kancheli, Vladimir S Khoroshkov, Andrey D Kaprin
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency and long-term dynamics of early and late post irradiation damage after proton-photon or photon therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer. Background: The results of a randomized study of proton-photon or photon therapy using several fractionation regimes were analyzed in 272 patients with high and intermediate risk of progression. Materials and methods: Three variants of proton boost fractionation were studied sequentially: 3...
January 2018: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201511/robot-assisted-radical-perineal-prostatectomy-first-experience-of-15-cases
#19
Volkan Tuğcu, Oktay Akça, Abdulmuttalip Şimşek, İsmail Yiğitbaşı, Selçuk Şahin, Ali İhsan Taşçı
Objective: Minimally invasive techniques are increasingly evolving and preferred to reduce surgical induced morbidity and mortality and minimize the challenges of surgical techniques. Especially radical perineal prostatectomy (RPP) includes some challenges like working in a deep and narrow space and challenging ergonomics for the surgeons. Because of these issues open RPP is still performed in experienced centers. In order to reduce these difficulties, robot- assisted radical perineal prostatectomy (r-RPP) is developed...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194687/serum-free-complete-medium-an-alternative-medium-to-mimic-androgen-deprivation-in-human-prostate-cancer-cell-line-models
#20
Michael V Fiandalo, John H Wilton, Krystin M Mantione, Carol Wrzosek, Kristopher M Attwood, Yue Wu, James L Mohler
BACKGROUND: Almost all men who present with advanced prostate cancer (CaP) and some men who fail therapy for clinically localized CaP are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). CaP cell lines are used to identify and characterize new agents for ADT or investigate mechanisms of ADT resistance. CaP cell lines are maintained in culture medium that contains fetal bovine serum, which contains testosterone (T). Androgen deprivation experiments are performed using media supplemented with androgen-free serum, such as charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum (CS-FBS)...
December 1, 2017: Prostate
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