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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922723/the-american-indian-and-alaska-native-dentist-workforce-in-the-united-states
#1
Elizabeth Mertz, Cynthia Wides, Paul Gates
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to describe the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) dentist workforce, the general practice patterns of these providers, and their contributions to oral health care for AI/AN and underserved patients. METHODS: A national sample survey of underrepresented minority dentists was conducted in 2012 and received a 34 percent response rate for self-reported AI/AN dentists. Data were weighted for selection and response bias to be nationally representative...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920306/underrepresented-minority-dentists-quantifying-their-numbers-and-characterizing-the-communities-they-serve
#2
Elizabeth A Mertz, Cynthia D Wides, Aubri M Kottek, Jean Marie Calvo, Paul E Gates
The underrepresentation of Blacks, Hispanics or Latinos, and American Indians or Alaska Natives among dentists raises concerns about the diversity of the dental workforce, disparities in access to dental care and in oral health status, and social justice. We quantified the shortage of underrepresented minority dentists and examined these dentists' practice patterns in relation to the characteristics of the communities they serve. The underrepresented minority dentist workforce is disproportionately smaller than, and unevenly distributed in relation to, minority populations in the United States...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916109/diversity-matters-in-academic-radiology-acknowledging-and-addressing-unconscious-bias
#3
Brenda J Allen, Kavita Garg
To meet challenges related to changing demographics, and to optimize the promise of diversity, radiologists must bridge the gap between numbers of women and historically underrepresented minorities in radiology and radiation oncology as contrasted with other medical specialties. Research reveals multiple ways that women and underrepresented minorities can benefit radiology education, research, and practice. To achieve those benefits, promising practices promote developing and implementing strategies that support diversity as an institutional priority and cultivate shared responsibility among all members to create inclusive learning and workplace environments...
December 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900472/tissue-specific-expression-of-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-gene-variants-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#4
Jana Fišerová Jurečková, Eva Sýkorová, Said Hafidh, David Honys, Jiří Fajkus, Miloslava Fojtová
In tobacco, three sequence variants of the TERT gene have been described. We revealed unbalanced levels of TERT variant transcripts in vegetative tobacco tissues and enhanced TERT transcription and telomerase activity in reproductive tissues. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the maintenance of telomeres, structures delimiting ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. In the Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) allotetraploid plant, three sequence variants (paralogs) of the gene coding for the telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (TERT) have been described, two of them derived from the maternal N...
November 29, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856741/universal-screening-increases-the-representation-of-low-income-and-minority-students-in-gifted-education
#5
David Card, Laura Giuliano
Low-income and minority students are substantially underrepresented in gifted education programs. The disparities persist despite efforts by many states and school districts to broaden participation through changes in their eligibility criteria. One explanation for the persistent gap is that standard processes for identifying gifted students, which are based largely on the referrals of parents and teachers, tend to miss qualified students from underrepresented groups. We study this hypothesis using the experiences of a large urban school district following the introduction of a universal screening program for second graders...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852433/decoupling-of-the-minority-phd-talent-pool-and-assistant-professor-hiring-in-medical-school-basic-science-departments-in-the-us
#6
Kenneth D Gibbs, Jacob Basson, Imam Xierali, David A Broniatowski
Faculty diversity is a longstanding challenge in the US. However, we lack a quantitative and systemic understanding of how the career transitions into assistant professor positions of Ph.D. scientists from underrepresented minority (URM) and well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds compare. Between 1980 and 2013, the number of PhD graduates from URM backgrounds increased by a factor of 9.3, compared with a 2.6-fold increase in the number of PhD graduates from WR groups. However, the number of scientists from URM backgrounds hired as assistant professors in medical school basic science departments was not related to the number of potential candidates (R2=0...
November 17, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834037/assessing-the-learning-environment-for-medical-students-an-evaluation-of-a-novel-survey-instrument-in-four-medical-schools
#7
Linda H Pololi, Arthur T Evans, Leslie Nickell, Annette C Reboli, Lisa D Coplit, Margaret L Stuber, Vasilia Vasiliou, Janet T Civian, Robert T Brennan
OBJECTIVE: A practical, reliable, and valid instrument is needed to measure the impact of the learning environment on medical students' well-being and educational experience and to meet medical school accreditation requirements. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, medical students were surveyed at the end of their first, second, and third year of studies at four medical schools. The survey assessed students' perceptions of the following nine dimensions of the school culture: vitality, self-efficacy, institutional support, relationships/inclusion, values alignment, ethical/moral distress, work-life integration, gender equity, and ethnic minority equity...
November 10, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824260/underrepresented-minorities-in-medical-school-admissions-a-qualitative-study
#8
Margaret A Hadinger
: Phenomenon: This study explored Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino medical students' perceptions of the medical school admissions process. Previous research has explored other elements of the medical education continuum. However, little is known regarding minorities' perceptions of navigating the medical school admissions process. To address this gap in the literature, this exploratory study suggests a conceptual model describing why minorities apply to medical school and the influences affecting their admissions experience...
November 8, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815549/pregnant-women-s-attitudes-about-topical-microbicides-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-bacterial-vaginosis-during-pregnancy
#9
Marina Catallozzi, Lauren Dapena Fraiz, Katharine M Hargreaves, Gregory D Zimet, Lawrence R Stanberry, Adam J Ratner, Shari E Gelber, Susan L Rosenthal
We sought to understand pregnant women's product preference and likelihood of use of topical microbicides for bacterial vaginosis (BV) prevention and treatment. Pregnant women (N = 196) in a obstetrics clinic completed a survey between June 2014 and January 2015 about vaginal product use for BV. This cross-sectional study explored product preferences, likelihood of product use for BV management and father of the baby (FOB) involvement. Most participants were under 30 (68%) and underrepresented minorities (47% Hispanic, 21% African-American)...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812847/needs-priorities-and-recommendations-for-engaging-underrepresented-populations-in-clinical-research-a-community-perspective
#10
Jennifer Cunningham Erves, Tilicia L Mayo-Gamble, Alecia Malin-Fair, Alaina Boyer, Yvonne Joosten, Yolanda C Vaughn, Lisa Sherden, Patrick Luther, Stephania Miller, Consuelo H Wilkins
Engaging underrepresented groups in outcomes research is a public health priority for reducing health and health care disparities; yet, engaging these groups is challenging. Failure to involve these underrepresented populations in research further exacerbates these disparities. This article presents the health and research priorities of diverse groups of underrepresented populations in biomedical research, their concerns for participating in research, and strategies to engage them in their healthcare and research studies...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793506/diversity-inclusion-and-representation-it%C3%A2-is-time-to-act
#11
Johnson B Lightfoote, Curtiland Deville, Loralie D Ma, Karen M Winkfield, Katarzyna J Macura
Although the available pool of qualified underrepresented minority and women medical school graduates has expanded in recent decades, their representation in the radiological professions has improved only marginally. Recognizing this deficit in diversity, many professional medical societies, including the ACR, have incorporated these values as core elements of their missions and instituted programs that address previously identified barriers to a more diverse workforce. These barriers include insufficient exposure of underrepresented minorities and women to radiology and radiation oncology; misperception of these specialties as non-patient care and not community service; unconscious bias; and delayed preparation of candidates to compete successfully for residency positions...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737294/impact-of-a-musculoskeletal-clerkship-on-orthopedic-surgery-applicant-diversity
#12
Daniel A London, Ryan P Calfee, Martin I Boyer
Orthopedic surgery lacks racial and sexual diversity, which we hypothesized stems from absence of exposure to orthopedics during medical school. We conducted a study to determine whether diversity of matched orthopedic surgery residency applicants increased after introduction of a required third-year rotation. We compared 2 groups: precurriculum and postcurriculum. The postcurriculum group was exposed to a required 1-month musculoskeletal rotation during the third year of medical school. Comparisons were made of percentage of total students exposed to orthopedics, percentage who applied to and matched to orthopedic surgery, and proportion of women and underrepresented minorities...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718346/prevalence-of-auditory-processing-disorder-in-school-aged-children-in-the-mid-atlantic-region
#13
Kyoko Nagao, Tammy Riegner, Jennifer Padilla, L Ashleigh Greenwood, Jessica Loson, Sarah Zavala, Thierry Morlet
BACKGROUND: Although auditory processing disorder (APD) is a widely recognized impairment, its prevalence and demographic characteristics are not precisely known in the pediatric population. PURPOSE: To examine the demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with APD at a tertiary health-care facility and the prevalence of pediatric APD. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 243 children (149 boys and 94 girls) who were referred to the Nemours Audiology Clinics in the Delaware Valley for an APD evaluation...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697287/the-generalizability-of-nci-sponsored-clinical-trials-accrual-among-women-with-gynecologic-malignancies
#14
Grace Mishkin, Lori M Minasian, Elise C Kohn, Anne-Michelle Noone, Sarah M Temkin
OBJECTIVES: Enrollment of a representative population to cancer clinical trials ensures scientific reliability and generalizability of results. This study evaluated the similarity of patients enrolled in NCI-supported group gynecologic cancer trials to the incident US population. METHODS: Accrual to NCI-sponsored ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancer treatment trials between 2003 and 2012 were examined. Race, ethnicity, age, and insurance status were compared to the analogous US patient population estimated using adjusted SEER incidence data...
December 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694299/developing-and-testing-the-short-form-knowledge-efficacy-and-practices-instrument-for-assessing-cultural-competence
#15
Gerard J Garvan, Cynthia W Garvan, Linda S Behar-Horenstein
The importance of educating dental students in cultural competence has been widely emphasized, but there is a need to assess cultural competence in a consistent and reliable way. The aims of this study were to determine latent constructs for the initial measure of cultural competence for oral health providers, the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI), and to determine how well these factors related to previously identified latent constructs. Data were collected in surveys of dental students and from dental hygiene, dental assisting, and dental faculty members in 44 academic dental institutions from 2012 to 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692354/recruitment-of-underrepresented-minorities-in-medical-school-through-a-student-led-initiative
#16
Joyce N Achenjang, Carol L Elam
The goal of matriculating a diverse medical cohort remains important for institutions across the country as it results in an increase in the diversity of the physician workforce. By admitting students who are underrepresented in medicine, the pressing health needs of the growing and diverse patient population of our country can be met by physicians who are representative of their communities. Given the challenges of choosing from a small pool of applicants, medical schools should consider seeking the support of current medical students in expanding the applicant pool and recruiting the next generation of physicians...
2016: Journal of the National Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686421/a-case-study-of-engaging-hard-to-reach-participants-in-the-research-process-community-advisors-on-research-design-and-strategies-cards-%C3%A2
#17
Betty L Kaiser, Gay R Thomas, Barbara J Bowers
Lack of diversity among study participants in clinical research limits progress in eliminating health disparities. The engagement of lay stakeholders, such as patient or community advisory boards (CABs), has the potential to increase recruitment and retention of underrepresented groups by providing a structure for gathering feedback on research plans and materials from this target population. However, many CABs intentionally recruit prominent stakeholders who are connected to or comfortable with research and academia and thus may not accurately represent the perspectives of underrepresented groups who have been labeled hard-to-reach, including racial minorities and low-income or low-literacy populations...
September 30, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686332/can-lay-community-advisors-improve-the-clarity-of-research-participant-recruitment-materials-and-increase-the-likelihood-of-participation
#18
Barbara Bowers, Nora Jacobson, Anna Krupp
Despite decades of effort, lower income people and ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented as participants in health research. A group of racially and ethnically diverse, lower income community members (Community Advisors on Research Design and Strategies: CARDS®) was trained to review study designs and procedures and provide recommendations to researchers for increasing participation and making research materials more understandable to members of underrepresented communities. In this mixed methods study, one participant group (n = 55) was shown research materials (recruitment documents and a consent form) developed by a research team and approved by the local IRB...
September 30, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680759/home-dialysis-utilization-among-racial-and-ethnic-minorities-in-the-united-states-at-the-national-regional-and-state-level
#19
Eric L Wallace, Janice Lea, Ninad Chaudhary, Russell Griffin, Eric Hammelman, Joshua Cohen, James A Sloand
♦ Background: United States Renal Data System (USRDS) data from 2014 show that African Americans (AA) are underrepresented in the home dialysis population, with 6.4% versus 9.2% utilization in the general populace. This racial disparity may be inaccurately ascribed to the nation as a whole if regional and inter-state variability exists. This investigation sought to examine home dialysis utilization by minority Medicare beneficiary populations across the US nationally, regionally, and by individual state. ♦ Methods: The 2012 Medicare 100% Outpatient Standard Analytic File was used to identify all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) patients, with state of residence and race, receiving an outpatient dialysis facility bill type...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680316/implicit-racial-bias-in-medical-school-admissions
#20
Quinn Capers, Daniel Clinchot, Leon McDougle, Anthony G Greenwald
PROBLEM: Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. APPROACH: To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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