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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326101/pathways-over-time-functional-genomics-research-in-an-introductory-laboratory-course
#1
Todd D Reeves, Douglas M Warner, Larry H Ludlow, Clare M O'Connor
National reports have called for the introduction of research experiences throughout the undergraduate curriculum, but practical implementation at many institutions faces challenges associated with sustainability, cost, and large student populations. We describe a novel course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) that introduces introductory-level students to research in functional genomics in a 3-credit, multisection laboratory class. In the Pathways over Time class project, students study the functional conservation of the methionine biosynthetic pathway between divergent yeast species...
2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322456/method-for-detecting-and-studying-genome-wide-mutations-in-single-living-cells-in-real-time
#2
Marina Elez, Lydia Robert, Ivan Matic
DNA sequencing and fluctuation test have been choice methods for studying DNA mutations for decades. Although invaluable tools allowing many important discoveries on mutations, they are both highly influenced by fitness effects of mutations, and therefore suffer several limits. Fluctuation test is for example limited to mutations that produce an identifiable phenotype, which is the minority of all generated mutations. Genome-wide extrapolations using this method are therefore difficult. DNA sequencing detects almost all DNA mutations in population of cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304727/efficiency-of-different-strategies-to-mitigate-ascertainment-bias-when-using-snp-panels-in-diversity-studies
#3
Dorcus Kholofelo Malomane, Christian Reimer, Steffen Weigend, Annett Weigend, Ahmad Reza Sharifi, Henner Simianer
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels have been widely used to study genomic variations within and between populations. Methods of SNP discovery have been a matter of debate for their potential of introducing ascertainment bias, and genetic diversity results obtained from the SNP genotype data can be misleading. We used a total of 42 chicken populations where both individual genotyped array data and pool whole genome resequencing (WGS) data were available. We compared allele frequency distributions and genetic diversity measures (expected heterozygosity (H e ), fixation index (F ST ) values, genetic distances and principal components analysis (PCA)) between the two data types...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303691/early-preparation-and-inspiration-for-stem-careers-preliminary-report-of-the-epidemiology-challenge-randomized-intervention-2014-2015
#4
Robin Taylor Wilson, Emma Watson, Mark Kaelin, Wendy Huebner
OBJECTIVES: Early Preparation and Inspiration for Careers in the Biomedical Sciences (EPIC) is a university-high school partnership for increasing high school student interest and persistence in the biomedical sciences. EPIC includes a year-long, project-based learning intervention, the Think Like an Epidemiologist Challenge (Epi Challenge). We describe the main components of the Epi Challenge and report on short-term changes in scientific literacy and science-related motivations and beliefs...
January 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282606/appraisal-support-from-natural-mentors-self-worth-and-psychological-distress-examining-the-experiences-of-underrepresented-students-transitioning-through-college
#5
Noelle M Hurd, Jamie Albright, Audrey Wittrup, Andrea Negrete, Janelle Billingsley
The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260373/minority-veterans-are-more-willing-to-participate-in-complex-studies-compared-to-non-minorities
#6
Leonardo Tamariz, Irene Kirolos, Fiorella Pendola, Erin N Marcus, Olveen Carrasquillo, Jimmy Rivadeneira, Ana Palacio
BACKGROUND: Minorities are an underrepresented population in clinical trials. A potential explanation for this underrepresentation could be lack of willingness to participate. The aim of our study was to evaluate willingness to participate in different hypothetical clinical research scenarios and to evaluate the role that predictors (e.g. health literacy) could have on the willingness of minorities to participate in clinical research studies. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study at the Miami VA Healthcare system and included primary care patients with hypertension...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221535/outcomes-of-global-public-health-training-program-for-us-minority-students-a-case-report
#7
Noa Krawczyk, Luz Claudio
The numbers and success of minority students in science and the health fields remain relatively low. This study presents the outcomes of a research training program as an illustrative case study. The Short-Term Training Program for Minority Students (STPMS) recruits underrepresented minority undergraduate and graduate students for immersion in research training. A total of 69 students participated in the STPMS between 1995 and 2012, and 59 of these completed our survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on the students' motivations and professional development...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218919/the-diversity-and-disparity-in-biomedical-informatics-ddbi-workshop
#8
William M Southerland, S Joshua Swamidass, Philip R O Payne, Laura Wiley, ClarLynda Williams-DeVane
The Diversity and Disparity in Biomedical Informatics (DDBI) workshop will be focused on complementary and critical issues concerned with enhancing diversity in the informatics workforce as well as diversity in patient cohorts. According to the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) at the NIH, diversity refers to the inclusion of the following traditionally underrepresented groups: African Americans/Blacks, Asians (>30 countries), American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Latino or Hispanic (20 countries)...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203028/investigating-ethnic-minorities-perceptions-of-safety-climate-in-the-construction-industry
#9
Albert P C Chan, Francis K W Wong, Carol K H Hon, Sainan Lyu, Arshad Ali Javed
INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of ethnic minorities (EMs) have been employed in the construction industry to alleviate severe labor shortages in many countries. Unfortunately, statistics show that EMs have higher fatal and non-fatal occupational injury rates than their local counterparts. However, EMs are often underrepresented in safety climate (SC) research as they are difficult to reach and gauge their perception. A positive relationship has been widely found between SC and safety performance...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196426/a-model-for-postdoctoral-education-that-promotes-minority-and-majority-success-in-the-biomedical-sciences
#10
Arri Eisen, Douglas C Eaton
How does the United States maintain the highest-quality research and teaching in its professional science workforce and ensure that those in this workforce are effectively trained and representative of national demographics? In the pathway to science careers, the postdoctoral stage is formative, providing the experiences that define the independent work of one's first faculty position. It is also a stage in which underrepresented minorities (URMs) disproportionately lose interest in pursuing academic careers in science and, models suggest, a point at which interventions to increase proportions of URMs in such careers could be most effective...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196425/providing-social-support-for-underrepresented-racial-and-ethnic-minority-phd-students-in-the-biomedical-sciences-a-career-coaching-model
#11
Simon N Williams, Bhoomi K Thakore, Richard McGee
Improvement in the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions has been unsatisfactory. Although this is a complex problem, one key issue is that graduate students often rely on research mentors for career-related support, the effectiveness of which can be variable. We present results from a novel academic career "coaching" intervention, one aim of which was to provide supplementary social support for PhD students, particularly those from underrepresented backgrounds...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186153/the-peer-review-gap-a-longitudinal-case-study-of-gendered-publishing-and-occupational-patterns-in-a-female-rich-discipline-western-north-america-1974-2016
#12
Shannon Tushingham, Tiffany Fulkerson, Katheryn Hill
Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that women continue to be underrepresented in publication output in the sciences. This is true even in female-rich fields such as archaeology. Since most gender-related publication studies rely on data from peer-reviewed journals, it would be instructive, though challenging, to also track publication output in non-refereed and professional or industry venues, which tend to be more accessible to those working in extra-academic settings. This comparison is important in fields such as archaeology in which the vast majority (approximately 90%) of practitioners in the USA work for private sector cultural resource management firms and federal and state agencies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167224/implementation-of-a-learning-assistant-program-improves-student-performance-on-higher-order-assessments
#13
Nadia Sellami, Shanna Shaked, Frank A Laski, Kevin M Eagan, Erin R Sanders
Learning assistant (LA) programs have been implemented at a range of institutions, usually as part of a comprehensive curricular transformation accompanied by a pedagogical switch to active learning. While this shift in pedagogy has led to increased student learning gains, the positive effect of LAs has not yet been distinguished from that of active learning. To determine the effect that LAs would have beyond a student-centered instructional modality that integrated active learning, we introduced an LA program into a large-enrollment introductory molecular biology course that had already undergone a pedagogical transformation to a highly structured, flipped (HSF) format...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145745/recruitment-of-underrepresented-minority-researchers-into-hiv-prevention-research-the-hiv-prevention-trials-network-hptn-scholars-program
#14
Sten H Vermund, Erica L Hamilton, Sam Griffith, Larissa Jennings, Typhanye V Dyer, Kenneth H Mayer, Darrell P Wheeler
Most US investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the US epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12-18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128648/a-hypertension-emergency-department-intervention-aimed-at-decreasing-disparities-design-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Heather M Prendergast, Marina Del Rios, Renee Petzel-Gimbar, Daniel Garside, Sara Heinert, Sandra Escobar-Schulz, Pavitra Kotini-Shah, Michael Brown, Jinsong Chen, Joseph Colla, Marian Fitzgibbon, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Martha Daviglus
Effective interventions to identify and treat uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), particularly in underrepresented populations that use the emergency department (ED) for primary care, are critically needed. Uncontrolled HTN contributes significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is more frequently encountered among patients presenting to the ED as compared to the primary care setting. EDs serve as the point of entry into the health care system for high-risk patient populations, including minority and low-income patients...
November 8, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112341/the-interaction-effects-between-race-and-functional-disabilities-on-the-prevalence-of-self-reported-periodontal-diseases-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011-2012
#16
R Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Racial minority groups and adults with functional disabilities (FDs) disproportionally experience periodontal diseases. However, little is known about the interactions of these two characteristics in disease prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between FDs and periodontal experiences, and to identify whether race has a particular influence on this relationship. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012, in a representative sample of adults aged 30 years and older...
November 10, 2017: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093142/dental-student-resident-and-faculty-attitudes-toward-treating-medicaid-patients
#17
Linda S Behar-Horenstein, Xiaoying Feng
Failure to receive proper oral health care including both prevention and maintenance is influenced by myriad and complex social, economic, and dental factors, including access to care. Reducing oral health disparities requires changes in the preparation of future dentists as well as measuring and influencing the attitudes and knowledge of practicing dentists. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that future dentists (students and residents) and faculty members at one U.S. dental school would treat Medicaid participants...
November 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091958/retention-and-promotion-of-women-and-underrepresented-minority-faculty-in-science-and-engineering-at-four-large-land-grant-institutions
#18
Marcia Gumpertz, Raifu Durodoye, Emily Griffith, Alyson Wilson
RESULTS BY GENDER: In the most recent cohort, 2002-2015, the experiences of men and women differed substantially among STEM disciplines. Female assistant professors were more likely than men to leave the institution and to leave without tenure in engineering, but not in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources or physical and mathematical sciences. In contrast, the median times to promotion from associate to full professor were similar for women and men in engineering and the physical and mathematical sciences, but one to two years longer for women than men in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068497/leveraging-natural-capital-to-solve-the-shared-education-and-conservation-crisis
#19
Kathryn T Stevenson, M Nils Peterson, Robert R Dunn
Education and conservation have a shared crisis: neither fully serves diverse populations. Where poverty, race, and ethnicity covary, those left behind educationally are disproportionately from underrepresented groups. Global achievement gaps associated with socioeconomic and minority status have existed for decades (Morgan et al. 2016). These populations are also underrepresented in conservation professions; thus, conservation decisions often reflect the views of elites (Foster et al. 2014). Conservation and education have shared problems, and we argue they have shared solutions...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063662/breast-density-in-multiethnic-women-presenting-for-screening-mammography
#20
Bridget A Oppong, Chiranjeev Dash, Suzanne O'Neill, Yinan Li, Kepher Makambi, Edward Pien, Erini Makariou, Tesha Coleman, Lucile L Adams-Campbell
Data on ethnic variations in breast density are limited and often not inclusive of underrepresented minorities. As breast density is associated with elevated breast cancer risk, investigating racial and ethnic difference may elucidate the observed differences in breast cancer risk among different populations. We reviewed breast density from initial screening of women from the Capital Breast Care Center and Georgetown University Hospital from 2010 to 2014. Patient demographics including race, age at screening, education, menopausal status, and body mass index were abstracted...
October 24, 2017: Breast Journal
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