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Underrepresented minorities

Daniel A London, Ryan P Calfee, Martin I Boyer
Orthopedic surgery lacks racial and sexual diversity, which we hypothesized stems from absence of exposure to orthopedics during medical school. We conducted a study to determine whether diversity of matched orthopedic surgery residency applicants increased after introduction of a required third-year rotation. We compared 2 groups: precurriculum and postcurriculum. The postcurriculum group was exposed to a required 1-month musculoskeletal rotation during the third year of medical school. Comparisons were made of percentage of total students exposed to orthopedics, percentage who applied to and matched to orthopedic surgery, and proportion of women and underrepresented minorities...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Kyoko Nagao, Tammy Riegner, Jennifer Padilla, L Ashleigh Greenwood, Jessica Loson, Sarah Zavala, Thierry Morlet
BACKGROUND: Although auditory processing disorder (APD) is a widely recognized impairment, its prevalence and demographic characteristics are not precisely known in the pediatric population. PURPOSE: To examine the demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with APD at a tertiary health-care facility and the prevalence of pediatric APD. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 243 children (149 boys and 94 girls) who were referred to the Nemours Audiology Clinics in the Delaware Valley for an APD evaluation...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Grace Mishkin, Lori M Minasian, Elise C Kohn, Anne-Michelle Noone, Sarah M Temkin
OBJECTIVES: Enrollment of a representative population to cancer clinical trials ensures scientific reliability and generalizability of results. This study evaluated the similarity of patients enrolled in NCI-supported group gynecologic cancer trials to the incident US population. METHODS: Accrual to NCI-sponsored ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancer treatment trials between 2003 and 2012 were examined. Race, ethnicity, age, and insurance status were compared to the analogous US patient population estimated using adjusted SEER incidence data...
September 30, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Gerard J Garvan, Cynthia W Garvan, Linda S Behar-Horenstein
The importance of educating dental students in cultural competence has been widely emphasized, but there is a need to assess cultural competence in a consistent and reliable way. The aims of this study were to determine latent constructs for the initial measure of cultural competence for oral health providers, the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI), and to determine how well these factors related to previously identified latent constructs. Data were collected in surveys of dental students and from dental hygiene, dental assisting, and dental faculty members in 44 academic dental institutions from 2012 to 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Dental Education
Joyce N Achenjang, Carol L Elam
The goal of matriculating a diverse medical cohort remains important for institutions across the country as it results in an increase in the diversity of the physician workforce. By admitting students who are underrepresented in medicine, the pressing health needs of the growing and diverse patient population of our country can be met by physicians who are representative of their communities. Given the challenges of choosing from a small pool of applicants, medical schools should consider seeking the support of current medical students in expanding the applicant pool and recruiting the next generation of physicians...
2016: Journal of the National Medical Association
Betty L Kaiser, Gay R Thomas, Barbara J Bowers
Lack of diversity among study participants in clinical research limits progress in eliminating health disparities. The engagement of lay stakeholders, such as patient or community advisory boards (CABs), has the potential to increase recruitment and retention of underrepresented groups by providing a structure for gathering feedback on research plans and materials from this target population. However, many CABs intentionally recruit prominent stakeholders who are connected to or comfortable with research and academia and thus may not accurately represent the perspectives of underrepresented groups who have been labeled hard-to-reach, including racial minorities and low-income or low-literacy populations...
September 30, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
Barbara Bowers, Nora Jacobson, Anna Krupp
Despite decades of effort, lower income people and ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented as participants in health research. A group of racially and ethnically diverse, lower income community members (Community Advisors on Research Design and Strategies: CARDS®) was trained to review study designs and procedures and provide recommendations to researchers for increasing participation and making research materials more understandable to members of underrepresented communities. In this mixed methods study, one participant group (n = 55) was shown research materials (recruitment documents and a consent form) developed by a research team and approved by the local IRB...
September 30, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
Eric L Wallace, Janice Lea, Ninad Chaudhary, Russell Griffin, Eric Hammelman, Joshua Cohen, James A Sloand
♦ Background: United States Renal Data System (USRDS) data from 2014 show that African Americans (AA) are underrepresented in the home dialysis population, with 6.4% versus 9.2% utilization in the general populace. This racial disparity may be inaccurately ascribed to the nation as a whole if regional and inter-state variability exists. This investigation sought to examine home dialysis utilization by minority Medicare beneficiary populations across the US nationally, regionally, and by individual state. ♦ Methods: The 2012 Medicare 100% Outpatient Standard Analytic File was used to identify all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) patients, with state of residence and race, receiving an outpatient dialysis facility bill type...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Quinn Capers, Daniel Clinchot, Leon McDougle, Anthony G Greenwald
PROBLEM: Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. APPROACH: To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Anna Woodcock, Paul R Hernandez, P Wesley Schultz
Stereotypes influence academic interests, performance, and ultimately career goals. The long-standing National Institutes of Health Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) training program has been shown to be effective at retaining underrepresented minorities in science. We argue that programs such as RISE may alter the experience and impact of stereotype threat on academic achievement goals and future engagement in a scientific career. We report analyses of a national sample comparing RISE students with a propensity score-matched control group over a 6-year period...
March 2016: Social Psychological and Personality Science
Angela M Hagan, Hope E Campbell, Caroline A Gaither
Objective. To describe the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among faculty members (faculty) in schools and colleges of pharmacy (COP) compared to US Census Bureau data; to evaluate the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), newer doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs, and PharmD programs with a religious affiliation compared with all pharmacy programs; and to compare racial and ethnic pharmacy faculty data to trends in medical and dental schools, and all higher education...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Ann Marie P Mauro, Lori A Escallier, Maria G Rosario-Sim
The transition from student to professional nurse is challenging and may be more difficult for underrepresented minority nurses. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation New Careers in Nursing (NCIN) program supported development of a toolkit that would serve as a transition-to-practice resource to promote retention of NCIN alumni and other new nurses. Thirteen recent NCIN alumni (54% male, 23% Hispanic/Latino, 23% African Americans) from 3 schools gave preliminary content feedback. An e-mail survey was sent to a convenience sample of 29 recent NCIN alumni who evaluated the draft toolkit using a Likert scale (poor = 1; excellent = 5)...
September 2016: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Sharon Elizabeth Metcalfe, Judy Neubrander
In 2010, the Institute of Medicine made a recommendation in The Future of Nursing Report to diversify the student population of the health care professions in order to provide increasing minority providers to meet the culturally competent needs of the growing multicultural populations of the United States (Institute of Medicine, 2010). The Nursing Network and Careers and Technology Nurse Mentoring Program provides a nursing mentor to underrepresented ethnic minority and educationally disadvantaged students and a significant scholarship and stipend for tuition and monthly living expenses...
September 2016: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Alice A Kuo, Mienah Z Sharif, Michael L Prelip, Deborah C Glik, Stephanie L Albert, Thomas Belin, William J McCarthy, Christian K Roberts, Rosa Elena Garcia, Alexander N Ortega
Reducing health disparities is a national public health priority. Latinos represent the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States and suffer disproportionately from poor health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease risk. Academic training programs are an opportunity for reducing health disparities, in part by increasing the diversity of the public health workforce and by incorporating training designed to develop a skill set to address health disparities. This article describes the Training and Career Development Program at the UCLA Center for Population Health and Health Disparities: a multilevel, transdisciplinary training program that uses a community-engaged approach to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in two urban Mexican American communities...
September 8, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Dawn L Comeau, Cam Escoffery, Ariela Freedman, Thomas R Ziegler, Henry M Blumberg
A major impediment to improving the health of communities is the lack of qualified clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators. To address this workforce shortage, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) developed mechanisms to enhance the career development of CTR physician, PhD, and other doctoral junior faculty scientists including the CTR-focused K12 program and, subsequently, the KL2-mentored CTR career development program supported through the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs)...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Jennifer C Drew, Sebastian Galindo-Gonzalez, Alexandria N Ardissone, Eric W Triplett
The Microbiology and Cell Science (MCS) Department at the University of Florida (UF) developed a new model of a 2 + 2 program that uses a hybrid online approach to bring its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum to students. In this paradigm, 2-year graduates transfer as online students into the Distance Education in MCS (DE MCS) bachelor of science program. The program has broadened access to STEM with a steadily increasing enrollment that does not draw students away from existing on-campus programs...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Kenneth I Maton, Tiffany S Beason, Surbhi Godsay, Mariano R Sto Domingo, TaShara C Bailey, Shuyan Sun, Freeman A Hrabowski
Previous research has shown that the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, is an effective intervention for high-achieving underrepresented minority (URM) students; African-American Meyerhoff students are significantly more likely to enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) PhD programs than comparison students. The first of two studies in this report extends the prior research by examining levels of PhD completion for Meyerhoff (N = 479) versus comparison sample (N = 249) students among the first 16 cohorts...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Rebekah L Layton, Patrick D Brandt, Ashalla M Freeman, Jessica R Harrell, Joshua D Hall, Melanie Sinche
A national sample of PhD-trained scientists completed training, accepted subsequent employment in academic and nonacademic positions, and were queried about their previous graduate training and current employment. Respondents indicated factors contributing to their employment decision (e.g., working conditions, salary, job security). The data indicate the relative importance of deciding factors influencing career choice, controlling for gender, initial interest in faculty careers, and number of postgraduate publications...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Sylvia M James, Susan R Singer
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF's strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
David J Asai, Cynthia Bauerle
In spite of modest gains in the past four decades, the United States has not been able to substantially improve on the pervasive underrepresentation of minorities in postsecondary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pathways. We suggest a way to guide a national effort to double the persistence of underrepresented minorities in STEM in the next decade.
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
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