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Underrepresented minorities

Pearl A McElfish, Christopher R Long, James P Selig, Brett Rowland, Rachel S Purvis, Laura James, Angel Holland, Holly C Felix, Marie-Rachelle Narcisse
Prior research suggests that rural and minority communities participate in research at lower rates. While rural and minority populations are often cited as being underrepresented in research, population-based studies on health research participation have not been conducted. This study used questions added to the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to understand factors associated with i) health research participation, ii) opportunities to participate in health research, and iii) willingness to participate in health research from a representative sample (n = 5,256) of adults in Arkansas...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
Marenda A Wilson, Anthony DePass, Andrew J Bean
The faculty and student populations in academia are not representative of the diversity in the U.S. POPULATION: Thus, research institutions and funding agencies invest significant funds and effort into recruitment and retention programs that focus on increasing the flow of historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline. Here, we outline challenges, interventions, and assessments by the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (GSBS) that increased the diversity of the student body independently of grade point averages and Graduate Record Examination scores...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
Jesus G Ulloa, Omar Viramontes, Gery Ryan, Kenneth Wells, Melinda Maggard-Gibbons, Gerardo Moreno
PURPOSE: As racial and ethnic heterogeneity in the U.S. population increases, it is important that the health care workforce, including surgery, mirror that diversity. Structural and perceptual barriers may contribute to an underrepresentation of African-American and Latino surgeons. Understanding these barriers may translate into interventions, and in turn, improved diversification of the U.S. surgery workforce. METHOD: In 2016, the authors conducted in-depth semistructured interviews to explore structural and perceptual barriers African-American and Latino surgeons face...
May 8, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Aimee K Gardner, Brian J Dunkin
INTRODUCTION: As current screening methods for selecting surgical trainees are receiving increasing scrutiny, development of a more efficient and effective selection system is needed. We describe the process of creating an evidence-based selection system and examine its impact on screening efficiency, faculty perceptions, and improving representation of underrepresented minorities. METHODS: The program partnered with an expert in organizational science to identify fellowship position requirements and associated competencies...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Kendall M Campbell, Naomi C Brownstein, Helen Livingston, José E Rodríguez
OBJECTIVES: Despite the efforts of various leading organizations in medical education, representation of black students in US medical schools has declined since the mid-1990s. The Florida State University College of Medicine (FSUCOM) has undertaken efforts to increase black and other underrepresented minority in medicine (URMM) representation in medical school through the Bridge to Clinical Medicine Program. This program is described and analyzed by the authors. METHODS: Demographic information, Medical College Admission Test scores, undergraduate grade point average, US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores (Steps 1 and 2), residency match information, and current practice location from 2006 to 2015 were collected from the FSUCOM...
April 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Emma Fernandez-Repollet, Craig Locatis, Wilfredo E De Jesus-Monge, Richard Maisiak, Wei-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: Minorities are underrepresented in health professions and efforts to recruit minority students into health careers are considered a way to reduce health disparities. There is little research about the effectiveness of these programs, other than satisfaction. This study aimed to measure program effects on student understanding of and interest in health careers. METHODS: Students took a career interest inventory, completed a scale measuring their self-reported understanding and interest in health careers, and wrote essays about health careers before and after completing a 1 week on campus internship on health careers and after a 9 month follow up distance mentoring program where they continued to interact with university faculty by videoconference about career options...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Gaone Retshabile, Busisiwe C Mlotshwa, Lesedi Williams, Savannah Mwesigwa, Gerald Mboowa, Zhuoyi Huang, Navin Rustagi, Shanker Swaminathan, Eric Katagirya, Samuel Kyobe, Misaki Wayengera, Grace P Kisitu, David P Kateete, Eddie M Wampande, Koketso Maplanka, Ishmael Kasvosve, Edward D Pettitt, Mogomotsi Matshaba, Betty Nsangi, Marape Marape, Masego Tsimako-Johnstone, Chester W Brown, Fuli Yu, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Moses Joloba, Sununguko W Mpoloka, Graeme Mardon, Gabriel Anabwani, Neil A Hanchard
Large-scale, population-based genomic studies have provided a context for modern medical genetics. Among such studies, however, African populations have remained relatively underrepresented. The breadth of genetic diversity across the African continent argues for an exploration of local genomic context to facilitate burgeoning disease mapping studies in Africa. We sought to characterize genetic variation and to assess population substructure within a cohort of HIV-positive children from Botswana-a Southern African country that is regionally underrepresented in genomic databases...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Shyh-Han Tan, Gyorgy Petrovics, Shiv Srivastava
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths in the United States. Among African American (AA) men, CaP is the most prevalent malignancy, with disproportionately higher incidence and mortality rates. Even after discounting the influence of socioeconomic factors, the effect of molecular and genetic factors on racial disparity of CaP is evident. Earlier studies on the molecular basis for CaP disparity have focused on the influence of heritable mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daytheon Sturges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
Hillary Newsome, Erynne Faucett, Thomas Chelius, Valerie Flanary
Objective As the population of the United States becomes increasingly racially and ethnically diverse, it is important that the medical profession reflect these changes. Otolaryngology has previously been identified as one of the surgical subspecialties with the smallest presence of those underrepresented in medicine. In the context of this study, the term underrepresented in medicine is defined as blacks, Latinos, Native American, and Native Hawaiians. The purpose of this study was to describe the current state of otolaryngology residency programs in terms of diversity of resident and faculty cohort, explore general interviewing practices, and investigate recruitment of underrepresented in medicine applicants...
April 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Emma K T Benn, Chengcheng Tu, Ann-Gel S Palermo, Luisa N Borrell, Michaela Kiernan, Mary Sandre, Emilia Bagiella
As clinical researchers at academic medical institutions across the United States increasingly manage complex clinical databases and registries, they often lack the statistical expertise to utilize the data for research purposes. This statistical inadequacy prevents junior investigators from disseminating clinical findings in peer-reviewed journals and from obtaining research funding, thereby hindering their potential for promotion. Underrepresented minorities, in particular, confront unique challenges as clinical investigators stemming from a lack of methodologically rigorous research training in their graduate medical education...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Science
Gloria Lee, Joseph Plaksin, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Gabrielle Gold-von Simson
Drug discovery and development (DDD) is a collaborative, dynamic process of great interest to researchers, but an area where there is a lack of formal training. The Drug Development Educational Program (DDEP) at New York University was created in 2012 to stimulate an improved, multidisciplinary DDD workforce by educating early stage scientists as well as a variety of other like-minded students. The first course of the program emphasizes post-compounding aspects of DDD; the second course focuses on molecular signaling pathways...
2018: Journal of Translational Science
Allyson Hart, Rachel E Patzer
In December of 2014, the new Kidney Allocation System (KAS) for deceased donor kidney transplant was implemented in the US. One of the stated goals of the KAS was to decrease the well-documented disparities in access to kidney transplant for underrepresented racial groups, in part by allowing for the allocation of A2 subtype kidneys to type B recipients with low anti-A antibody titers given that the majority of type B patients represent ethnic and racial minorities. On first glance, this policy was a success...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Gina L Tripicchio, Alice S Ammerman, Dianne S Ward, Myles S Faith, Kimberly P Truesdale, Kyle S Burger, Kelsey Dean, Levent Dumenci, Ann Davis
BACKGROUND: Clinical-community collaboration is a promising strategy for pediatric obesity treatment, but current research is limited. This study examined the effect of a family-based treatment program embedded in a primary care clinic on retention and changes in child weight status at 1 year. METHODS: Children (2-16 years, BMI ≥85th percentile, 87.0% Hispanic) and their parents were recruited from a single pediatric clinic for Healthy Hawks Primary Plus (HHP+)...
March 27, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Molly P Jarman, Elliott R Haut, Frank C Curriero, Renan C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Many rural, low income, and historically underrepresented minority communities lack access to trauma center services, including surgical care and injury prevention efforts. Along with features of the built and social environment at injury incident locations, geographic barriers to trauma center services may contribute to injury disparities. This study sought to classify injury event locations based on features of the built and social environment at the injury scene, and to examine patterns in individual patient demographics, injury characteristics, and mortality by location class...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Margaret O Akinhanmi, Joanna M Biernacka, Stephen M Strakowski, Susan L McElroy, Joyce E Balls Berry, Kathleen R Merikangas, Shervin Assari, Melvin G McInnis, Thomas G Schulze, Marion LeBoyer, Carol Tamminga, Christi Patten, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Maria A McGowan, Alina Goldenberg, Sharon E Jacob
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Dermatitis
Samantha E Kaplan, Christine M Gunn, Anthony K Kulukulualani, Anita Raj, Karen M Freund, Phyllis L Carr
BACKGROUND: Despite individual and institutional awareness of the inequity in retention, promotion and leadership of racially and ethnically underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine, the number of such faculty remains unacceptably low. The authors explored challenges to the recruitment, retention and promotion of underrepresented faculty among a sample of leaders at academic medical centers. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2012 with 44 senior faculty leaders, predominantly members of the Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI) and/or the Group on Women in Medical Sciences (GWIMS), at the 24 randomly selected medical schools of the National Faculty Survey of 1995...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Elizabeth Fam, Jeanne M Ferrante
To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
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