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Underrepresented minorities

Folakemi T Odedina, R R Reams, E Kaninjing, J Nguyen, B Mochona, D E Lyon, N Askins, L S Behar-Horenstein
With the growing burden of cancer in minority populations and limited progress in eliminating cancer disparities, it has become important to develop a diverse oncology workforce in basic, clinical, and behavioral research who will address cancer disparities and increase the participation of minority populations in clinical trials. To address the lack of well-trained underrepresented minority cancer scientists in Florida, the University of Florida collaborated with Florida A&M University in 2012 to establish the Florida Prostate Cancer Research Training Opportunities for Outstanding Leaders (ReTOOL) Program...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Molly P Jarman, Elliott R Haut, Frank C Curriero, Renan C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Many rural, low income, and historically underrepresented minority communities lack access to trauma center services, including surgical care and injury prevention efforts. Along with features of the built and social environment at injury incident locations, geographic barriers to trauma center services may contribute to injury disparities. This study sought to classify injury event locations based on features of the built and social environment at the injury scene, and to examine patterns in individual patient demographics, injury characteristics, and mortality by location class...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Margaret O Akinhanmi, Joanna M Biernacka, Stephen M Strakowski, Susan L McElroy, Joyce E Balls Berry, Kathleen R Merikangas, Shervin Assari, Melvin G McInnis, Thomas G Schulze, Marion LeBoyer, Carol Tamminga, Christi Patten, Mark A Frye
OBJECTIVES: Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity...
March 12, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Maria A McGowan, Alina Goldenberg, Sharon E Jacob
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Dermatitis
Samantha E Kaplan, Christine M Gunn, Anthony K Kulukulualani, Anita Raj, Karen M Freund, Phyllis L Carr
BACKGROUND: Despite individual and institutional awareness of the inequity in retention, promotion and leadership of racially and ethnically underrepresented minority faculty in academic medicine, the number of such faculty remains unacceptably low. The authors explored challenges to the recruitment, retention and promotion of underrepresented faculty among a sample of leaders at academic medical centers. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted from 2011 to 2012 with 44 senior faculty leaders, predominantly members of the Group on Diversity and Inclusion (GDI) and/or the Group on Women in Medical Sciences (GWIMS), at the 24 randomly selected medical schools of the National Faculty Survey of 1995...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Elizabeth Fam, Jeanne M Ferrante
To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Lovoria B Williams, Annette B Bourgault, Michael Valenti, Melissa Howie, Sunil Mathur
BACKGROUND: The United States is steadily becoming more diverse. If current trends continue, the minority population will be the majority by 2043. In contrast to the U.S. population, nursing (the largest health care workforce) is composed of a nearly 76% White population. The literature reports that underrepresented minorities (URM) in nursing programs encounter multiple barriers to academic success. METHOD: A secondary data analysis of a national cohort of URM accelerated nursing students was conducted to examine three factors associated with microaggression-predictors of academic (NCLEX) success, satisfaction, and intent to pursue advanced education-among a cohort of URM accelerated nursing students who had received a national diversity scholarship (n = 2,250)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Imam M Xierali, Marc A Nivet
Racial and ethnic minority physicians are more likely to practice primary care and serve in underserved communities. However, there are micro-practice patterns within primary care specialties that are not well understood. To examine the differences among primary care physician practice locations by specialty and race/ethnicity, a retrospective study was conducted on U.S. medical graduates who were direct patient care physicians in 2012. The group-specific contributions to primary care accessibility were decomposed by individual group of minorities underrepresented in medicine (URM)...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Anthony Jerant, Mark C Henderson, Erin Griffin, Efrain Talamantes, Tonya Fancher, Francis Sousa, Peter Franks
Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs) are increasingly used in medical school admissions. We previously reported that while under-represented minority (URM) status was not associated with MMI scores, self-designated disadvantaged applicants had lower MMI scores, possibly affecting their matriculation prospects. No studies have examined how URM status or socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are associated with academic performance following admission through an MMI. We examined the adjusted associations of MMI scores, SED, and URM status with U...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Dania Daye, Emmanuel Carrodeguas, McKinley Glover, Claude Emmanuel Guerrier, H Benjamin Harvey, Efrén J Flores
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of wait days (WDs) on missed outpatient MRI appointments across different demographic and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective study was conducted among adult patients scheduled for outpatient MRI during a 12-month period. Scheduling data and demographic information were obtained. Imaging missed appointments were defined as missed scheduled imaging encounters...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Patricia Louie, Rima Wilkes
Although a large literature has documented racial inequities in health care delivery, there continues to be debate about the potential sources of these inequities. Preliminary research suggests that racial inequities are embedded in the curricular edification of physicians and patients. We investigate this hypothesis by considering whether the race and skin tone depicted in images in textbooks assigned at top medical schools reflects the diversity of the U.S. POPULATION: We analyzed 4146 images from Atlas of Human Anatomy, Bates' Guide to Physical Examination & History Taking, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, and Gray's Anatomy for Students by coding race (White, Black, and Person of Color) and skin tone (light, medium, and dark) at the textbook, chapter, and topic level...
February 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Ani Stepanyan, Roksana Zakharyan, Arsen Simonyan, Gohar Tsakanova, Arsen Arakelyan
BACKGROUND: Despite the important role of the nerve growth factor in the survival and maintenance of neurons in ischemic stroke, data regarding the relationships between variations in the encoding gene and stroke are lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the association of the functional polymorphisms in NGF (rs6330) and NGFR (rs2072446 and rs734194) genes with ischemic stroke in an Armenian population. METHODS: In total, 370 unrelated individuals of Armenian nationality were enrolled in this study...
March 2, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Latrice G Landry, Heidi L Rehm
Importance: Individuals of all races/ethnicities have a fundamental right to access health care and benefit from advances in science and medicine, including genetic testing. Objective: To determine whether detection rates for cardiomyopathy genetic testing differed between white people, Asian people, and underrepresented minorities (individuals of black, Hispanic, Native American, Alaskan Native, or Pacific Islander descent). Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the genetic panel test results of 5729 probands who had a suspected diagnosis or family history of cardiomyopathy and who had been referred for testing between October 2003 and December 2017...
February 28, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Simon Peplow
When violence erupted on the streets of England in 1981, it undoubtedly shocked the country in its scope and severity. However, such disorder had been foreshadowed when the St Pauls area of Bristol saw anti-police disturbances on 2 April 1980. This article focusses on the responses to this, from the local community and organizations as well as local and national government, which in the historiography has often been relegated to passing mentions prior to detailed discussion of the 1981 events. Utilizing recently released and understudied local records, it argues that appeals for a public inquiry from sections of the local community demonstrates the value awarded to them by this politically marginalized group, and the failings of other democratic forms of registering complaints...
March 1, 2018: 20 Century British History
Yulia A Strekalova
Black participants remain significantly underrepresented in clinical research. Mistrust in medical researchers has been named a key barrier to the successful enrollment of minority study participants. However, trust is a social-interactional construct, and its effects on behavior are complex. This study hypothesized that intention to participate in clinical research is mediated by trust in medical researchers, eHealth literacy, and information seeking behavior. The data were collected through an online survey ( N = 340) and analyzed to identify serial mediation...
February 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Rochelle D Jones, Christina H Chapman, Emma B Holliday, Nafisha Lalani, Emily Wilson, James A Bonner, Benjamin Movsas, Shalom Kalnicki, Silvia C Formenti, Charles R Thomas, Stephen M Hahn, Fei-Fei Liu, Reshma Jagsi
PURPOSE: A lack of diversity has been observed in radiation oncology (RO), with women and certain racial/ethnic groups underrepresented as trainees, faculty, and practicing physicians. We sought to gain a nuanced understanding of how to best promote diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) based on the insights of RO department chairs, with particular attention given to the experiences of the few women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in these influential positions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From March to June 2016, we conducted telephone interviews with 24 RO department chairs (of 27 invited)...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Meredith Rose, Laura Aronow, Sarah Breen, Carrie Tully, Marisa E Hilliard, Ashley M Butler, Randi Streisand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence in youth is growing across all racial/ethnic backgrounds, with the most marked increase in African-American youth under 5. Underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities are at an increased risk for health complications. This review focuses on the reported disparities, demographics of samples in behavioral interventions, and study design considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recruitment data from two ongoing behavioral intervention trials for young children with T1D are presented to compare enrolled/non-enrolled individuals and to discuss culturally appropriate study design considerations...
February 23, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Bettie Coplan, Tara G Bautista, Richard W Dehn
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to identify PA program characteristics that may be associated with higher or lower percentages of underrepresented minority students in PA programs. METHODS: Data from the Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA) 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 annual surveys were analyzed. Bivariate correlation coefficients and multiple regression modeling were used to identify relationships between program characteristics and percentages of black and Hispanic students...
March 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Jamboor K Vishwanatha, Harlan P Jones
Eliminating disparities in health can benefit from the inclusion of diverse populations pursuing health disparity research careers. A goal of the Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD) is to provide opportunities for underrepresented minority faculty to become successful health disparity researchers. The TCHD created the Steps Toward Academic Research (STAR) fellowship program to provide faculty and community partners a yearlong face-to-face and online hybrid curriculum focused on acquiring fundamental concepts in biomedical and behavioral health disparity research, basics in grantsmanship as well as professional development skills...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
Rossybelle P Amorrortu, Mariana Arevalo, Sally W Vernon, Arch G Mainous, Vanessa Diaz, M Diane McKee, Marvella E Ford, Barbara C Tilley
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to increase diversity in clinical trials, racial/ethnic minority groups generally remain underrepresented, limiting researchers' ability to test the efficacy and safety of new interventions across diverse populations. We describe the use of a systematic framework, intervention mapping (IM), to develop an intervention to modify recruitment behaviors of coordinators and specialist investigators with the goal of increasing diversity in trials conducted within specialty clinics...
February 17, 2018: Trials
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