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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914405/managing-asthma-in-low-income-underrepresented-minority-and-other-disadvantaged-pediatric-populations-closing-the-gap
#1
REVIEW
Margee Louisias, Wanda Phipatanakul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review current understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of disparities in asthma. We also highlight current and emerging literature on solutions to tackle disparities while underscoring gaps and pressing future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Tailored, multicomponent approaches including the home, school, and clinician-based interventions show great promise. Managing asthma in disadvantaged populations can be challenging as they tend to have disproportionately worse outcomes due to a multitude of factors...
September 15, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890573/institutional-and-ethnic-variations-in-postgraduate-enrollment-and-completion
#2
Marta Tienda, Linda Zhao
Using the B&B:93/03 longitudinal cohort survey, we investigate (1) whether and how much variations in the timing of enrollment, the type of undergraduate institution attended, and type of graduate program pursued contribute to observed racial and ethnic differentials in post-baccalaureate enrollment, and (2) whether the observed enrollment differentials carry over to degree attainment. Dynamic event history methods that account both for the timing of matriculation and the hazard of enrolling reveal that compared to whites underrepresented minorities enroll earlier and also are more likely to enroll in doctoral and advanced professional degree programs relative to nonenrollment...
2017: Journal of Higher Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866843/a-culturally-sensitive-approach-to-large-scale-prevention-studies-a-case-study-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-with-low-income-latino-communities
#3
REVIEW
David E Rangel, Carmen R Valdez
In response to U.S. federal mandates to increase the presence of underrepresented populations in prevention research, investigators have increasingly focused on using culturally sensitive research practices. However, scholars have rarely discussed these practices in terms of a larger culturally sensitive framework. Further, while the literature has explored how culturally sensitive approaches can be employed in a variety of methods, there has been little examination of how to incorporate such approaches into experimental designs...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864792/color-blind-racial-beliefs-among-dental-students-and-faculty
#4
Yu Su, Linda S Behar-Horenstein
Providing culturally competent patient care requires an awareness of racial and cultural norms as well as a recognition of racism. Yet, there is a paucity of research devoted to this problem. In dental education, increased attention has focused on eliminating oral health care disparities due to ethnicity and race. Further investigation to determine the relationship between color-blind attitudes (failing to recognize the impact of race and racism on social justice) and dental educators' cultural competence is needed...
September 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856013/strategies-for-enhancing-research-in-aging-health-disparities-by-mentoring-diverse-investigators
#5
Nina T Harawa, Spero M Manson, Carol M Mangione, Louis A Penner, Keith C Norris, Charles DeCarli, Isabel C Scarinci, Julie Zissimopoulos, Dedra S Buchwald, Ladson Hinton, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
INTRODUCTION: The Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research (RCMAR) program was launched in 1997. Its goal is to build infrastructure to improve the well-being of older racial/ethnic minorities by identifying mechanisms to reduce health disparities. METHODS: Its primary objectives are to mentor faculty in research addressing the health of minority elders and to enhance the diversity of the workforce that conducts elder health research by prioritizing the mentorship of underrepresented diverse scholars...
June 2017: Journal of clinical and translational science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836983/family-based-childhood-obesity-prevention-interventions-a-systematic-review-and-quantitative-content-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Tayla Ash, Alen Agaronov, Ta'Loria Young, Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Kirsten K Davison
BACKGROUND: A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835879/-speaking-truth-protects-underrepresented-minorities-intellectual-performance-and-safety-in-stem
#7
Avi Ben-Zeev, Yula Paluy, Katlyn L Milless, Emily J Goldstein, Lyndsey Wallace, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Mica Estrada
We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]...
June 2017: Educ Sci (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829320/cost-sensitive-learning-of-deep-feature-representations-from-imbalanced-data
#8
Salman H Khan, Munawar Hayat, Mohammed Bennamoun, Ferdous A Sohel, Roberto Togneri
Class imbalance is a common problem in the case of real-world object detection and classification tasks. Data of some classes are abundant, making them an overrepresented majority, and data of other classes are scarce, making them an underrepresented minority. This imbalance makes it challenging for a classifier to appropriately learn the discriminating boundaries of the majority and minority classes. In this paper, we propose a cost-sensitive (CoSen) deep neural network, which can automatically learn robust feature representations for both the majority and minority classes...
August 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804254/developing-scientists-in-hispanic-substance-use-and-health-disparities-research-through-the-creation-of-a-national-mentoring-network
#9
Angela R Bazzi, Cristina Mogro-Wilson, Nalini Junko Negi, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel Cano, Yessenia Castro, Alice Cepeda
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance use and related health harms yet remain underrepresented across scientific disciplines focused on researching and addressing these issues. An interdisciplinary network of scientists committed to fostering the development of social and biomedical researchers focused on Hispanic substance use and health disparities developed innovative mentoring and career development activities. We conducted a formative evaluation study using anonymous membership and conference feedback data to describe specific mentoring and career development activities developed within the national network...
2017: Mentor Tutoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800502/spotlight-on-equality-of-employment-opportunities-a-qualitative-study-of-job-seeking-experiences-of-graduating-nurses-and-physiotherapists-from-black-and-minority-ethnic-backgrounds
#10
John Hammond, Sylvie Marshall-Lucette, Nigel Davies, Fiona Ross, Ruth Harris
BACKGROUND: There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789743/development-and-psychometric-testing-of-a-measure-to-evaluate-faculty-engagement-with-underrepresented-minority-nursing-students
#11
Paula Moreau, Susan Sullivan-Bolyai, Abraham N Ndiwane, Carol A Jaffarian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measure of faculty response patterns to the needs of underrepresented minority (URM) nursing students. METHODS: A mixed-method approach. RESULTS: The 10-item scale was found to be valid (content validity index [CVI] = .81) and reliable (Cronbach's alpha = .81). Principle component factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded a 3-factor solution that explained 66% of the variance in faculty engagement with URM students...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771391/gender-differences-in-receipt-of-national-institutes-of-health-r01-grants-among-junior-faculty-at-an-academic-medical-center-the-role-of-connectivity-rank-and-research-productivity
#12
Erica T Warner, René Carapinha, Griffin M Weber, Emorcia V Hill, Joan Y Reede
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there were gender differences in likelihood of receiving a first National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 award among 5445 instructors and assistant professors at Harvard Medical School (HMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on R01 award principal investigators were obtained from NIH ExPORTER and linked with faculty data. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of gender with receipt of first R01 award between 2008 and 2015 accounting for demographics, research productivity metrics, and professional characteristics...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767497/mediators-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-mentored-k-award-receipt-among-u-s-medical-school-graduates
#13
Dorothy A Andriole, Yan Yan, Donna B Jeffe
PURPOSE: Mentored K (K01/K08/K23) career development awards are positively associated with physicians' success as independent investigators; however, individuals in some racial/ethnic groups are less likely to receive this federal funding. The authors sought to identify variables that explain (mediate) the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award receipt among U.S. LCME-accredited medical school graduates who planned research-related careers. METHOD: The authors analyzed deidentified data from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the National Institutes of Health Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination II grants database for a national cohort of 28,690 graduates from 1997-2004 who planned research-related careers, followed through August 2014...
August 1, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759329/health-literacy-and-informed-consent-materials-designed-for-documentation-not-comprehension-of-health-research
#14
Vanessa Watts Simonds, Eva Marie Garroutte, Dedra Buchwald
Minority populations with health disparities are underrepresented in research designed to address those disparities. One way to improve minority representation is to use community-based participatory methods to overcome barriers to research participation, beginning with the informed consent process. Relevant barriers to participation include lack of individual or community awareness or acceptance of research processes and purposes. These barriers are associated with limited health literacy. To inform recommendations for an improved consent process, we examined 97 consent documents and 10 associated Institutional Review Board websites to determine their health literacy demands and degree of adherence to principles of community-based research...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748086/area-health-education-center-ahec-programs-for-rural-and-underrepresented-minority-students-in-the-alabama-black-belt
#15
Ashruta Patel, Regina J Knox, Alicia Logan, Katie Summerville
BACKGROUND: This paper evaluated the implementation West Central Alabama Area Health Education Center programs for high school students in grades 9-12 through participant-reported evaluations and feedback during the  September 1st, 2013 to August 31st, 2014 fiscal year. The programs targeted racial/ethnic minorities and/or rural individuals interested in pursuing a career as a healthcare provider in medically underserved counties of Alabama. METHODS: Students participated in enrichment activities related to prospective health careers that included: successful college preparedness, knowledge about health careers, and the types of primary care health professions that are needed in underserved Alabama communities...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723519/individual-patient-data-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials-impact-of-black-race-on-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-outcomes
#16
Daniel E Spratt, Yu-Wei Chen, Brandon A Mahal, Joseph R Osborne, Shuang G Zhao, Todd M Morgan, Ganesh Palapattu, Felix Y Feng, Paul L Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Population data suggest that black men have a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer (PCa) than other racial ethnicities. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of black race on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among men with metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A pooled analysis was performed on individual patient data from five modern PCa RCTs available from Project Data Sphere...
December 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717260/faculty-motivation-to-mentor-students-through-undergraduate-research-programs-a-study-of-enabling-and-constraining-factors
#17
Danielle X Morales, Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
Undergraduate research experiences are a "high impact" educational practice that confer benefits to students. However, little attention has been paid to understanding faculty motivation to mentor undergraduate students through research training programs, even as the number of programs has grown, requiring increasing numbers of faculty mentors. To address this, we introduce a conceptual model for understanding faculty motivation to mentor and test it by using empirical data to identify factors that enable and constrain faculty engagement in an undergraduate research program...
August 2017: Research in Higher Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710060/values-affirmation-intervention-reduces-achievement-gap-between-underrepresented-minority-and-white-students-in-introductory-biology-classes
#18
Hannah Jordt, Sarah L Eddy, Riley Brazil, Ignatius Lau, Chelsea Mann, Sara E Brownell, Katherine King, Scott Freeman
Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693843/surgical-time-out-our-counts-are-still-short-on-racial-diversity-in-academic-surgery
#19
Jonathan S Abelson, Matthew M Symer, Heather L Yeo, Paris D Butler, Patrick T Dolan, Tracy A Moo, Anthony C Watkins
BACKGROUND: This study provides an updated description of diversity along the academic surgical pipeline to determine what progress has been made. METHODS: Data was extracted from a variety of publically available data sources to determine proportions of minorities in medical school, general surgery training, and academic surgery leadership. RESULTS: In 2014-2015, Blacks represented 12.4% of the U.S. population, but only 5.7% graduating medical students, 6...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693389/primary-care-physicians-attitudes-and-beliefs-about-cancer-clinical-trials
#20
Carma L Bylund, Elisa S Weiss, Margo Michaels, Shilpa Patel, Thomas A D'Agostino, Emily B Peterson, Maria Christina Binz-Scharf, Natasha Blakeney, M Diane McKee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cancer clinical trials give patients access to state-of-the-art treatments and facilitate the translation of findings into mainstream clinical care. However, patients from racial and ethnic minority groups remain underrepresented in clinical trials. Primary care physicians are a trusted source of information for patients, yet their role in decision-making about cancer treatment and referrals to trial participation has received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer clinical trials, their experience with trials, and their interest in appropriate training about trials...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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