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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804254/developing-scientists-in-hispanic-substance-use-and-health-disparities-research-through-the-creation-of-a-national-mentoring-network
#1
Angela R Bazzi, Cristina Mogro-Wilson, Nalini Junko Negi, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel Cano, Yessenia Castro, Alice Cepeda
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance use and related health harms yet remain underrepresented across scientific disciplines focused on researching and addressing these issues. An interdisciplinary network of scientists committed to fostering the development of social and biomedical researchers focused on Hispanic substance use and health disparities developed innovative mentoring and career development activities. We conducted a formative evaluation study using anonymous membership and conference feedback data to describe specific mentoring and career development activities developed within the national network...
2017: Mentor Tutoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800502/spotlight-on-equality-of-employment-opportunities-a-qualitative-study-of-job-seeking-experiences-of-graduating-nurses-and-physiotherapists-from-black-and-minority-ethnic-backgrounds
#2
John Hammond, Sylvie Marshall-Lucette, Nigel Davies, Fiona Ross, Ruth Harris
BACKGROUND: There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789743/development-and-psychometric-testing-of-a-measure-to-evaluate-faculty-engagement-with-underrepresented-minority-nursing-students
#3
Paula Moreau, Susan Sullivan-Bolyai, Abraham N Ndiwane, Carol A Jaffarian
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measure of faculty response patterns to the needs of underrepresented minority (URM) nursing students. METHODS: A mixed-method approach. RESULTS: The 10-item scale was found to be valid (content validity index [CVI] = .81) and reliable (Cronbach's alpha = .81). Principle component factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded a 3-factor solution that explained 66% of the variance in faculty engagement with URM students...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771391/gender-differences-in-receipt-of-national-institutes-of-health-r01-grants-among-junior-faculty-at-an-academic-medical-center-the-role-of-connectivity-rank-and-research-productivity
#4
Erica T Warner, René Carapinha, Griffin M Weber, Emorcia V Hill, Joan Y Reede
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there were gender differences in likelihood of receiving a first National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 award among 5445 instructors and assistant professors at Harvard Medical School (HMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on R01 award principal investigators were obtained from NIH ExPORTER and linked with faculty data. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of gender with receipt of first R01 award between 2008 and 2015 accounting for demographics, research productivity metrics, and professional characteristics...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767497/mediators-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-mentored-k-award-receipt-among-u-s-medical-school-graduates
#5
Dorothy A Andriole, Yan Yan, Donna B Jeffe
PURPOSE: Mentored K (K01/K08/K23) career development awards are positively associated with physicians' success as independent investigators; however, individuals in some racial/ethnic groups are less likely to receive this federal funding. The authors sought to identify variables that explain (mediate) the association between race/ethnicity and mentored K award receipt among U.S. LCME-accredited medical school graduates who planned research-related careers. METHOD: The authors analyzed deidentified data from the Association of American Medical Colleges and the National Institutes of Health Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination II grants database for a national cohort of 28,690 graduates from 1997-2004 who planned research-related careers, followed through August 2014...
August 1, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759329/health-literacy-and-informed-consent-materials-designed-for-documentation-not-comprehension-of-health-research
#6
Vanessa Watts Simonds, Eva Marie Garroutte, Dedra Buchwald
Minority populations with health disparities are underrepresented in research designed to address those disparities. One way to improve minority representation is to use community-based participatory methods to overcome barriers to research participation, beginning with the informed consent process. Relevant barriers to participation include lack of individual or community awareness or acceptance of research processes and purposes. These barriers are associated with limited health literacy. To inform recommendations for an improved consent process, we examined 97 consent documents and 10 associated Institutional Review Board websites to determine their health literacy demands and degree of adherence to principles of community-based research...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748086/area-health-education-center-ahec-programs-for-rural-and-underrepresented-minority-students-in-the-alabama-black-belt
#7
Ashruta Patel, Regina J Knox, Alicia Logan, Katie Summerville
BACKGROUND: This paper evaluated the implementation West Central Alabama Area Health Education Center programs for high school students in grades 9-12 through participant-reported evaluations and feedback during the  September 1st, 2013 to August 31st, 2014 fiscal year. The programs targeted racial/ethnic minorities and/or rural individuals interested in pursuing a career as a healthcare provider in medically underserved counties of Alabama. METHODS: Students participated in enrichment activities related to prospective health careers that included: successful college preparedness, knowledge about health careers, and the types of primary care health professions that are needed in underserved Alabama communities...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723519/individual-patient-data-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials-impact-of-black-race-on-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-outcomes
#8
Daniel E Spratt, Yu-Wei Chen, Brandon A Mahal, Joseph R Osborne, Shuang G Zhao, Todd M Morgan, Ganesh Palapattu, Felix Y Feng, Paul L Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Population data suggest that black men have a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer (PCa) than other racial ethnicities. OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of black race on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among men with metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A pooled analysis was performed on individual patient data from five modern PCa RCTs available from Project Data Sphere...
December 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717260/faculty-motivation-to-mentor-students-through-undergraduate-research-programs-a-study-of-enabling-and-constraining-factors
#9
Danielle X Morales, Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
Undergraduate research experiences are a "high impact" educational practice that confer benefits to students. However, little attention has been paid to understanding faculty motivation to mentor undergraduate students through research training programs, even as the number of programs has grown, requiring increasing numbers of faculty mentors. To address this, we introduce a conceptual model for understanding faculty motivation to mentor and test it by using empirical data to identify factors that enable and constrain faculty engagement in an undergraduate research program...
August 2017: Research in Higher Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710060/values-affirmation-intervention-reduces-achievement-gap-between-underrepresented-minority-and-white-students-in-introductory-biology-classes
#10
Hannah Jordt, Sarah L Eddy, Riley Brazil, Ignatius Lau, Chelsea Mann, Sara E Brownell, Katherine King, Scott Freeman
Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693843/surgical-time-out-our-counts-are-still-short-on-racial-diversity-in-academic-surgery
#11
Jonathan S Abelson, Matthew M Symer, Heather L Yeo, Paris D Butler, Patrick T Dolan, Tracy A Moo, Anthony C Watkins
BACKGROUND: This study provides an updated description of diversity along the academic surgical pipeline to determine what progress has been made. METHODS: Data was extracted from a variety of publically available data sources to determine proportions of minorities in medical school, general surgery training, and academic surgery leadership. RESULTS: In 2014-2015, Blacks represented 12.4% of the U.S. population, but only 5.7% graduating medical students, 6...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693389/primary-care-physicians-attitudes-and-beliefs-about-cancer-clinical-trials
#12
Carma L Bylund, Elisa S Weiss, Margo Michaels, Shilpa Patel, Thomas A D'Agostino, Emily B Peterson, Maria Christina Binz-Scharf, Natasha Blakeney, M Diane McKee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cancer clinical trials give patients access to state-of-the-art treatments and facilitate the translation of findings into mainstream clinical care. However, patients from racial and ethnic minority groups remain underrepresented in clinical trials. Primary care physicians are a trusted source of information for patients, yet their role in decision-making about cancer treatment and referrals to trial participation has received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer clinical trials, their experience with trials, and their interest in appropriate training about trials...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678099/shifting-the-curve-fostering-academic-success-in-a-diverse-student-body
#13
Martha L Elks, Janice Herbert-Carter, Marjorie Smith, Brenda Klement, Brandi Brandon Knight, Ngozi F Anachebe
PROBLEM: Diversity in the health care workforce is key to achieving health equity. Although U.S. medical schools have worked to increase the matriculation and academic success of underrepresented minority (URM) students (African Americans, Latinos, others), they have had only limited success. Lower standardized test scores, including on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), have been a barrier to matriculation for many URM applicants. Lower subsequent standardized exam scores, including on the United States Medical Licensing Exam Step 1, also have been an impediment to students' progress, with mean scores for URM students lagging behind those for others...
July 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657878/air-pollution-and-mortality-in-the-medicare-population
#14
Qian Di, Yan Wang, Antonella Zanobetti, Yun Wang, Petros Koutrakis, Christine Choirat, Francesca Dominici, Joel D Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that long-term exposure to air pollution increases mortality. However, evidence is limited for air-pollution levels below the most recent National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Previous studies involved predominantly urban populations and did not have the statistical power to estimate the health effects in underrepresented groups. METHODS: We constructed an open cohort of all Medicare beneficiaries (60,925,443 persons) in the continental United States from the years 2000 through 2012, with 460,310,521 person-years of follow-up...
June 29, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656070/applied-theatre-facilitates-dialogue-about-career-challenges-for-scientists
#15
Verónica A Segarra, MariaElena Zavala, Latanya Hammonds-Odie
The design of programs in support of a strong, diverse, and inclusive scientific workforce and academe requires numerous difficult conversations about sensitive topics such as the challenges scientists can face in their professional development. Theatre can be an interactive and effective way to foster discussion around such subjects. This article examines the implementation and benefits of such interactive strategies in different contexts, including the benefits of getting early career academics and professionals talking about some of the situations that women and underrepresented minorities face in the workplace, while allowing more seasoned professionals and colleagues to join in the conversation...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640681/crowdsourced-health-data-comparability-to-a-us-national-survey-2013-2015
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Veronica Yank, Sanjhavi Agarwal, Pooja Loftus, Steven Asch, David Rehkopf
OBJECTIVES: To determine the generalizability of crowdsourced, electronic health data from self-selected individuals using a national survey as a reference. METHODS: Using the world's largest crowdsourcing platform in 2015, we collected data on characteristics known to influence cardiovascular disease risk and identified comparable data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used age-stratified logistic regression models to identify differences among groups...
August 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639311/increasing-the-pipeline-and-diversity-of-doctorally-prepared-nurses-description-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-a-health-disparities-summer-research-program
#17
John P Salerno, Rosa Gonzalez-Guarda, Mary Hooshmand
Despite calls to increase the number and diversity of doctorally prepared nurses, recent data indicate a severe shortage of PhD-prepared nurses, especially those of racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. This is concerning, given that evidence indicates that racial/ethnic minority PhD-prepared nurses are well-positioned to address health disparities, by attending to the needs/concerns of medically underrepresented groups. The purpose of this article is to describe and provide a preliminary evaluation of a summer research program for minority nursing students...
June 22, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632012/medical-school-outcomes-primary-care-specialty-choice-and-practice-in-medically-underserved-areas-by-physician-alumni-of-medprep-a-postbaccalaureate-premedical-program-for-underrepresented-and-disadvantaged-students
#18
Anneke M Metz
PROBLEM: Minorities continue to be underrepresented as physicians in medicine, and the United States currently has a number of medically underserved communities. MEDPREP, a postbaccalaureate medical school preparatory program for socioeconomically disadvantaged or underrepresented in medicine students, has a stated mission to increase the numbers of physicians from minority or disadvantaged backgrounds and physicians working with underserved populations. This study aims to determine how MEDPREP enhances U...
July 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623804/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-a-programme-for-improving-the-participation-and-academic-success-of-an-underrepresented-minority-group-in-new-zealand
#19
Faafetai Sopoaga, Jesse Kokaua, Jacques van der Meer, Malia Lameta-Huro, Tony Zaharic, Rose Richards, Marie Inder
Pacific peoples are a minority under-represented ethnic group in higher education in New Zealand. This article explores the effectiveness of a specific programme, which sought to improve outcomes of Pacific students in the tertiary environment. The aim of the evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention programme (2013-2015) to increase the participation and academic success of Pacific students in the first year in Health Sciences. The study found the academic results of Pacific students who participated in the intervention programme were significantly better compared to those who did not...
June 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623623/self-reported-race-and-ethnicity-of-us-biobank-participants-compared-to-the-us-census
#20
Elizabeth Gross Cohn, Nalo Hamilton, Elaine L Larson, Janet K Williams
Precision medicine envisions a future of effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention grounded in precise understandings of the genetic and environmental determinants of disease. Given that the original genome-wide association studies represented a predominately European White population, and that diversity in genomic studies must account for genetic variation both within and across racial categories, new research studies are at a heightened risk for inadequate representation. Currently biological samples are being made available for sequencing in biobanks across the USA, but the diversity of those samples is unknown...
July 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
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