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Underrepresented minorities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101263/team-based-learning-in-a-pipeline-course-in-medical-microbiology-for-under-represented-student-populations-in-medicine-improves-learning-of-microbiology-concepts
#1
K C Behling, M M Murphy, J Mitchell-Williams, H Rogers-McQuade, O J Lopez
As part of an undergraduate pipeline program at our institution for students from underrepresented minorities in medicine backgrounds, we created an intensive four-week medical microbiology course. Team-based learning (TBL) was implemented in this course to enhance student learning of course content. Three different student cohorts participated in the study, and there were no significant differences in their prior academic achievement based on their undergraduate grade point average (GPA) and pre-course examination scores...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078659/summer-research-training-provides-effective-tools-for-underrepresented-minorities-to-obtain-doctoral-level-degrees
#2
Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Ashish Damania, Teri L Turner, Gayle Slaughter, Kendal D Hirschi
The ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of the USA is not reflected in its healthcare and biomedical workforce. Undergraduate research programs are used to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue training for biomedical careers, but there is limited published data on doctoral degree completion rates by participants in these programs. This study evaluates the attainment of doctoral degrees by a NIH-funded cohort of undergraduates from the 1998-2002 Baylor College of Medicine's Summer Medical Research Training (SMART) program...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069446/rich2-is-implicated-in-viraemic-control-of-hiv-1-in-black-south-african-individuals
#3
Maria Paximadis, Refilwe N Ngqobe, Richard E Chaisson, Neil A Martinson, Caroline T Tiemessen
An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in RICH2 (rs2072255; 255(i)), in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) with an exonic SNP (rs2072254; 254(e)), has been identified in a genome wide association study to be associated with progression to AIDS in Caucasian individuals. RICH2 links tetherin to the cortical actin network and the RICH2/tetherin interaction has been shown to be important for the downstream activation of NF-κβ and the consequential promotion of proinflammatory responses. We investigated the role of these two SNPs in natural control of HIV-1 in black South Africans including healthy controls (HCs; N=102) and antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected controllers (HICs; N=52) and progressors (N=74)...
January 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052168/a-review-of-tenure-for-black-latino-and-native-american-faculty-in-academic-medicine
#4
Zedeena E Fisher, José E Rodríguez, Kendall M Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine...
January 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041605/racial-and-ethnic-diversity-of-u-s-plastic-surgery-trainees
#5
Jason Silvestre, Joseph M Serletti, Benjamin Chang
BACKGROUND: Increased diversity of U.S. physicians can improve patient communication and mitigate health disparities for racial minorities. This study analyzes trends in racial and ethnic diversity of plastic surgery residents. METHODS: Demographic data of surgical residents, medical students, and integrated plastic surgery residency applicants were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Data for college students and the general population were obtained from the U...
January 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040097/hospital-based-multidisciplinary-youth-mentoring-and-medical-exposure-program-positively-influences-and-reinforces-health-care-career-choice-the-reach-one-each-one-program-early-experience
#6
Omar K Danner, Carl Lokko, Felicia Mobley, Montreka Dansby, Michael Maze, Brene' Bradley, Elizabeth Williams, Leslie Ray Matthews, Emma Harrington, Lisa Mack, Clarence Clark, Ken Wilson, Derrick Beech, Sheryl Heron, Ed Childs
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to leave science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields at higher rates than their peers during undergraduate studies. Many institutions of higher learning have implemented pipeline programs aimed at preparing and inspiring high school and college aged students in select careers in health sciences with varying levels of success. Research has shown that a health care workforce that mirrors the community they serve is more effective in reducing health disparities and increasing positive health outcomes...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025830/the-hispanic-and-latino-dentist-workforce-in-the-united-states
#7
Elizabeth Mertz, Cynthia Wides, Jean Calvo, Paul Gates
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to describe the Hispanic/Latino (H/L) dentist workforce, their general practice patterns, and their contributions to oral health care for H/L and underserved patients. METHODS: A national sample survey of underrepresented minority dentists was conducted in 2012 and received a 35.4 percent response rate for self-reported H/L dentists. Data were weighted for selection and response bias to be nationally representative. A workforce profile of H/L dentists was created using descriptive and multivariable statistics and published data...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991600/cervical-cancer-screening-among-arab-women-in-the-united-states-an-integrative-review
#8
Sarah Abboud, Emily De Penning, Bridgette M Brawner, Usha Menon, Karen Glanz, Marilyn S Sommers
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Arab American women are an ethnic minority and immigrant population in the United States with unique and nuanced sociocultural factors that influence preventive health behaviors. The aims of this article are to evaluate and synthesize the existing evidence on cervical cancer screening behaviors, as well as determine factors that influence these behaviors, among Arab American women.
. LITERATURE SEARCH: Extensive literature searches were performed using PubMed, CINAHL®, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane databases; articles published through October 2015 were sought...
January 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966789/the-black-dentist-workforce-in-the-united-states
#9
Elizabeth Mertz, Jean Calvo, Cynthia Wides, Paul Gates
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to describe the Black dentist workforce, the practice patterns of providers, and their contributions to oral health care for minority and underserved patients. METHODS: A national sample survey of underrepresented minority dentists was conducted in 2012 and received a 32.6 percent response rate for self-reported Black dentists. Data were weighted for selection and response bias to be nationally representative. Descriptive and multivariable statistics were computed to provide a workforce profile of Black dentists...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938389/hot-topics-urgent-priorities-and-ensuring-success-for-racial-ethnic-minority-young-investigators-in-academic-pediatrics
#10
REVIEW
Glenn Flores, Fernando S Mendoza, Elena Fuentes-Afflick, Jason A Mendoza, Lee Pachter, Juan Espinoza, Cristina R Fernandez, Danielle D P Arnold, Nicole M Brown, Kymberly M Gonzalez, Cynthia Lopez, Mikah C Owen, Kenya M Parks, Kimberly L Reynolds, Christopher J Russell
BACKGROUND: The number of racial/ethnic minority children will exceed the number of white children in the USA by 2018. Although 38% of Americans are minorities, only 12% of pediatricians, 5% of medical-school faculty, and 3% of medical-school professors are minorities. Furthermore, only 5% of all R01 applications for National Institutes of Health grants are from African-American, Latino, and American Indian investigators. Prompted by the persistent lack of diversity in the pediatric and biomedical research workforces, the Academic Pediatric Association Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) was initiated in 2012...
December 9, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922723/the-american-indian-and-alaska-native-dentist-workforce-in-the-united-states
#11
Elizabeth Mertz, Cynthia Wides, Paul Gates
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to describe the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) dentist workforce, the general practice patterns of these providers, and their contributions to oral health care for AI/AN and underserved patients. METHODS: A national sample survey of underrepresented minority dentists was conducted in 2012 and received a 34 percent response rate for self-reported AI/AN dentists. Data were weighted for selection and response bias to be nationally representative...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920306/underrepresented-minority-dentists-quantifying-their-numbers-and-characterizing-the-communities-they-serve
#12
Elizabeth A Mertz, Cynthia D Wides, Aubri M Kottek, Jean Marie Calvo, Paul E Gates
The underrepresentation of Blacks, Hispanics or Latinos, and American Indians or Alaska Natives among dentists raises concerns about the diversity of the dental workforce, disparities in access to dental care and in oral health status, and social justice. We quantified the shortage of underrepresented minority dentists and examined these dentists' practice patterns in relation to the characteristics of the communities they serve. The underrepresented minority dentist workforce is disproportionately smaller than, and unevenly distributed in relation to, minority populations in the United States...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916109/diversity-matters-in-academic-radiology-acknowledging-and-addressing-unconscious-bias
#13
Brenda J Allen, Kavita Garg
To meet challenges related to changing demographics, and to optimize the promise of diversity, radiologists must bridge the gap between numbers of women and historically underrepresented minorities in radiology and radiation oncology as contrasted with other medical specialties. Research reveals multiple ways that women and underrepresented minorities can benefit radiology education, research, and practice. To achieve those benefits, promising practices promote developing and implementing strategies that support diversity as an institutional priority and cultivate shared responsibility among all members to create inclusive learning and workplace environments...
December 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900472/tissue-specific-expression-of-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-gene-variants-in-nicotiana-tabacum
#14
Jana Fišerová Jurečková, Eva Sýkorová, Said Hafidh, David Honys, Jiří Fajkus, Miloslava Fojtová
In tobacco, three sequence variants of the TERT gene have been described. We revealed unbalanced levels of TERT variant transcripts in vegetative tobacco tissues and enhanced TERT transcription and telomerase activity in reproductive tissues. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the maintenance of telomeres, structures delimiting ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. In the Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) allotetraploid plant, three sequence variants (paralogs) of the gene coding for the telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (TERT) have been described, two of them derived from the maternal N...
November 29, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856741/universal-screening-increases-the-representation-of-low-income-and-minority-students-in-gifted-education
#15
David Card, Laura Giuliano
Low-income and minority students are substantially underrepresented in gifted education programs. The disparities persist despite efforts by many states and school districts to broaden participation through changes in their eligibility criteria. One explanation for the persistent gap is that standard processes for identifying gifted students, which are based largely on the referrals of parents and teachers, tend to miss qualified students from underrepresented groups. We study this hypothesis using the experiences of a large urban school district following the introduction of a universal screening program for second graders...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852433/decoupling-of-the-minority-phd-talent-pool-and-assistant-professor-hiring-in-medical-school-basic-science-departments-in-the-us
#16
Kenneth D Gibbs, Jacob Basson, Imam M Xierali, David A Broniatowski
Faculty diversity is a longstanding challenge in the US. However, we lack a quantitative and systemic understanding of how the career transitions into assistant professor positions of PhD scientists from underrepresented minority (URM) and well-represented (WR) racial/ethnic backgrounds compare. Between 1980 and 2013, the number of PhD graduates from URM backgrounds increased by a factor of 9.3, compared with a 2.6-fold increase in the number of PhD graduates from WR groups. However, the number of scientists from URM backgrounds hired as assistant professors in medical school basic science departments was not related to the number of potential candidates (R(2)=0...
November 17, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834037/assessing-the-learning-environment-for-medical-students-an-evaluation-of-a-novel-survey-instrument-in-four-medical-schools
#17
Linda H Pololi, Arthur T Evans, Leslie Nickell, Annette C Reboli, Lisa D Coplit, Margaret L Stuber, Vasilia Vasiliou, Janet T Civian, Robert T Brennan
OBJECTIVE: A practical, reliable, and valid instrument is needed to measure the impact of the learning environment on medical students' well-being and educational experience and to meet medical school accreditation requirements. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, medical students were surveyed at the end of their first, second, and third year of studies at four medical schools. The survey assessed students' perceptions of the following nine dimensions of the school culture: vitality, self-efficacy, institutional support, relationships/inclusion, values alignment, ethical/moral distress, work-life integration, gender equity, and ethnic minority equity...
November 10, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824260/underrepresented-minorities-in-medical-school-admissions-a-qualitative-study
#18
Margaret A Hadinger
: Phenomenon: This study explored Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino medical students' perceptions of the medical school admissions process. Previous research has explored other elements of the medical education continuum. However, little is known regarding minorities' perceptions of navigating the medical school admissions process. To address this gap in the literature, this exploratory study suggests a conceptual model describing why minorities apply to medical school and the influences affecting their admissions experience...
November 8, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815549/pregnant-women-s-attitudes-about-topical-microbicides-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-bacterial-vaginosis-during-pregnancy
#19
Marina Catallozzi, Lauren Dapena Fraiz, Katharine M Hargreaves, Gregory D Zimet, Lawrence R Stanberry, Adam J Ratner, Shari E Gelber, Susan L Rosenthal
We sought to understand pregnant women's product preference and likelihood of use of topical microbicides for bacterial vaginosis (BV) prevention and treatment. Pregnant women (N = 196) in a obstetrics clinic completed a survey between June 2014 and January 2015 about vaginal product use for BV. This cross-sectional study explored product preferences, likelihood of product use for BV management and father of the baby (FOB) involvement. Most participants were under 30 (68%) and underrepresented minorities (47% Hispanic, 21% African-American)...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812847/needs-priorities-and-recommendations-for-engaging-underrepresented-populations-in-clinical-research-a-community-perspective
#20
Jennifer Cunningham Erves, Tilicia L Mayo-Gamble, Alecia Malin-Fair, Alaina Boyer, Yvonne Joosten, Yolanda C Vaughn, Lisa Sherden, Patrick Luther, Stephania Miller, Consuelo H Wilkins
Engaging underrepresented groups in outcomes research is a public health priority for reducing health and health care disparities; yet, engaging these groups is challenging. Failure to involve these underrepresented populations in research further exacerbates these disparities. This article presents the health and research priorities of diverse groups of underrepresented populations in biomedical research, their concerns for participating in research, and strategies to engage them in their healthcare and research studies...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Community Health
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