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Anti Platelets

Galia Spectre, Fariborz Mobarrez, Ragnhild Stålesen, Claes-Göran Östenson, David Varon, Håkan Wallen, Paul Hjemdahl
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with prothrombotic alterations, and postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. We therefore investigated whether a standardized mixed meal alters circulating microparticles (MPs) and their procoagulant activity in DM patients. Patients with DM type 1 (T1DM, n = 11) and type 2 (T2DM; n = 9) were studied before and 90 min after a standardized meal (without premeal insulin). MPs in plasma derived from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), or monocytes (MMPs) were measured by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Platelets
Ramiro Manzano Núñez, James Alejandro Zapata, Herney A García-Perdomo, Diego A Gomez, Mónica A Solís Velasco
INTRODUCTION: Few reports are available about perinatal dengue, with controversial results in regards the risk of perinatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of perinatal dengue as a differential diagno sis with neonatal sepsis, which must be considered in endemic areas. CLINICAL CASE: Male newborn of a 23 year-old female, who presented a Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) antigen positive to dengue at 36 weeks of gestation and negative anti-dengue antibodies...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Christelle Retière, Catherine Willem, Thierry Guillaume, Henri Vié, Laetitia Gautreau-Rolland, Emmanuel Scotet, Xavier Saulquin, Katia Gagne, Marie C Béné, Berthe-Marie Imbert, Beatrice Clemenceau, Pierre Peterlin, Alice Garnier, Patrice Chevallier
We have compared prospectively the outcome and immune reconstitution of patients receiving either post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) ( n = 30) or anti-thymocyte globulin ATG ( n = 15) as Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation (allo-SCT). The outcome and immune reconstitution of patients receiving either of these two regimens were compared prospectively. This study allowed also to investigate the impact of PTCY between haplo-identical vs matched donors and of clofarabine as part of the RIC regimen...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Chiaki Yoshioka, Yoshimasa Ito, Noriaki Nagai
Cilostazol (CLZ), an anti-platelet agent, is primarily used following the onset of cerebral infarction. However, as CLZ is only marginally soluble in water, a strategy for patients with serious secondary conditions, such as impaired consciousness or aphagia, is required. In the present study, topical formulations containing CLZ nanocrystals (CLZnano ) were designed to enhance percutaneous absorption. In addition, the mechanism of penetration of CLZnano through rat skin was investigated. A topical formulation containing CLZ nanoparticles (CLZnano gel patch) was prepared using a combination of recrystallization and ball milling of an aqueous gel...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
S Arques
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Conceptually, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory status and oxidative stress are at the forefront in the onset and development of most cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease and heart failure. Serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, has many physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation activity. It also plays an essential role in the fluid exchange across the capillary membrane...
March 12, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Cédric Garcia, Nicolas Montée, Julien Faccini, Jennifer Series, Olivier Meilhac, Anne-Valérie Cantero, Pauline Le Faouder, Meyer Elbaz, Bernard Payrastre, Cécile Vindis
BACKGROUND: While high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have anti-thrombotic effects by reducing platelet activation, the relationship between HDL levels and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear since HDL particles are heterogeneous in composition and biological properties OBJECTIVE: We characterized the effects of HDL2 and HDL3 subclasses from ACS patients and non-coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects on platelet activation. METHODS: We measured platelet aggregation and ex vivo thrombus formation, analyzed signaling pathways by flow cytometry and performed a targeted lipidomics analysis on HDL subclasses RESULTS: Analysis of human platelet aggregation in suspension, adhesion on von Willebrand factor and thrombus formation on collagen under arterial shear demonstrated that HDL2 subclass from ACS patients had a higher antiplatelet potency compared to ACS HDL3 particles and HDL subclasses from non-CAD subjects...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Samuel Hall, Eleanor Walshe, Claudia Ajayi, Kevin Boyle, Colin Griffith
Background: Herbal supplements are commonly used, however, their side-effect profiles are poorly understood and not subject to the same scrutiny as prescribed medications. Some herbal supplements such as St Johns' Wort are accepted to interfere with clotting pathways, however others, including Red Clover have theoretical bleeding risks based on coumarin content with very little underlying evidence. Case Description: This case reports a 65-year-old woman who suffered a spontaneous acute-on-chronic subdural hemorrhage with a significant postoperative re-hemorrhage...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Haruhiko Tokuda, Gen Kuroyanagi, Takashi Onuma, Yukiko Enomoto, Tomoaki Doi, Hiroki Iida, Takanobu Otsuka, Shinji Ogura, Toru Iwama, Kumi Kojima, Osamu Kozawa
It has been previously reported that HSP27 is released from platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ristocetin, a glycoprotein (GP)Ib/IX/V activator, on the release of HSP27 and the effect of anti-platelet agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on this release. Forty-six patients with type 2 DM were recruited, and classified into two groups depending on administration of anti-platelet agents, resulting in 31 patients without these agents (control group) and 15 patients with them (anti-platelet group)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Chen Zou, Changjing Han, Minjie Zhao, Jingjing Yu, Lin Bai, Yuan Yao, Shuaixin Gao, Hui Cao, Zhi Zheng
Background: Preoperative treatment of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents is extensively used in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), but the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The objective of this research is to observe change of protein profile induced by ranibizumab (an anti-VEGF agent) in vitreous humor from PDR patients and reveal the effects of anti-VEGF treatment on PDR. Methods: A proteomic method was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in vitreous humor...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
Johann Bartko, Christian Schoergenhofer, Michael Schwameis, Patricia Wadowski, Jacek Kubica, Bernd Jilma, Eva-Luise Hobl
Aspirin is a cornerstone in the anti-platelet therapy of acute coronary syndromes. Co-administration of morphine may potentially influence the intestinal absorption, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as seen with P2Y12-inhibitors. In this trial, healthy volunteers were randomized to receive morphine (5 mg, iv bolus injection) at one of 7 different time points before, after or with aspirin (162 mg, po) in a double-blind, placebo controlled fashion. After a 14-day washout, subjects received placebo instead of morphine...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Valeryi K Lishko, Valentin P Yakubenko, Tatiana P Ugarova, Nataly P Podolnikova
Platelet Factor 4 (PF4) is one of the most abundant cationic proteins secreted from α-granules of activated platelets. Based on its structure, PF4 was assigned to the CXC family of chemokines and has been shown to have numerous effects on myeloid leukocytes. However, the receptor for PF4 remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PF4 induces leukocyte responses through the integrin Mac-1 (αM β2 , CD11b/CD18). Human neutrophils, monocytes, U937 monocytic and HEK293 cells expressing Mac-1 strongly adhered to immobilized PF4 in a concentration-dependent manner...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Philippe Berthelot, Bernard Tardy, Bruno Pozzetto, Thomas Bourlet, Sandrine Laradi, Olivier Garraud, Fabrice Cognasse
In addition to their haemostatic role and function in the repair of damaged vascular epithelium, platelets play a defensive role in innate immunity, having the capacity to produce and secrete various anti-infectious factors, as well as cytokines, chemokines and related products, to interact with other immune cells to modulate immune responses to pathogens. Thus, it is now widely acknowledged that platelets participate in inflammatory processes and infection resolution, most notably by expressing and using receptors to bind infectious pathogen moieties and contributing to pathogen clearance...
March 13, 2018: Platelets
Rolf Spirig, Ian K Campbell, Sandra Koernig, Chao-Guang Chen, Bonnie J B Lewis, Rebecca Butcher, Ineke Muir, Shirley Taylor, Jenny Chia, David Leong, Jason Simmonds, Pierre Scotney, Peter Schmidt, Louis Fabri, Andreas Hofmann, Monika Jordi, Martin O Spycher, Susann Cattepoel, Jennifer Brasseit, Con Panousis, Tony Rowe, Donald R Branch, Adriana Baz Morelli, Fabian Käsermann, Adrian W Zuercher
Activation of Fc receptors and complement by immune complexes is a common important pathogenic trigger in many autoimmune diseases and so blockade of these innate immune pathways may be an attractive target for treatment of immune complex-mediated pathomechanisms. High-dose IVIG is used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and several studies demonstrate that the therapeutic effects of IVIG can be recapitulated with the Fc portion. Further, recent data indicate that recombinant multimerized Fc molecules exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Carlos Zamora, Elisabet Canto, Juan C Nieto, Ester Garcia-Planella, Jordi Gordillo, Mª Angels Ortiz, Xavier Suarez-Calvet, Lidia Perea, Germà Julia, Candido Juarez, Silvia Vidal
Background: Circulating monocytes from active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients produced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNFα) and interleukin(IL)-6 after Toll-like receptors (TLR) stimulation. Since platelets (PLT) can bind to leukocytes, thereby decreasing inflammatory cytokine production, UC patients may exhibit different levels of monocyte-platelet complexes depending on disease activity. Methods: We compared among healthy donors, active (onset flare and relapse), and inactive UC patients the presence of circulating monocyte-platelet complexes (CD14+PLT+) and membrane CD162 expression by flow cytometry...
February 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Victor J Drew, Ching-Li Tseng, Jerard Seghatchian, Thierry Burnouf
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial, frequent, pathology characterized by deficient tear production or increased evaporation of tears and associated with ocular surface alteration and inflammation. It mostly affects, but not exclusively, older individuals and leads to varying degrees of discomfort and decreased quality of life. Although the typical treatments of DES rely on using artificial tears, polyunsaturated fatty acids, integrin antagonists, anti-inflammatory agents, or on performing punctal occlusion, recently, standardized blood-derived serum eye drops (SED) are generating much interest as a new physiological treatment option...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Yongchang Lai, Zhijian Zhao, Tao Zeng, Xiongfa Liang, Dong Chen, Xiaolu Duan, Guohua Zeng, Wenqi Wu
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and is frequently accompanied by the genetic features of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) loss. VHL loss increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and their targets, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The primary treatment for metastatic RCC (mRCC) is molecular-targeted therapy, especially anti-angiogenic therapy...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Elias Atallah, Kimon Bekelis, Hassan Saad, Nohra Chalouhi, Sophia Dang, Jonathan Li, Ayan Kumar, Justin Turpin, Randa Barsoom, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Maureen Deprince, Giuliana Labella, Robert H Rosenwasser, Pascal Jabbour
OBJECTIVES: Neurologists have continually led the assessment and management of Acute Ischemic Stroke(AIS) by use of IV-rtPA, anti-platelet therapy, antihypertensives, and other pharmacologic agents. Since the advent of mechanical thrombectomy(MT) and its proven efficacy, neurovascular surgeons(NS) are playing an increasingly important role in the management and overall care of AIS. We assessed outcomes of AIS patients managed by NS, who have been traditionally managed by neurologists...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
John Mascarenhas, Ronald Hoffman, Moshe Talpaz, Aaron T Gerds, Brady Stein, Vikas Gupta, Anita Szoke, Mark Drummond, Alexander Pristupa, Tanya Granston, Robert Daly, Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Jennifer A Callahan, Jack W Singer, Jason Gotlib, Catriona Jamieson, Claire Harrison, Ruben Mesa, Srdan Verstovsek
Importance: Myelofibrosis is a hematologic malignancy characterized by splenomegaly and debilitating symptoms. Thrombocytopenia is a poor prognostic feature and limits use of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor ruxolitinib. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of JAK2 inhibitor pacritinib with that of best available therapy (BAT), including ruxolitinib, in patients with myelofibrosis and thrombocytopenia. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this phase 3 randomized international multicenter study-the PERSIST-2 study-of pacritinib vs BAT, 311 patients with myelofibrosis and platelet count 100 × 109/L or less were recruited for analysis...
March 8, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Felipe C O B Teixeira, Eliene Oliveira Kozlowski, Kayene Vitória de A Micheli, Ana Cristina E S Vilela-Silva, Lubor Borsig, Mauro S G Pavão
Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer-associated deaths, though only a very small number of tumor cells are able to efficiently complete all the steps of that process. Tumor cell survival in the bloodstream is one of the limiting aspects of the metastatic cascade. The formation of tumor cell-platelet complexes that promote tumor cell survival is facilitated by the binding of P-selectin on activated platelets to sialyl Lewis-containing oligosaccharides on the surface of tumor cells. Inhibition of this interaction has been shown to attenuate metastasis...
March 7, 2018: Glycobiology
Jianhui Wu, Haimei Zhu, Guodong Yang, Jianhong He, Yuji Wang, Shurui Zhao, Xiaoyi Zhang, Lin Gui, Ming Zhao, Shiqi Peng
Background: Arterial thrombosis has been associated with a series of pathological conditions, and the discovery of arterial thrombosis inhibitor is of clinical importance. Methods: By analyzing the pharmacophores of anti-platelet agents, thrombus targeting peptide and anti-thrombotic nano-systems 3S-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquino-line-3-carbonyl-Thr-Ala-Arg-Gly-Asp(Val)-Val (IQCA-TAVV) was designed and prepared as a nano-scaled arterial thrombosis inhibitor. Results: In vitro the nanoparticles of IQCA-TAVV were able to adhere onto the surface of activated platelets, attenuate activated platelets to extend pseudopodia and inhibit activated platelets to form aggregators...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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