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Gestational trophoblastic disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217684/extrauterine-epithelioid-trophoblastic-tumor-in-hysterectomized-woman
#1
Ji-Hye Kim, Sun Kyung Lee, Soo Hyun Hwang, Jung-Sun Kim, Gun Yoon, Yoo-Young Lee, Tae-Joong Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Byoung-Gie Kim, Duk-Soo Bae, Jeong-Won Lee
Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a very rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) which arises in reproductive age women with prior gestational history. Although abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom of ETT, there are no reported pathognomonic symptoms of ETT because of its rarity. ETT is similar to placental site trophoblastic tumor in terms of its slow growing characteristic and microscopic findings. Therefore, it could be misdiagnosed as placental site trophoblastic tumor or other types of GTD...
January 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193709/testosterone-represses-estrogen-signaling-by-upregulating-mir-22-a-mechanism-for-imbalanced-steroid-hormone-production-in-preeclampsia
#2
Xuan Shao, Yanlei Liu, Ming Liu, Yongqing Wang, Liying Yan, Hao Wang, Liyang Ma, Yu-Xia Li, Yangyu Zhao, Yan-Ling Wang
Preeclampsia, a multisystem syndrome occurring during mid- to late gestation in humans, is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Patients usually present with high circulating testosterone and reduced estradiol production, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Revealing the mechanism that modulating the imbalance of testosterone and estradiol in preeclampsia is of great value in understanding the cause of the disease. The placenta is the predominant source of steroid hormone production during gestation, and we observed markedly increased 17β-HSD3 (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3) levels and downregulated aromatase expression, the key enzymes responsible for synthesis of testosterone and estradiol, respectively, in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls...
February 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161066/genomic-profile-in-gestational-and-non-gestational-choriocarcinomas
#3
Julia Bette Homem de Mello, Priscila Daniele Ramos Cirilo, Odair Carlito Michelin, Maria Aparecida Custódio Domingues, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge, Silvia Regina Rogatto, Izildinha Maestá
INTRODUCTION: Gestational (GC) (derived from the placenta) and non-gestational (NGC) choriocarcinomas are trophoblastic diseases originated from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic cells. These rare tumors share similar morphology and pathological features and differ on chemotherapy response, genetic origin and prognosis. In this study, the genomic profile of choriocarcinomas was performed according to their origin (GC or NGC) aiming to better understand these poorly characterized diseases...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141940/are-early-pregnancy-complications-more-common-in-women-with-hyperemesis-gravidarum
#4
Sinead R Morgan, Lisa Long, Jemma Johns, Chloe Angwin, Supriya Maitra, Jackie A Ross
Ultrasound evaluation is usually requested for women presenting with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in early pregnancy. This is to check viability as well as to diagnose multiple pregnancies and exclude gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). The aim of this retrospective case control study was to evaluate the early pregnancy outcomes in women with HG and to compare them with an asymptomatic control group. 790 women referred with HG between 2002 and 2014 were matched for gestational age and maternal age with an asymptomatic patient attending for a reassurance or dating scan...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134999/pathogenesis-of-hyperthyroidism
#5
Ishita Singh, Jerome M Hershman
Hyperthyroidism is a form of thyrotoxicosis in which there is excess thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. Multiple etiologies can lead to a common clinical state of "thyrotoxicosis," which is a consequence of the high thyroid hormone levels and their action on different tissues of the body. The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder in which stimulating thyrotropin receptor antibodies bind to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors on thyroid cells and cause overproduction of thyroid hormones...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132722/multiple-pregnancies-with-complete-mole-and-coexisting-normal-fetus-in-north-and-south-america-a-retrospective-multicenter-cohort-and-literature-review
#6
Lawrence H Lin, Izildinha Maestá, Antonio Braga, Sue Y Sun, Koji Fushida, Rossana P V Francisco, Kevin M Elias, Neil Horowitz, Donald P Goldstein, Ross S Berkowitz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of multiple gestation with complete mole and coexisting fetus (CHMCF) in North and South America. METHODS: Retrospective non-concurrent cohorts compromised of CHMCF from New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) (1966-2015) and four Brazilian Trophoblastic Disease Centers (BTDC) (1990-2015). RESULTS: From a total of 12,455 cases of gestational trophoblastic disease seen, 72 CHMCF were identified...
January 26, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129241/role-of-surgery-in-the-management-of-hydatidiform-mole-in-elderly-patients-a-single-center-clinical-experience
#7
Veronica Giorgione, Alice Bergamini, Raffaella Cioffi, Francesca Pella, Emanuela Rabaiotti, Micaela Petrone, Massimo Candiani, Giorgia Mangili
OBJECTIVE: Women older than 40 years develop gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after a hydatidiform mole (HM) more often than do younger women. Therefore, in elderly women, primary hysterectomy has been advocated as first-line treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether hysterectomy could reduce the incidence of GTN after a diagnosis of HM. METHODS: Seventy-six of 442 patients referred to our unit for an HM between 1994 and 2015 were older than 40 years old...
March 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117145/notch-signalling-in-placental-development-and-gestational-diseases
#8
S Haider, J Pollheimer, M Knöfler
Activation of Notch signalling upon cell-cell contact of neighbouring cells controls a plethora of cellular processes such as stem cell maintenance, cell lineage determination, cell proliferation, and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathway also critically regulates these events during placental development and differentiation. Herein, we summarize our present knowledge about Notch signalling in murine and human placentation and discuss its potential role in the pathophysiology of gestational disorders...
January 16, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117143/review-placental-derived-biomarkers-of-pregnancy-disorders
#9
REVIEW
James S M Cuffe, Olivia Holland, Carlos Salomon, Gregory E Rice, Anthony V Perkins
Pregnancy is one of the greatest physiological challenges that a women can experience. The physiological adaptations that accompany pregnancy may increase the risk of developing a number of disorders that can lead to both acute and chronic physiological outcomes. In addition, fetal development may be impaired and, if the fetus survives, the child may be at an increased risk of disease throughout life. Pregnancy disorders are poorly predicted by traditional risk factors and maternal history alone. The identification of biomarkers that can predict incidence and severity of disease would allow for improved and targeted prophylactic therapies to prevent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes...
January 16, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110749/contribution-of-syncytins-and-other-endogenous-retroviral-envelopes-to-human-placenta-pathologies
#10
P-A Bolze, M Mommert, F Mallet
Fusion, proliferation, angiogenesis, immune tolerance, and tissue survival are some of the critical functions involved in the physiological and pathological processes of placenta development. Strikingly, some of these properties are shared by envelope glycoproteins of retroviruses. Part of the overall retroviral world, the human retroviral heritage consists of hundred thousands of elements representing a huge amount of genetic material as compared to our 25,000 genes, whereas only a few tenths of retroviral loci still contain envelope genes exhibiting large open reading frames...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079767/primary-gastric-choriocarcinoma-presenting-as-a-pregnancy-of-unknown-location
#11
Alyssa Larish, Amanika Kumar, Sarah Kerr, Carrie Langstraat
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy of unknown location presents a diagnostic challenge, in rare occasions leading to the diagnosis of malignancy. We describe a case of β-hCG-secreting nongestational primary gastric choriocarcinoma presenting as a pregnancy of unknown location. CASE: A 37-year-old woman, gravida 4 para 3013, presented with several days of vaginal bleeding and rising β-hCG level without ultrasound localization of pregnancy. The diagnosis of pregnancy of unknown location was made and methotrexate administered at a β-hCG level of 7,779 milli-international units/mL...
February 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060141/pd-l1-expression-in-premalignant-and-malignant-trophoblasts-from-gestational-trophoblastic-diseases-is-ubiquitous-and-independent-of-clinical-outcomes
#12
Pierre-Adrien Bolze, Sophie Patrier, Jérôme Massardier, Touria Hajri, Fatima Abbas, Anne Marie Schott, Fabienne Allias, Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Gilles Freyer, François Golfier, Benoît You
OBJECTIVE: Recently reported expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) in gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs) suggests that the immune tolerance of pregnancy might be hijacked during neoplastic process. We assessed PD-L1 protein expression in premalignant and malignant GTD lesions and analyzed associations with disease severity and chemotherapy outcomes. METHODS: We included 83 GTD whole-tissue sections from 76 patients in different treatment settings...
March 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050451/choriocarcinoma-in-ongoing-pregnancy-presenting-with-intracranial-metastasis
#13
Sujata Siwatch, Vanita Suri, Pooja Sikka, Neelam Aggarwal, Seema Chopra
Choriocarcinoma presents usually as persistent trophoblastic disease, with prognosis worsening with duration from antecedent pregnancy. We present a unique case of a woman with choriocarcinoma who presented in the third trimester of pregnancy with eclampsia. She was managed with magnesium sulphate and underwent a caesarean section. However, she developed seizures in the post-partum period that were further investigated and attributed to intracranial metastatic lesions of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia (GTN)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034657/failure-of-physiologic-transformation-of-spiral-arteries-endothelial-and-trophoblast-cell-activation-and-acute-atherosis-in-the-basal-plate-of-the-placenta
#14
Carlos A Labarrere, Hector L Dicarlo, Elaine Bammerlin, James W Hardin, Yeon M Kim, Piya Chaemsaithong, David M Haas, Ghassan S Kassab, Roberto Romero
BACKGROUND: Failure of physiologic transformation of spiral arteries has been reported in preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, fetal death, and spontaneous preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. Spiral arteries with failure of physiologic transformation are prone to develop atherosclerotic-like lesions of atherosis. There are striking parallels between preeclampsia and atherosclerotic disease, and between lesions of atherosis and atherosclerosis. Endothelial activation, identified by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, is present in atherosclerotic-like lesions of heart transplantation, and is considered a manifestation of rejection...
December 26, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001257/pregnancy-outcomes-after-chemotherapy-for-trophoblastic-neoplasia
#15
Mila Trementosa Garcia, Lawrence Hsu Lin, Koji Fushida, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Marcelo Zugaib
Introduction: The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. Objective: To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Method: Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms "gestational trophoblastic disease" and "pregnancy outcome"...
December 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996093/dlx3-and-gcm-1-functionally-coordinate-the-regulation-of-placental-growth-factor-in-human-trophoblast-derived-cells
#16
Sha Li, Mark S Roberson
Placental growth factor (PGF) is abundantly expressed by trophoblast cells within human placentae and is important for trophoblast development and placental vascularization. Circulating maternal serum levels of PGF are dynamically upregulated across gestation in normal pregnancies, whereas low circulating levels and placental production of PGF have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and other gestational diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of regulating PGF expression in the human placenta remains poorly understood...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979377/review-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-formation-function-and-adaptation-of-the-placenta
#17
REVIEW
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, H Dickinson, K M Moritz
Exposure of the embryo or fetus to perturbations in utero can result in intrauterine growth restriction, a primary risk factor for the development of adult disease. However, despite similar exposures, males and females often have altered disease susceptibility or progression from different stages of life. Fetal growth is largely mediated by the placenta, which, like the fetus is genetically XX or XY. The placenta and its associated trophoblast lineages originate from the trophectoderm (TE) of the early embryo...
December 8, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965933/colorectal-choriocarcinoma-in-a-patient-with-probable-lynch-syndrome
#18
Viktor H Koelzer, Karl Steuer, Ulrike Camenisch Gross, Dieter Zimmermann, Aino Paasinen-Sohns, Kirsten D Mertz, Gieri Cathomas
BACKGROUND: Personalized therapy of colorectal cancer is influenced by morphological, molecular, and host-related factors. Here, we report the comprehensive clinicopathological and molecular analysis of an extra-gestational colorectal choriocarcinoma in a patient with probable Lynch syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old female with history of gastric cancer at age 36 presented with a transmurally invasive tumor of the right hemicolon and liver metastasis. A right hemicolectomy was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933479/-bunch-of-grapes-in-complete-hydatidiform-mole
#19
REVIEW
Eduardo Kaiser Ururahy Nunes Fonseca, Marina Athaniel Silva Rodrigues, Fernando Ide Yamauchi, Ronaldo Hueb Baroni
Complete hydatidiform mole is a common cause of gestational bleeding of the first trimester, commonly assessed by ultrasound. It represents an abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue, with no fetal formation, just hydropic villi. These abnormal villi seen in ultrasound are compared to a "bunch of grapes," a classic description of this disease.
December 8, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922982/mir-21-is-overexpressed-in-hydatidiform-mole-tissues-and-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-choriocarcinoma-cells
#20
Ya-Xin Wang, Jiu-Ru Zhao, Yue-Ying Xu, Wei-Bin Wu, Hui-Juan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to make clear whether miR-21 was dysregulated in hydatidiform mole (HM) tissues and choriocarcinoma (CCA) cells, to elucidate whether aberrant miR-21 expression would affect the function of CCA cells, and to find out whether there was a relationship between miR-21 and AKT, PDCD4, and PTEN in CCA cells. METHODS: Fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded trophoblastic tissues (normal first trimester placentas and HMs) were retrieved from the biobank in the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
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