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Perovskite solar cells

Xin Wang, Junjie He, Benqing Zhou, Youming Zhang, Jiatao Wu, Rui Hu, Liwei Liu, Jun Song, Junle Qu
As a highly stable bandgap semiconductor, antimonene is an intriguing two-dimensional (2D) material in optoelectronics. However, its short layer distance and strong binding energy make it challenging to prepare high-quality large 2D antimonene; therefore, its predicted tunable bandgap has not been experimentally confirmed. In this work, we used a novel and simple approach to prepare smooth and large 2D antimonene with uniform layers through a pregrinding and subsequent sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation process...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Haoxuan Sun, Kaimo Deng, Yayun Zhu, Min Liao, Jie Xiong, Yanrong Li, Liang Li
Lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with the high power conversion efficiency (PCE) typically use mesoporous metal oxide nanoparticles as the scaffold and electron-transport layers. However, the traditional mesoporous layer suffers from low electron conductivity and severe carrier recombination. Here, antimony-doped tin oxide nanorod arrays are proposed as novel transparent conductive mesoporous layers in PSCs. Such a mesoporous layer improves the electron transport as well as light utilization. To resolve the common problem of uneven growth of perovskite on rough surface, the dynamic two-step spin coating strategy is proposed to prepare highly smooth, dense, and crystallized perovskite films with micrometer-scale grains, largely reducing the carrier recombination ratio...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Seongrok Seo, Seonghwa Jeong, Changdeuck Bae, Nam-Gyu Park, Hyunjung Shin
Despite the high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), poor long-term stability is one of the main obstacles preventing their commercialization. Several approaches to enhance the stability of PSCs have been proposed. However, an accelerating stability test of PSCs at high temperature under the operating conditions in ambient air remains still to be demonstrated. Herein, interface-engineered stable PSCs with inorganic charge-transport layers are shown. The highly conductive Al-doped ZnO films act as efficient electron-transporting layers as well as dense passivation layers...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yao Wang, Chenghao Duan, Jiangsheng Li, Wei Han, Min Zhao, Lili Yao, Yuanyuan Wang, Chao Yan, Tonggang Jiu
In this work, PC61BM:SnO2 electron transport layers (ETLs) were applied in inverted CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells and a high power conversion efficiency of 19.7% could be obtained. It increased by 49.0% in comparison with the device based on PC61BM-only ETL (13.2%). SnO2 nanocrystals with excellent dispersibility were employed here to fill the pin-holes and cover the valleys of PC61BM layer, forming smooth and compact PC61BM:SnO2 layers. Simultaneously, the electron traps caused by deep-level native defects of SnO2 were reduced by PC61BM proved by the space charge limited current analysis...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peng Xu, Peng Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Bo Xu, Lars Kloo, Licheng Sun, Yong Hua
Two D-A-D structured hole-transport materials (YN1 and YN2) have been synthesized and used in perovskite solar cells. The two HTMs have low-lying HOMO levels and impressive mobility. PSCs fabricated with YN2 showed a PCE value of 19.27% in ambient air, which is significantly higher than that of Spiro-OMeTAD (17.80%). PSCs based on YN1 showed an inferior PCE of 16.03%. We found that the incorporation of the stronger electron-withdrawing group in the HTM YN2 improves the PCE of PSCs. Furthermore, the YN2-based PSCs exhibit good long-term stability retaining 91...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Edison Castro, Gerardo Zavala, Sairaman Seetharaman, Francis D'Souza, Luis Echegoyen
The effect of utilizing a pure cis -α-dimethoxy carbonyl fulleropyrrolidine C70 (DMEC70 ) isomer as the electron transporting material (ETM) in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was evaluated. The as-prepared C70 mono-adduct products are mixtures of regioisomers and the interest was to evaluate them independently as ETMs. Three different cis -DMEC70 isomers (α, β- endo and β- exo ) (mix-DMEC70 ) were synthesized and purified by HPLC. It was found that PSCs based on the pure α-DMEC70 exhibit a substantially enhanced maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Xiu Gong, Qiang Sun, Shuangshuang Liu, Peizhe Liao, Yan Shen, Carole Graetzel, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Mingkui Wang
Electron transport layers (ETLs) with suitable energy level alignment for facilitating charge carrier transport as well as electron extraction are essential for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to achieve high open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current. Herein we systematically investigate band offset between ETL and perovskite absorber by tuning F doping level in SnO2 nanocrystal. We demonstrate that gradual substitution of F- into the SnO2 ETL can effectively reduce the band offset and result in a substantial increase in device VOC...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
W-W Wang, J-S Dang, R Jono, H Segawa, M Sugimoto
We herein report that surface modification of metal halide perovskites using graphene would be beneficial to improving the energy conversion efficiencies of perovskite solar cells. The present first-principles calculations on MAPbI3 with a single vacancy created by removing either I, Pb or MA show that the I and Pb vacancies near the surface result in the formation of Pb-Pb and I-I dimers, respectively. They are predicted to yield mid-gap levels, and would degrade the energy conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells through carrier trapping...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Dominik J Kubicki, Daniel Prochowicz, Albert Hofstetter, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Lyndon Emsley
Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are a promising family of light absorbers for a new generation of solar cells, with reported efficiencies currently exceeding 22%. A common problem of solar cells fabricated using these materials is that their efficiency depends on their cycling history, an effect known as current-voltage (J-V) hysteresis. Potassium doping has recently emerged as a universal way to overcome this adverse phenomenon. While the atomistic origins of J-V hysteresis are still not fully understood, it is essential to rationalize the atomic-level effect of protocols that lead to its suppression...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jinlu He, Meng Guo, Run Long
All-inorganic perovskites have attracted intense interest as promising photovoltaic materials due to their excellent performance. Using time domain density functional theory combined with nonadiabatic (NA) molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that a photoinduced localized polaron-like hole greatly delays the nonradiative electron-hole recombination relative to the structure with delocalized free charge of the CsPbBr3 . This is because localized charge carriers diminish overlap between electron and hole wave functions and decrease the NA coupling by a factor of 6...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Sisi Xiang, Weiping Li, Ya Wei, Jiaming Liu, Huicong Liu, Liqun Zhu, Haining Chen
α-CsPbI3 with the most suitable band gap for all-inorganic perovskite solar cell (PSC) application faces an issue of phase instability at low temperature in an air atmosphere. Herein, through stoichiometric investigation, α-CsPbI3 is successfully obtained with excess CsI at 110 °C in an air atmosphere. By doping α-CsPbI3 with Sb, phase stability is further enhanced and the film morphology is also improved. Carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) based on CsPb0.96Sb0.04I3 achieve a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Jing Cao, Xudong Lv, Peng Zhang, Tracy T Chuong, Binghui Wu, Xiaoxia Feng, Changfu Shan, Jiacheng Liu, Yu Tang
The poor UV, thermal, and interfacial stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) makes it highly challenging for their technological application, and has drawn increasing attention to resolving the above issues. In nature, plants generally sustain long exposure to UV illumination without damage, which is attributed to the presence of the organic materials acting as sunscreens. Inspired by the natural phenomenon, a natural plant sunscreen, sinapoyl malate, an ester derivative of sinapic acid, is employed to modify the surface of electron transport materials (ETMs)...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Le Zhang, Wei Geng, Chuan-Jia Tong, Xueguang Chen, Tengfei Cao, Mingyang Chen
Methyl-ammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) has drawn great attention due to its excellent photovoltaic properties. Because of its loosely compacted structure, the structural, electronic and optical properties of CH3 NH3 PbI3 are sensitive to external modulations. Strain effects on CH3 NH3 PbI3 are fully investigated by the first principles calculations. The results indicate that the inorganic framework deforms under compression or stretch and the embedded organic CH3 NH3 + molecules rotate correspondingly...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Federico Bella, Polyssena Renzi, Carmen Cavallo, Claudio Gerbaldi
Perovskite solar cells have the potential to revolutionize the world of photovoltaics, and their efficiency close to 23% on a lab-scale recently certified this novel technology as the one with the most rapidly raising performance per year in the whole story of solar cells. With the aim of improving stability, reproducibility and spectral properties of the devices, in the last three years the scientific community strongly focused on Cs-doping for hybrid (typically, organolead) perovskites. In parallel, in order to further contrast hygroscopicity and reach thermal stability, research has also been carried out to achieve the development of all-inorganic perovskites based on caesium, the performances of which are actually rapidly increasing...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
You-Jyun Chen, Ming-Hsien Li, Jung-Chun-Andrew Huang, Peter Chen
Cu/Cu2 O films grown by ion beam sputtering were used as p-type modified layers to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with an n-i-p heterojunction structure. The ratio of Cu to Cu2 O in the films can be tuned by the oxygen flow ratio (O2 /(O2  + Ar)) during the sputtering of copper. Auger electron spectroscopy was performed to determine the elemental composition and chemical state of Cu in the films. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed that the valence band maximum of the p-type Cu/Cu2 O matches well with the perovskite...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Yu Yang, Hao-Sheng Lin, Il Jeon, Yutaka Matsuo
Aryl[60]fullerenyl cations (ArC60 + ), which were generated by heating aryl[60]fullerenyl dimers (ArC60 -C60 Ar) to generate aryl[60]fullerenyl radicals (ArC60 • ) followed by oxidation using Cu(II) salts (Cu(BF4 )2 (aq)), were reacted with various functionalized aryl boronic acids to produce functionalized 1,4-diaryl[60]fullerenes. This protocol tolerated various functional groups, such as OH, NH2 , COCH3 , and Cl substituents, with yields reaching 93%. C60 Ar1 Ar2 (Ar2 = p-NH2 C6 H4 ) was used as a dopant in a photoactive CH3 NH3 PbI3 layer of a perovskite solar cell...
May 15, 2018: Organic Letters
Jorge Pascual, Juan Luis Delgado, Ramon Tena-Zaera
Beyond the use of fullerenes as electron-transporting layers in perovskite solar cells, their introduction in the perovskite active layer has been ascertained as a very promising strategy for device improvement. In this sense, this perspective summarizes the studies in which perovskite:fullerene systems were employed, covering the different methodologies for introducing fullerenes inside the perovskite layer. In particular, fill factor was the most benefited parameter, what was ascribed to minimized pinhole density and fullerene passivating role...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Soeun Im, Wanjung Kim, Wonseok Cho, Dongguen Shin, Do Hyung Chun, Ryan Rhee, Jung Kyu Kim, Yeonjin Yi, Jong Hyeok Park, Jung Hyun Kim
Even though poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been commonly used as a hole extraction layer (HEL) for p-i-n perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the cells' photovoltaic performance deteriorates because of the low and unstable work functions (WFs) of PEDOT:PSS versus those of a perovskite layer. To overcome this drawback, we synthesized a copolymer (P(SS-co-TFPMA)) ionomer consisting of PSS and tetrafluoropropylmethacrylate (TFPMA) as an alternative to conventional PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:P(SS-co-TFPMA) copolymer solution and its film exhibited excellent homogeneity and high phase stability compared with a physical mixture of TFPMA with PEDOT:PSS solution...
May 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yongchao Ma, Jihoon Lee, Yanliang Liu, Pesi Mwitumwa Hangoma, Woon Ik Park, Jae-Hong Lim, Yun Kyung Jung, Jung Hyun Jeong, Sung Heum Park, Kwangho Kim
A cost-effective fabrication method that can produce a remarkable enhancement in the device efficiency along with a reduction in the fabrication cost is one of the crucial requirements for the commercialization of perovskite-based solar cells. Here, we report a low-cost, printable, and highly effective synchronized-pressing annealing (SPA) method for inverted planar perovskite solar cells. In this method, two films are combined face-to-face for annealing, and separated as in a roll-to-roll process. Consequently, the SPA method provides two homogeneous highly crystalline MAPbI3 films with monolithic millimeter-scale crystalline grains by intermediate-induced crystallization engineering...
May 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Zhenlong Zhang, Jianqiang Qin, Wenjia Shi, Yanyan Liu, Yan Zhang, Yuefeng Liu, Huiping Gao, Yanli Mao
In this paper, Er3+ -Yb3+ -Li+ tri-doped TiO2 (UC-TiO2 ) was prepared by an addition of Li+ to Er3+ -Yb3+ co-doped TiO2 . The UC-TiO2 presented an enhanced up-conversion emission compared with Er3+ -Yb3+ co-doped TiO2 . The UC-TiO2 was applied to the perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cells without UC-TiO2 was 14.0%, while the PCE of the solar cells with UC-TiO2 was increased to 16.5%, which presented an increase of 19%. The results suggested that UC-TiO2 is an effective up-conversion material...
May 11, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
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