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Perovskite solar cells

Maryline Ralaiarisoa, Yan Busby, Johannes Frisch, Ingo Salzmann, Jean-Jacques Pireaux, Norbert Koch
Using 3D imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) complemented by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), we spatially resolve changes in both the composition and structure of CH3NH3I3-xClx perovskite films on conducting polymer substrates at different annealing stages, in particular, before and after complete perovskite crystallization. The early stage of annealing is characterized by phase separation throughout the entire film into domains with perovskite and domains with a dominating chloride-rich phase...
December 8, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Malgorzata Kot, Chittaranjan Das, Zhiping Wang, Karsten Henkel, Zied Rouissi, Konrad Wojciechowski, Henry J Snaith, Dieter Schmeisser
In this work, solar cells with a freshly made CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite film showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.4 % whereas the one with 50 days aged perovskite film only 6.1 %. However, when the aged perovskite was covered with a layer of Al2 O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (RT), the PCE value was clearly enhanced. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study showed that the ALD precursors are chemically active only at the perovskite surface and passivate it. Moreover, the RT-ALD-Al2 O3 -covered perovskite films showed enhanced ambient air stability...
December 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
Tao Ye, Shaoyang Ma, Xi Jiang, Miloš Petrović, Chellappan Vijila, Seeram Ramakrishna, Lei Wei
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoporous hemispheres (NHSs) with a radius of ∼200 nm are fabricated by electrospraying a hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) suspension solution. The resulting TiO2 NHSs are highly porous, which are beneficial to the infiltration of perovskites and provide a larger contact area, as building blocks to construct a mesoporous TiO2 layer for FA0.81MA0.15Pb(I0.836Br0.15)3 based perovskite solar cells (PSCs). By varying the TiO2 NHS collecting period (15 s, 30 s, 60 s and 90 s) during the electrospraying process, the performance of PSCs changes with different TiO2 NHS distribution densities...
December 7, 2016: Nanoscale
Yuze Lin, Liang Shen, Jun Dai, Yehao Deng, Yang Wu, Yang Bai, Xiaopeng Zheng, Jiayu Wang, Yanjun Fang, Haotong Wei, Wei Ma, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Xiaowei Zhan, Jinsong Huang
A π-conjugated Lewis base is introduced into perovskite solar cells, namely, indacenodithiophene end-capped with 1.1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IDIC), as a multifunctional interlayer which combines efficient trap-passivation and electron-extraction. Perovskite solar cells with IDIC layers yield higher photovoltages and photocurrents, and 45% enhanced efficiency compared with control devices without IDIC.
December 6, 2016: Advanced Materials
Sang-Won Lee, Seongtak Kim, Soohyun Bae, Kyungjin Cho, Taewon Chung, Laura E Mundt, Seunghun Lee, Sungeun Park, Hyomin Park, Martin C Schubert, Stefan W Glunz, Yohan Ko, Yongseok Jun, Yoonmook Kang, Hae-Seok Lee, Donghwan Kim
Although the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.81% to 22.1% in just 7 years, they still suffer from stability issues, as they degrade upon exposure to moisture, UV light, heat, and bias voltage. We herein examined the degradation of perovskite solar cells in the presence of UV light alone. The cells were exposed to 365 nm UV light for over 1,000 h under inert gas at <0.5 ppm humidity without encapsulation. 1-sun illumination after UV degradation resulted in recovery of the fill factor and power conversion efficiency...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhiping Wang, David P McMeekin, Nobuya Sakai, Stephan van Reenen, Konrad Wojciechowski, Jay B Patel, Michael B Johnston, Henry J Snaith
Air-stable doping of the n-type fullerene layer in an n-i-p planar heterojunction perovskite device is capable of enhancing device efficiency and improving device stability. Employing a (HC(NH2 )2 )0.83 Cs0.17 Pb(I0.6 Br0.4 )3 perovskite as the photoactive layer, glass-glass laminated devices are reported, which sustain 80% of their "post burn-in" efficiency over 3400 h under full sun illumination in ambient conditions.
December 1, 2016: Advanced Materials
Aibin Huang, Jingting Zhu, Yijie Zhou, Yu Yu, Yan Liu, Songwang Yang, Shidong Ji, Lei Lei, Ping Jin
Spray-coating as a facile and quantitative method was introduced to prepare thin and continuous TiO2 compact layers on different substrates for perovskite solar cells. The as-prepared film is highly transparent and smooth, which is of significance in perovskite solar cells to decrease incident light loss and facilitate the film cast and electric contact. The compact TiO2 layer shows excellent performance when coated with perovskite and assembled into a device. Since it provides unlimited substrate size, patterning function and the TiO2 used for spray-coating is well crystallized, this method has huge potential for mass production and great adaptability for a variety of applications...
January 6, 2017: Nanotechnology
Ze Wang, Zejiao Shi, Taotao Li, Yonghua Chen, Wei Huang
In recent years, organometal trihalide perovskites have emerged as promising materials for low-cost, flexible, and highly efficient solar cells. Despite their processing advantages, before the technology can be commercialized the poor stability of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials with regard to humidity, heat, light, and oxygen has be to overcome. Herein, we distill the current state-of-the-art and highlight recent advances in improving the chemical stability of perovskite materials by substitution of the A-cation and X-anion...
November 28, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Fan Zhang, Jun Song, Ming Chen, Junchen Liu, Yuying Hao, Yuncai Wang, Junle Qu, Pengju Zeng
: Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites have led to remarkable advancements in emerging photovoltaics. The rapid increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs has been mainly achieved by improving perovskite morphology and crystallinity. Herein, we report a simple and effective means to improve perovskite grain sizes using a porous hole transport layer (i.e. , PEDOT: PSS in this work). We used polystyrene nanospheres as a sacrificial template to fabricate the porous-PEDOT:PSS...
November 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
E Tenuta, C Zheng, O Rubel
Degradation of hybrid halide perovskites under the influence of environmental factors impairs future prospects of using these materials as absorbers in solar cells. First principle calculations can be used as a guideline in search of new materials, provided we can rely on their predictive capabilities. We show that the instability of perovskites can be captured using ab initio total energy calculations for reactants and products augmented with additional thermodynamic data to account for finite temperature effects...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cindy G Tang, Mervin C Y Ang, Kim-Kian Choo, Venu Keerthi, Jun-Kai Tan, Mazlan Nur Syafiqah, Thomas Kugler, Jeremy H Burroughes, Rui-Qi Png, Lay-Lay Chua, Peter K H Ho
To make high-performance semiconductor devices, a good ohmic contact between the electrode and the semiconductor layer is required to inject the maximum current density across the contact. Achieving ohmic contacts requires electrodes with high and low work functions to inject holes and electrons respectively, where the work function is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the Fermi level of the electrode to the vacuum level. However, it is challenging to produce electrically conducting films with sufficiently high or low work functions, especially for solution-processed semiconductor devices...
November 23, 2016: Nature
Ashwith Chilvery, Sanjib Das, Padmaja Guggilla, Christina Brantley, Anderson Sunda-Meya
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were developed in 2009 and have led to a number of significant improvements in clean energy technology. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs has increased exponentially and currently stands at 22%. PSCs are transforming photovoltaic (PV) technology, outpacing many established PV technologies through their versatility and roll-to-roll manufacturing compatibility. The viability of low-temperature and solution-processed manufacturing has further improved their viability. This article provides a brief overview of the stoichiometry of perovskite materials, the engineering behind various modes of manufacturing by solution processing methods, and recommendations for future research to achieve large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency PSCs...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Mohammed Makha, Silvia Letícia Fernandes, Sandra Jenatsch, Ton Offermans, Jürg Schleuniger, Jean-Nicolas Tisserant, Anna C Véron, Roland Hany
A simple lamination process of the top electrode for perovskite solar cells is demonstrated. The laminate electrode consists of a transparent and conductive plastic/metal mesh substrate, coated with an adhesive mixture of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, and sorbitol. The laminate electrode showed a high degree of transparency of 85%. Best cell performance was achieved for laminate electrodes prepared with a sorbitol concentration of ~30 wt% per milliliter PEDOT:PSS dispersion, and using a pre-annealing temperature of 120°C for 10 min before lamination...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Yahuitl Osorio Mayon, The Duong, Noushin Nasiri, Thomas P White, Antonio Tricoli, Kylie R Catchpole
We report methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) solar cells with an ultra-porous TiO2 electron transport layer fabricated using sequential flame aerosol and atomic layer depositions of porous and compact TiO2 layers. Flame aerosol pyrolysis allows rapid deposition of nanostructured and ultra-porous TiO2 layers that could be easily scaled-up for high-throughput low-cost industrial solar cell production. An efficiency of 13.7% was achieved with a flame-made nanostructured and ultra-porous TiO2 electrode that was coated with a compact 2 nm TiO2 layer...
December 16, 2016: Nanotechnology
Xiaobing Cao, Changli Li, Yahui Li, Fei Fang, Xian Cui, Youwei Yao, Jinquan Wei
The Lewis acid-base reaction between PbI2 and solvent molecules is popular in fabricating PbI2 films by a two-step method for making perovskite solar cells. Here, we control the microstructure of PbI2 films through modulating the Lewis acid-base reaction by adding a small amount of N-methyl pyrrolidone into PbI2/DMF solution. PbI2 films with excellent crystallinity and full coverage are fabricated by spin-coating the mixed solution on the substrate, which leads to high quality perovskite layers with low recombination rate and high efficiency for carrier transfer...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
Nevena Marinova, Silvia Valero, Juan Luis Delgado
In the last decades organic solar cells (OSCs) have been considered as a promising photovoltaic technology with the potential to provide reasonable power conversion efficiencies combined with low cost and easy processability. Unexpectedly, Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) have experienced unprecedented rise in Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) thus emerging as a highly efficient photovoltaic technology. OSCs and PSCs are two different kind of devices with distinct charge generation mechanism, which however share some similarities in the materials processing, thus standard strategies developed for OSCs are currently being employed in PSCs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chuanjiang Qin, Toshinori Matsushima, Takashi Fujihara, Chihaya Adachi
Device stability of planar perovskite solar cells is improved by virtue of multifunctional BQ additive. The morphology and crystal quality of the perovskite films are improved because BQ slows the rate of perovskite crystal formation. Electron transfer from perovskite to BQ reduces charge recombination losses, and the oxidizing ability of BQ effectively suppresses the formation of metallic lead and improves device lifetime.
November 21, 2016: Advanced Materials
Zonglong Zhu, Jing-Qi Xu, Chu-Chen Chueh, Hongbin Liu, Zhong'an Li, Xiaosong Li, Hongzheng Chen, Alex K-Y Jen
A low-temperature, solution-processable organic electron-transporting material (ETM) is successfully developed for efficient conventional n-i-p perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). This ETM can show a high efficiency over 17% on rigid device and 14.2% on flexible PVSC. To the best of our knowledge, this efficiency is among the highest values reported for flexible n-i-p PVSCs with negligible hysteresis thus far.
November 9, 2016: Advanced Materials
Yafei Wang, Shibin Li, Peng Zhang, Detao Liu, Xiangling Gu, Hojjatollah Sarvari, Zongbiao Ye, Jiang Wu, Zhiming Wang, Zhi David Chen
While most work carried out to date has focused on the solvent annealing of perovskite, in the present work, we focused on the solvent annealing of lead iodide. Based on the two-step spin-coating method, we designed a screening method to search for an effective solvent annealing process for PbI2. PbI2 films were annealed in diverse solvent atmospheres, including DMF, DMSO, acetone, and isopropanol (IPA). We found that the solvent annealing of PbI2 in the DMF, acetone, and IPA atmospheres resulted in dense PbI2 films, which impeded the complete conversion of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
H X Zhu, J-M Liu
The electronic structure and optical absorption spectrum of organometal halide perovskite compound CH3NH3BiI3 as a substituting candidate of well-concerned CH3NH3PbI3 not only for environmental friendly consideration are studied using the first principles calculations. It is revealed that a Bi replacement of Pb in CH3NH3PbI3 does not change seriously the band edge structure but the bandgap becomes narrow. Consequently, CH3NH3BiI3 exhibits not only stronger visible light absorption than CH3NH3PbI3 does but more strong absorption in the infrared region, which is however absent in CH3NH3PbI3...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
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