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Perovskite solar cells

Yajun Zhang, Jie Wang, M P K Sahoo, Takahiro Shimada, Takayuki Kitamura
Perovskite stannates such as BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 exhibit promising photovoltaic properties, and hold promise for application in solar cell devices. However, the lack of ferroelectricity and the wide band gap in these materials limit their potential for photovoltaic applications. Here, by first-principles calculations, we demonstrate the realization of a primary ferroelectric polarization in non-ferroelectric BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 through strain engineering. In addition to the appearance of polarization, the band gaps of the materials are greatly narrowed when the paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transition takes place under compressive strain...
September 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Chengxue Huo, Xuhai Liu, Xiufeng Song, Ziming Wang, Haibo Zeng
Nowdays, the research on perovskite transistors is still in its infancy, despite that perovskite based solar cells and light emitting diodes have been widely investigated. Two major hurdles exist before obtaining reliable perovskite based transistors: the processing difficulty for their sensitivity to polar solvents, and unsatisfactory perovskite quality on the transistor platform. Here, for the first time, we report on high-performance all-inorganic perovskite FETs profited from both van-der-Waals epitaxial boundary-free ultrathin single-crystals and completely dry-processed transfer technique without chemical contaminant...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ute B Cappel, Sebastian Svanström, Valeria Lanzilotto, Fredrik Oskar Lars Johansson, Kerttu Aitola, Bertrand Philippe, Erika Giangrisostomi, Ruslan Ovsyannikov, Torsten Leitner, Alexander Foehlisch, Svante Svensson, Nils Mårtensson, Gerrit Boschloo, Andreas Lindblad, Håkan Rensmo
Metal halide perovskites have emerged as materials of high interest for solar energy to electricity conversion and in particular the use of mixed ion structures has led to high power conversion efficiencies and improved stability. For this reason, it is important develop means to obtain atomic level understanding of the photo-induced behaviour of these materials including processes such as photo-induced phase separation and ion migration. In this paper, we implement a new methodology combining visible laser illumination of a mixed-ion perovskite ((FAPbI3)0...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ludmila Cojocaru, Satoshi Uchida, Koichi Tamaki, Piyankarage V V Jayaweera, Shoji Kaneko, Jotaro Nakazaki, Takaya Kubo, Hiroshi Segawa
Energy harvesting at low light intensities has recently attracted a great deal of attention of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) which are regarded as promising candidate for indoor application. Anomalous hysteresis of the PSCs a complex issue for reliable evaluation of the cell performance. In order to address these challenges, we constructed two new evaluation methods to determinate the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of PSCs. The first setup is a solar simulator based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) allowing evaluation of the solar cells at wider range of light intensities, ranging from 10(2) to 10(-3) mW·cm(-2)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhilong Zhang, Zihan Chen, Lin Yuan, Weijian Chen, Jianfeng Yang, Bo Wang, Xiaoming Wen, Jianbing Zhang, Long Hu, John A Stride, Gavin J Conibeer, Robert J Patterson, Shujuan Huang
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidate materials for photovoltaics (PV) owing to the tunable bandgap and low-cost solution processability. Lead selenide (PbSe) QDs are particularly attractive to PV applications due to the efficient multiple-exciton generation and carrier transportation. However, surface defects arising from the oxidation of the PbSe QDs have been the major limitation for their development in PV. Here, a new passivation method for chlorinated PbSe QDs via ion exchange with cesium lead halide (Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals is reported...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
Arif D Sheikh, Rahim Munir, Md Azimul Haque, Ashok Bera, Weijin Hu, Parvez Shaikh, Aram Amassian, Tom Wu
In this work, we investigated the effects of high operating temperature and thermal cycling on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a typical mesostructured (m)-TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-spiro-OMeTAD architecture. After carrying out temperature-dependent grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption experiments, thermal durability of PSCs was tested by subjecting the devices to repetitive heating to 70 °C and cooling to room temperature (20 °C)...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xin Li, Feng Hao, Xingyue Zhao, Xuewen Yin, Zhibo Yao, Ying Guo, Heping Shen, Hong Lin
Electron extraction layer (EEL) plays a critical role in organometal-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by determining the charge extraction and ultimately their power conversion efficiencies. Here, Ti-Fe-O ternary oxide was firstly demonstrated as an efficient EEL candidate in the planar PSC, showing superiority in multiple aspects including the intrinsic precursor stability, coverage on the substrates, electrical properties, and energy levels compared to the widely used TiOx and the pure FeOx. By varying Fe content from 0% to 100% in the Ti-Fe-O composite, the conductivities of the resultant compact layers were markedly improved, according to consistent results from conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) measurements...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kyu-Tae Lee, Ji-Yun Jang, Sang Jin Park, Song Ah Ok, Hui Joon Park
See-through perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and iridescent colors are demonstrated by employing a multilayer dielectric mirror. A certain amount of visible light is used for wide color gamut semitransparent color generation, which can be easily tuned by changing an angle of incidence, and a wide range of visible light is efficiently reflected back toward a photoactive layer of the perovskite solar cells by the dielectric mirror for highly efficient light-harvesting performance, thus achieving 10...
September 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Chong Liu, Wenzhe Li, Hongliang Li, Cuiling Zhang, Jiandong Fan, Yaohua Mai
The development of hybrid tin (Sn)-lead (Pb) perovskite solar cells likely tackles the toxic problem with the power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeding 17%. However, the stability problems, e.g. hysteresis effect, degeneration and oxidation, appear to be the bottleneck that limit its further development. Here, we innovatively introduced C60 at the grain boundaries throughout the CH3NH3Pb0.75Sn0.25I3 (MAPb0.75Sn0.25I3) thin film, playing a role not only in in situ passivating the interfaces and reducing the pinholes of perovskite thin films, but also in preventing the penetration of moisture and oxygen from ambient atmosphere...
September 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Moritz H Futscher, Bruno Ehrler
Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to considerably out-perform conventional solar cells. Under standard test conditions, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells already outperform the Si single junction. Under realistic conditions, however, as we show, tandem solar cells made from current record cells are hardly more efficient than the Si cell alone. We model the performance of realistic perovskite/Si tandem solar cells under real-world climate conditions, by incorporating parasitic cell resistances, nonradiative recombination, and optical losses into the detailed-balance limit...
September 8, 2017: ACS Energy Letters
Paola Vivo, Jagadish K Salunke, Arri Priimagi
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) represent undoubtedly the most significant breakthrough in photovoltaic technology since the 1970s, with an increase in their power conversion efficiency from less than 5% to over 22% in just a few years. Hole-transporting materials (HTMs) are an essential building block of PSC architectures. Currently, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N'-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene), better known as spiro-OMeTAD, is the most widely-used HTM to obtain high-efficiency devices. However, it is a tremendously expensive material with mediocre hole carrier mobility...
September 15, 2017: Materials
Kang Wang, Wenjing Zhao, Jia Liu, Jinzhi Niu, Yucheng Liu, Xiaodong Ren, Jiangshan Feng, Zhike Liu, Jie Sun, Dapeng Wang, Shengzhong Frank Liu
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received great attention due to their excellent photovoltaic properties especially for the comparable efficiency to silicon solar cells. The electron transport layer (ETL) is regarded as a crucial medium in transporting electrons and blocking holes for PSCs. In this study, CO2 plasma generated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) was introduced to modify the TiO2 ETL. The results indicated that CO2 plasma treated compact TiO2 layer exhibited better surface hydrophilicity, higher conductivity, and lower bulk defect state density in comparison with the pristine TiO2 film...
September 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Md Arafat Mahmud, Naveen Kumar Elumalai, Mushfika Baishakhi Upama, Dian Wang, Arman Mahboubi Soufiani, Matthew Wright, Cheng Xu, Faiazul Haque, Ashraf Uddin
The current work reports the Lithium (Li) doping of low-temperature processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron transport layer (ETL) for fabricating highly efficient, triple-cation based MA0.57FA0.38Rb0.05PbI3 (MA: methyl ammonium, FA: formamidinium, Rb: Rubidium) perovskite solar cell (PSCs). Lithium intercalation in the host ZnO lattice structure is dominated by interstitial doping phenomena, which passivates the intrinsic defects in ZnO film. In addition, interstitial Li doping also downshifts the Fermi energy position of L-ZnO ETL by 30 meV, which contributes to the reduction of electron injection barrier from photo-active perovskite layer...
September 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ruo Xi Yang, Jonathan M Skelton, Lora da Silva, Jarvist M Frost, Aron Walsh
The local crystal structures of many perovskite-structured materials deviate from the average space group symmetry. We demonstrate, from lattice-dynamics calculations based on quantum chemical force constants, that all the caesium-lead and caesium-tin halide perovskites exhibit vibrational instabilities associated with octahedral titling in their high-temperature cubic phase. Anharmonic double-well potentials are found for zone-boundary phonon modes in all compounds with barriers ranging from 108 to 512 meV...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Bjorn Vaagensmith, Khan Mamun Reza, Md Nazmul Hasan, Hytham Elbohy, Nirmal Adhikari, Ashish Dubey, Nick Kantack, Eman Gaml, Qiquan Qiao
Solution processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) transparent electrodes (TEs) offer great potential as a low cost alternative to expensive indium tin oxide (ITO). However, strong acids are typically used for enhancing the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS TEs, which produces processing complexity and environmental issues. This work presents an environmentally friendly acid free approach to enhance the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS using a light oxygen plasma treatment in addition to solvent blend additives and post treatments...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yongchao Ma, Yanliang Liu, Insoo Shin, In-Wook Hwang, Yun Kyung Jung, Jung Hyun Jeong, Sung Heum Park, Kwang Ho Kim
The fundamental mechanism of grain growth evolution in the fabrication process from the precursor phase to the perovskite phase is not fully understood despite its importance in achieving high quality grains in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which is strongly affected by the processing parameters. In this work, we investigate the fundamental conversion mechanism from the precursor phase of perovskite to the complete perovskite phase, and how the intermediate phase promotes the growth of the perovskite grains during the fabrication process...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Arastoo Teymouri, Supriya Pillai, Zi Ouyang, Xiaojing Hao, Fangyang Liu, Chang Yan, Martin A Green
A low temperature solution-based process for depositing silver nanowire (AgNW) networks for use as transparent conductive electrode is demonstrated. These AgNWs when applied to Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells out-performed indium tin oxide as the top electrode. Thinner nanowires allow the use of lower temperatures during processing while longer wires allow lowered sheet resistance for the same surface coverage of NWs, enhancing the transmittance/conductance trade-off. Conductive atomic force microscopy and percolation theory were used to study the quality of the NW network at the microscale...
September 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gi-Hwan Kim, Hyungsu Jang, Yung Jin Yoon, Jaeki Jeong, Song Yi Park, Bright Walker, In-Yup Jeon, Yimhyun Jo, Hyun Yoon, Minjin Kim, Jong-Beom Baek, Dong Suk Kim, Jin Young Kim
Edged-selectively fluorine (F) functionalized graphene nanoplatelets (EFGnPs-F) with a p-i-n structure of perovskite solar cells achieved 82% stability relative to initial performance over 30 days of air exposure without encapsulation. The enhanced stability stems from F-substitution on EFGnPs; fluorocarbons such as polytetrafluoroethylene are well-known for their superhydrophobic properties and being impervious to chemical degradation. These hydrophobic moieties tightly protect perovskite layers from air degradation...
September 14, 2017: Nano Letters
Dominik Kubicki, Daniel Prochowicz, Albert Hofstetter, Shaik M Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Lyndon Emsley
Hybrid (organic-inorganic) multi-cation lead halide perovskites hold promise for a new generation of easily processable solar cells. Best performing compositions to date are multiple-cation solid alloys of formamidinium (FA), methylammonium (MA), cesium and rubidium lead halides which provide power conversion efficiencies up to around 22%. Here, we elucidate the atomic level nature of Cs and Rb incorporation into the perovskite lattice of FA-based materials. We use 133Cs, 87Rb, 39K, 13C and 14N solid-state MAS NMR to probe microscopic composition of Cs-, Rb-, K-, MA- and FA-containing phases in double-, triple- and quadruple-cation lead halides in bulk and in a thin film...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pankaj Yadav, M Ibrahim Dar, Neha Arora, Essa A Alharbi, Fabrizio Giordano, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel
Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on cesium (Cs)- and rubidium (Rb)-containing perovskite films show highly reproducible performance; however, a fundamental understanding of these systems is still emerging. Herein, this study has systematically investigated the role of Cs and Rb cations in complete devices by examining the transport and recombination processes using current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy in the dark. As the credibility of these measurements depends on the performance of devices, this study has chosen two different PSCs, (MAFACs)Pb(IBr)3 (MA = CH3 NH3(+) , FA = CH(NH2 )2(+) ) and (MAFACsRb)Pb(IBr)3 , yielding impressive performances of 19...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
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