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Perovskite solar cells

Jesús Jiménez-López, Werther Cambarau, Lydia Cabau, Emilio Palomares
We present a comparative study between a series of well-known semiconductor polymers, used in efficient organic solar cells as hole transport materials (HTM), and the state-of-the art material used as hole transport material in perovskite solar cells: the spiro-OMeTAD. The observed differences in solar cell efficiencies are studied in depth using advanced photoinduced spectroscopic techniques under working illumination conditions. We have observed that there is no correlation between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the organic semiconductors and the measured open-circuit voltage (VOC)...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mehdi Ansari-Rad, Juan Bisquert
Perovskite solar cells and fluorescent collectors formed by a dispersion of quantum dots in a transparent solid are paradigmatic devices for photon capture and utilization that involve the coupling of photon displacement, absorption and regeneration. In order to obtain information about the coupled photonic processes in systems involving photon recycling, we analyse the transfer function for modulated outgoing to incoming photon flux. We show the physical features of light-to-light impedance that reveals a trap-limited diffusion of photons coupled with the nonradiative recombination...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Kai Yan, Bin Dong, Xinyu Xiao, Si Chen, Buxin Chen, Xue Gao, Hsienwei Hu, Wen Wen, Jingbo Zhou, Dechun Zou
The unfavorable I-V characteristics of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), such as the I-V hysteresis phenomena, have been one major obstacle for their future practical application. However, corresponding analysis based on traditional theories have shown non-negligible flaws and failed for satisfactory explanation. To present a novel mechanism, here we utilize for the first time the memristive property of the perovskite material to analyze the I-V characteristics of PSCs. The obtained joint physical model and the deduced equation may help solving the long-existent mysteries of the I-V characteristics of PSCs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shiqi Dong, Yongsheng Liu, Ziruo Hong, En-Ping Yao, Pengyu Sun, Lei Meng, Yuze Lin, Jinsong Huang, Gang Li, Yang Yang
We have demonstrated high performance integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells due to the low carrier recombination velocity, high open circuit voltage (Voc) and increased light absorption ability in near-infrared (NIR) region of integrated devices. In particular, we find that the Voc of the integrated devices is dominated by (or pinned to) the perovskite cells, not the OPV cells. A Quasi-Fermi Level Pinning Model was proposed to understand the working mechanism and the origin of the Voc of the integrated perovskite/BHJ solar cell, which following that of the perovskite solar cell and is much higher than that of the low bandgap polymer based organic BHJ solar cell...
July 20, 2017: Nano Letters
Munkhbayar Batmunkh, Thomas Macdonald, William Peveler, Abdulaziz Bati, Claire J Carmalt Claire J Carmalt, Ivan Parkin, Joseph George Shapter
Incorporating appropriate plasmonic nanostructures into photovoltaic (PV) systems is of great utility for enhancing photon absorption and thus improving device performance. Herein, the successful integration of plasmonic gold nanostars (AuNSs) into mesoporous TiO2 photoelectrodes for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is reported. The PSCs fabricated with TiO2-AuNSs photoelectrodes exhibited a device efficiency of up to 17.72%, while the control cells without AuNSs showed a maximum efficiency of 15.19%. We attribute the origin of increased device performance to enhanced light absorption and suppressed charge recombination...
July 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
Fei Wu, Yu Ji, Cheng Zhong, Yuan Liu, Luxi Tan, Linna Zhu
Fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (BT) was introduced as a core structure to construct new hole transport materials. Planar perovskite solar cells with conventional materials (CH3NH3PbI3-xClx) were fabricated. The perovskite solar cells using monofluorinated BT exhibit a leading efficiency of 18.54% with a FF as high as 81%.
July 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yuhan Zhao, Kai-Cheng Zhang, Zhao-Wei Wang, Peng Huang, Kai Zhu, Zhendong Li, Dahua Li, Ligang Yuan, Yi Zhou, Bo Song
Owing to the high charge mobility and low processing temperature, ZnO is regarded as an ideal candidate for electron transport layer (ETL) material in thin-film solar cells. For the film preparation, the presently dominated sol-gel (SG) and hydrolysis-condensation (HC) methods show great potential, however, the effect of these two methods on the performance of the resulting devices has not been investigated in the same frame. In this study, the ZnO films made through SG and HC methods were applied in perovskite solar cells (Pero-SCs), and the performances of corresponding devices were compared under parallel conditions...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alison E Lewis, Yi Zhang, Peng Gao, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin
In order to achieve high efficiency perovskite solar cells, understanding both the crystal structure and the opto-electronic properties of perovskite layers are of importance. This paper uses crystallization analysis and modelling study of two different perovskites deposition methods (two-step and one-step methods) and thereby shows that the one-step method embodies a film formation process that is dominated by crystal growth, while the dominant mechanism of the two-step procedure is nucleation. Our data based on the experimental and the theory shows that the one-step recipe is superior in terms of morphology control and hence the reproducibility compared to the two-step recipe...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Man Yu, Hao-Yi Wang, Ming-Yang Hao, Yujun Qin, Li-Min Fu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Xi-Cheng Ai
Perovskite solar cells have emerged as promising photovoltaic systems with superb power conversion efficiency. For the practical application of perovskite devices, the greatest concerns are the power output density and the related dynamics under working conditions. In this study, the working conditions of planar and mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are simulated and the power output density evolutions with the working voltage are highlighted. The planar device exhibits higher capability of outputting power than the mesoscopic one...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yaroslav B Martynov, Rashid G Nazmitdinov, Andreu Moià-Pol, Pavel P Gladyshev, Alexey R Tameev, Anatoly V Vannikov, Mihal Pudlak
Organometal triiodide perovskites are promising, high-performance absorbers in solar cells. Considering the perovskite as a thin film absorber, we solve transport equations and analyse the efficiency of a simple heterojunction configuration as a function of electron-hole diffusion lengths. We found that for a thin film thickness of ≃1 μm the maximum efficiency of ≃31% could be achieved at the diffusion length of ∼100 μm.
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jionghua Wu, Xin Xu, Yanhong Zhao, Jiangjian Shi, Yuzhuan Xu, Yanhong Luo, Dongmei Li, Huijue Wu, Qingbo Meng
DMF as additive has been employed in FAI/MAI/IPA (FA= CH2 (NH2)2, MA=CH3NH3, IPA is isopropanol) solution for two-step multi-cycle spin coating method in order to prepare high quality FAxMA1-xPbI2.55Br0.45 perovskite films. Further investigation reveals that the existence of DMF in the FAI/MAI/IPA solution can facilitate perovskite conversion, improve the film morphology and reduce crystal defects, thus enhance charge transfer efficiency. By optimization toward the DMF amount and spin coating cycles, compact, pinhole-free perovskite films are obtained...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Abdullah Al Mamun, Tanzila Tasnim Ava, Hye Ryung Byun, Hyeon Jun Jeong, Mun Seok Jeong, Loi Nguyen, Christine Gausin, Gon Namkoong
While organo-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells show great potential to meet future energy needs, their thermal instability raises serious questions about their commercialization viability. At present, the stability of perovskite solar cells has been studied under various environmental conditions including humidity and temperature. Nonetheless, understanding of the performance of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells is limited. This study reports the irreversible performance degradation of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite solar cells during the heating and cooling processes under AM 1...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fei Qin, Wei Meng, Jiacheng Fan, Chang Ge, Bangwu Luo, Ru Ge, Lin Hu, Fangyuan Jiang, Tiefeng Liu, Youyu Jiang, Yinhua Zhou
Hydroxyl groups on the surface of ZnO films lead to chemical decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films during thermal annealing, which limits the application of ZnO as a facile electron-transporting layer in perovskite solar cells. In this work, we report a new recipe that leads to substantially reduced hydroxyl groups on the surface of the resulting ZnO films by employing polyethylenimine (PEI) to replace generally-used ethanolamine in the precursor solutions. Films derived from the PEI-containing precursors are denoted as P-ZnO and those from the ethanoamine-containing precursors as E-ZnO...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sanghyun Paek, Peng Qin, Yonghui Lee, Kyung Taek Cho, Peng Gao, Giulia Grancini, Emad Oveisi, Paul Gratia, Kasparas Rakstys, Shaheen A Al-Muhtaseb, Christian Ludwig, Jaejung Ko, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin
Molecularly engineered novel dopant-free hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) combined with mixed-perovskite (FAPbI3 )0.85 (MAPbBr3 )0.15 (MA: CH3 NH3(+) , FA: NH=CHNH3(+) ) that exhibit an excellent power conversion efficiency of 18.9% under AM 1.5 conditions are investigated. The mobilities of FA-CN, and TPA-CN are determined to be 1.2 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 1.1 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , respectively. Exceptional stability up to 500 h is measured with the PSC based on FA-CN...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Bich Phuong Nguyen, Gee Yeong Kim, William Jo, Byeong Jo Kim, Hyun Suk Jung
The electrical properties of CH3NH3Pb(I1-x Br x )3 (x = 0.13) perovskite materials were investigated under ambient conditions. The local work function and the local current were measured using Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy, respectively. The degradation of the perovskite layers depends on their grain size. As the material degrades, an additional peak in the surface potential appears simultaneously with a sudden increase and subsequent relaxation of the local current. The potential bending at the grain boundaries and the intragrains is the most likely reason for the change of the local current surface of the perovskite layers...
July 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
Fei Ye, Wentao Tang, Fengxian Xie, Maoshu Yin, Jinjin He, Yanbo Wang, Han Chen, Yinghuai Qiang, Xudong Yang, Liyuan Han
Large-scale high-quality perovskite thin films are crucial to produce high-performance perovskite solar cells. However, for perovskite films fabricated by solvent-rich processes, film uniformity can be prevented by convection during thermal evaporation of the solvent. Here, a scalable low-temperature soft-cover deposition (LT-SCD) method is presented, where the thermal convection-induced defects in perovskite films are eliminated through a strategy of surface tension relaxation. Compact, homogeneous, and convection-induced-defects-free perovskite films are obtained on an area of 12 cm(2) , which enables a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15...
July 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Rohit Prasanna, Aryeh Gold-Parker, Tomas Leijtens, Bert Conings, Aslihan Babayigit, Hans-Gerd Boyen, Michael F Toney, Michael D McGehee
Tin and lead iodide perovskite semiconductors of the composition AMX3, where M is a metal and X is a halide, are leading candidates for high efficiency low cost tandem photovoltaics, in part because they have band gaps that can be tuned over a wide range by compositional substitution. We experimentally identify two competing mechanisms through which the A-site cation influences the band gap of 3D metal halide perovskites. Using a smaller A-site cation can distort the perovskite lattice in two distinct ways: by tilting the MX6 octahedra, or by simply contracting the lattice isotropically...
July 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ravi K Misra, Bat-El Cohen, Lior Iagher, Lioz Etgar
Three-dimensional (3D) perovskite has attracted a lot of attention due to its success in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. However, one the major crucial issues lies in its stability, which has limited its commercialization. An important property of organic-inorganic perovskite is the possibility of forming a layered material using long organic cations that do not fit into the octahedral cage. The long organic cation acts as a "barrier" that "caps" the 3D perovskite forming the layered material. Controlling the number of perovskite layers could provide a confined structure with different chemical and physical properties than 3D perovskite has...
July 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Lei Shi, Trevor L Young, Jincheol Kim, Yun Sheng, Lei Wang, Yifeng Chen, Zhiqiang Feng, Mark Keevers, Xiaojing Hao, Pierre Verlinden, Martin A Green, Anita W Y Ho-Baillie
Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have undergone rapid progress. However, unstable performance caused by sensitivity to environmental moisture and high temperature is a major impediment to commercialisation of PSCs. In the present work, a low temperature, glass-glass encapsulation technique using polyisobutylene (PIB) as the moisture barrier is investigated on planar glass/FTO/TiO2/FAPbI3/PTAA/gold perovskite solar cells. PIB was applied as either an edge seal or blanket layer. Electrical connections to the encapsulated PSCs were provided by either the FTO or Au layers...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yoon Ho Choi, Hyun Bin Kim, In Seok Yang, Sang Do Sung, Young Sik Choi, Jeongho Kim, Wan In Lee
Thin films of a heteropolytungstate, lithium silicotungstate (Li4SiW12O40, termed Li-ST), prepared by a solution process at low temperature, were successfully applied as electron transporting layer (ETL) of planar-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Dense and uniform Li-ST films were prepared on FTO glass by depositing a thin Li-ST buffer layer, followed by coating of a main Li-ST layer. The film thickness was controlled by varying the number of coating cycles, consisting of spin-coating and thermal treatment at 150 °C...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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