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Quadriceps activation

Sergio Barroso Rosa, Zaid Bahho, Kenji Doma, Kaushik Hazratwala, Peter McEwen, Varaguna Manoharan, Brent Matthews, Matthew Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: Patella alta (PA) is one of the primary correctable risk factors for patellofemoral instability (PFI). Both an accurate diagnosis of PA and a clinically relevant target for correction are necessary for optimal treatment. An ideal test for PA should relate the position of the patella to the femur rather than tibia, should do so with the quadriceps contracted and the patellar tendon under tension and should have good sensitivity and specificity. None of the currently used radiographic tests PA meet these criteria, most of which are based on the position of the patella relative to the tibia with diagnostic cutoffs based on 2 standard deviations from the mean rather than optimal sensitivity and specificity...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Monika Löfgren, Christina H Opava, Ingrid Demmelmaier, Cecilia Fridén, Ingrid E Lundberg, Birgitta Nordgren, Eva Kosek
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore pressure pain sensitivity and the function of segmental and plurisegmental exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with healthy control subjects (HC). METHODS: Forty-six participants with RA (43 female, 3 male) and 20 HC (16 female, 4 male) participated in the study. Pressure pain thresholds, suprathreshold pressure pain at rest, and segmental and plurisegmental EIH during standardised submaximal contractions were assessed by algometry...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Christopher McCrum, Pamela Leow, Gaspar Epro, Matthias König, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Steffi L Colyer, Polly M McGuigan
Textile electromyography (EMG) electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat) were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity) and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Marco A Minetto, Alberto Botter, Giulia Gamerro, Ilaria Varvello, Giuseppe Massazza, Rosa G Bellomo, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Raoul Saggini
BACKGROUND: The "contralateral effect" phenomenon refers to the strength gain in the opposite, untrained homonymous muscle following unilateral training. Previous studies showed that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the right quadriceps facilitated maximal voluntary strength and efferent neural drive of the left knee extensors, while no previous study investigated the contralateral effect elicited by focal muscle vibration. AIM: To investigate whether quadriceps NMES and focal vibration, when applied unilaterally, have the same potential to enhance the contralateral muscle strength and the associated neural drive...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Nikos C Apostolopoulos, Ian M Lahart, Michael J Plyley, Jack Taunton, Alan M Nevill, Yiannis Koutedakis, Matthew Wyon, George S Metsios
Effects of passive static stretching intensity on recovery from unaccustomed eccentric exercise of right knee extensors was investigated in 30 recreationally active males randomly allocated into three groups: high-intensity (70-80% maximum perceived stretch), low-intensity (30-40% maximum perceived stretch), and control. Both stretching groups performed 3 sets of passive static stretching exercises of 60s each for hamstrings, hip flexors, and quadriceps, over 3 consecutive days, post-unaccustomed eccentric exercise...
March 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jamie S McPhee, James Cameron, Thomas Maden-Wilkinson, Mathew Piasecki, Moi Hoon Yap, David A Jones, Hans Degens
The contributions of fibre atrophy, fibre loss, in situ specific force and voluntary activation to weakness in sarcopenia remain unclear. To investigate, forty older (20 women; age 72±4yrs) and 31 younger adults (15 women, age 22±3yrs) completed measurements. The knee extensor maximal voluntary torque (MVC) was measured as well as voluntary activation, patella tendon moment arm length, muscle volume and fascicle architecture to estimate in situ specific force. Fibre cross-sectional area (FCSA), fibre numbers and connective tissue contents were also estimated from vastus lateralis biopsies...
February 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Susana Gonzalez, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Zeeshan Javed, Stephen L Atkin
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of growth hormone therapy (rGH) on mitochondrial function on peripheral muscle and to correlate with exercise capacity in subjects with severe adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Design: Six months, double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous rGH in 17 patients with GHD. Measurements: Quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months to measure succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) to assess mitochondrial activity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic-resisted treadmill walking is a form of task-specific training that has been used to improve gait function in individuals with neurological injury, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy. Traditionally, these devices use active elements (e.g., motors or actuators) to provide resistance during walking, making them bulky, expensive, and less suitable for overground or in-home rehabilitation. We recently developed a low-cost, wearable robotic brace that generates resistive torques across the knee joint using a simple magnetic brake...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Clément Medrinal, Guillaume Prieur, Yann Combret, Aurora Robledo Quesada, David Debeaumont, Tristan Bonnevie, Francis Edouard Gravier, Elise Dupuis Lozeron, Jean Quieffin, Olivier Contal, Bouchra Lamia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of quadriceps Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-Cycling on exertional VO2 compared with Placebo FES-cycling in patients with COPD. DESIGN: A randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial SETTING: Pulmonary Rehabilitation Department PARTICIPANTS: 23 consecutive patients with COPD GOLD stage 2, 3 or 4 (mean FEV1 : 1.4±0.4 L (50.3% pred)) who had recently begun a respiratory rehabilitation program. INTERVENTION: Two consecutive 30-minute sessions were carried out at a constant load with active and placebo FES-Cycling...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
A Notarnicola, I Covelli, G Maccagnano, R Marvulli, L Mastromauro, G Ianieri, S Boodhoo, A Turitto, L Petruzzella, G Farì, F P Bianchi, S Tafuri, B Moretti
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on muscle rheological and functional properties in a population of young athletes. Thirty-two football and basketball players were recruited and randomized into two groups. The athletes underwent three sessions of therapy administered every five days to the thigh muscles. The treatment consisted of ESWT (electromagnetic generator, Energy Flux Density=0.03 mJ/mm2) or a placebo treatment bilaterally on the quadricep and femoral bicep muscles...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Tamaya Van Criekinge, Steven Truijen, Chelsea Verbruggen, Lotte Van de Venis, Wim Saeys
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review to examine the effect of static or dynamic trunk training compared to standard care or control therapy on muscle activity and muscle thickness of the trunk and lower limb muscles in stroke survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was registered on PROSPERO (no: CRD42017063771) and was written according to the PRISMA guidelines. The search strategy included studies from the first indexed article until September 2017 and was performed in the electronical databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline and PEDro...
March 5, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Senem Simsek, Deniz Inal-Ince, Aslihan Cakmak, Nagehan Emiralioglu, Ebru Calik-Kutukcu, Melda Saglam, Naciye Vardar-Yagli, Hayriye Ugur Ozcelik, Hazal Sonbahar-Ulu, Cemile Bozdemir-Ozel, Nural Kiper, Hulya Arikan
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p < 0...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
João Victor Novaretti, Carlos Eduardo Franciozi, Andrea Forgas, Pedro Henrique Sasaki, Sheila Jean McNeill Ingham, Rene Jorge Abdalla
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of literature-based objective criteria for return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Establishing such objective criteria is crucial to improving return to sport after ACL reconstruction (ACLR). HYPOTHESES: Patients who return to their preinjury level of sport will have higher isokinetic, postural stability, and drop vertical jump test scores 6 months after surgery and greater patient satisfaction compared with those who did not...
February 1, 2018: Sports Health
Efthalia Kerasioti, Dimitrios Stagos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Ioannis Taitzoglou, Demetrios Kouretas
The purpose of the present study is to estimate the effects of sheep/goat whey protein dietary supplementation on the redox status of blood and tissues of rats. Twelve male Wistar rats were divided into the control group (standard commercial diet) and whey group [standard commercial diet + sheep/goat whey protein (1 g kg b.w/day)] (6 rats/group). The animals were maintainted on their respective diet for 28 days. At the end of the experimental period, reduced glutathione, catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity, thiobarbituric reactive substances, protein carbonyls and the decomposition rate of H2O2 were measured in blood and tissues of rats...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Joanna L Bowtell, Magni Mohr, Jonathan Fulford, Sarah R Jackman, Georgios Ermidis, Peter Krustrup, Katya N Mileva
Background: Caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise performance and capacity. The mechanisms remain unclear but are suggested to relate to adenosine receptor antagonism, resulting in increased central motor drive, reduced perception of effort, and altered peripheral processes such as enhanced calcium handling and extracellular potassium regulation. Our aims were to investigate how caffeine (i) affects knee extensor PCr kinetics and pH during repeated sets of single-leg knee extensor exercise to task failure and (ii) modulates the interplay between central and peripheral neural processes...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Michael S Green, Tyler D Martin, Benjamin T Corona
Caffeine use is common among athletes seeking to capitalize on its potential ergogenic effects. Limited research has examined caffeine's effects when utilized following activities that resulted in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). This study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on uninjured and injured muscle. Eight male and female (N = 16) physically active individuals participated (age: 24.3 ± 4.3 y; height: 173.0 ± 7.0 cm, mass: 75.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat: 18.2 ± 15.9 %). One leg was assessed under uninjured and injured (100 eccentric quadriceps contractions) conditions following caffeine supplementation (6 mg/kg), with the other leg assessed under both conditions following placebo supplementation...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
E A Radugina, E A C Almeida, E Blaber, V A Poplinskaya, Y V Markitantova, E N Grigoryan
Mechanical unloading in microgravity during spaceflight is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber composition, gene expression, and reduction in regenerative muscle growth. Although some limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time. Here we report on how long-term (30-day long) mechanical unloading in microgravity affects murine muscles of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 microgravity mice, in comparison to habitat (7), and vivarium (14) ground control mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
M Nersesjan, D Hägi-Pedersen, J H Andersen, O Mathiesen, J B Dahl, L Broeng, K H Thybo
BACKGROUND: The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) block may be used for post-operative pain management in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this trial was to investigate the sensory coverage of the posterior and the lateral incision lines and the involvement of the femoral nerve after an LFCN block. METHODS: The study was a randomised, blinded trial in 20 healthy volunteers. All subjects received a bilateral LFCN block randomised to 8 ml ropivacaine on the right side and 8 ml isotonic saline on the left side, or vice versa...
February 21, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Cinara Stein, Rafael Oliveira Fernandes, Aline Paula Miozzo, Christian Correa Coronel, Bruno Manfredini Baroni, Adriane Belló-Klein, Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the functional capacity to exercise tested by incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: Fifteen male patients (60 ± 9 years) were crossed over during the experiment, to compare the outcomes after active LLLT and placebo LLLT treatments. LLLT (850 nm, 200 mW, 30 J to each point, resulting in a total of 240 J per quadriceps muscle), using a multidiode cluster (five spots; 6 J/spot) in eight points per leg was performed 3 min before the ISWT...
February 21, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
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