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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903834/saliva-diagnostics-current-views-and-directions
#1
Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Carmen Martin Carreras-Presas, Katri Aro, Michael Tu, Franklin Garcia-Godoy, David Tw Wong
In this review, we provide an update on the current and future applications of saliva for diagnostic purposes. There are many advantages of using saliva as a biofluid. Its collection is fast, easy, inexpensive, and non-invasive. In addition, saliva, as a "mirror of the body," can reflect the physiological and pathological state of the body. Therefore, it serves as a diagnostic and monitoring tool in many fields of science such as medicine, dentistry, and pharmacotherapy. Introduced in 2008, the term "Salivaomics" aimed to highlight the rapid development of knowledge about various "omics" constituents of saliva, including: proteome, transcriptome, micro-RNA, metabolome, and microbiome...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901069/molecular-profiling-of-circulating-tumour-cells-identifies-notch1-as-a-principal-regulator-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Javier Mariscal, Marta Alonso-Nocelo, Laura Muinelo-Romay, Jorge Barbazan, Maria Vieito, Alicia Abalo, Antonio Gomez-Tato, Casares de Cal Maria de Los Angeles, Tomas Garcia-Caballero, Carmela Rodriguez, Elena Brozos, Francisco Baron, Rafael Lopez-Lopez, Miguel Abal
Knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis colonization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remains incomplete. A complete overview integrating driver mutations, primary tumour heterogeneity and overt metastasis lacks the dynamic contribution of disseminating metastatic cells due to the inaccessibility to the molecular profiling of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). By combining immunoisolation and whole genome amplification, we performed a global gene expression analysis of EpCAM positive CTCs from advanced NSCLC patients...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900377/microfluidic-technologies-in-cell-isolation-and-analysis-for-biomedical-applications
#3
Jing Wu, Qiushui Chen, Jin-Ming Lin
Efficient platforms for cell isolation and analysis play an important role in applied and fundamental biomedical studies. As cells commonly have a size of around 10 microns, conventional handling approaches at a large scale are still challenged in precise control and efficient recognition of cells for further performance of isolation and analysis. Microfluidic technologies have become more prominent in highly efficient cell isolation for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection, single-cell analysis and stem cell separation, since microfabricated devices allow for the spatial and temporal control of complex biochemistries and geometries by matching cell morphology and hydrodynamic traps in a fluidic network, as well as enabling specific recognition with functional biomolecules in the microchannels...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897359/profiling-functional-and-biochemical-phenotypes-of-circulating-tumor-cells-using-a-two-dimensional-sorting-device
#4
Mahla Poudineh, Mahmoud Labib, Sharif Ahmed, L N Matthew Nguyen, Leyla Kermanshah, Reza M Mohamadi, Edward H Sargent, Shana O Kelley
During cancer progression, tumors shed circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream. CTCs that originate from the same primary tumor can have heterogeneous phenotypes and, while some CTCs possess benign properties, others have high metastatic potential. Deconstructing the heterogeneity of CTCs is challenging and new methods are needed that can sort small numbers of cancer cells according to their phenotypic properties. Here we describe a new microfluidic approach that profiles, along two independent phenotypic axes, the behavior of heterogeneous cell subpopulations...
November 29, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897219/timelike-curves-can-increase-entanglement-with-locc
#5
Subhayan Roy Moulick, Prasanta K Panigrahi
We study the nature of entanglement in presence of Deutschian closed timelike curves (D-CTCs) and open timelike curves (OTCs) and find that existence of such physical systems in nature would allow us to increase entanglement using local operations and classical communication (LOCC). This is otherwise in direct contradiction with the fundamental definition of entanglement. We study this problem from the perspective of Bell state discrimination, and show how D-CTCs and OTCs can unambiguously distinguish between four Bell states with LOCC, that is otherwise known to be impossible...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895501/a-fish-based-method-for-assessment-of-her-2-amplification-status-in-breast-cancer-circulating-tumor-cells-following-cellsearch-isolation
#6
Henrik Frithiof, Kristina Aaltonen, Lisa Rydén
INTRODUCTION: Amplification of the HER-2/neu (HER-2) proto-oncogene occurs in 10%-15% of primary breast cancer, leading to an activated HER-2 receptor, augmenting growth of cancer cells. Tumor classification is determined in primary tumor tissue and metastatic biopsies. However, malignant cells tend to alter their phenotype during disease progression. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis may serve as an alternative to repeated biopsies. The Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch system allows determination of the HER-2 protein, but not of the HER-2 gene...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893656/is-it-feasible-to-detect-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations-in-circulating-tumor-cells-in-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#7
Yafang Liu, Ze Xing, Ping Zhan, Hongbing Liu, Wei Ye, Tangfeng Lv, Yong Song
BACKGROUND: The value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in detecting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic significance of CTCs with tumor tissues as the standard control. METHODS: A systematic literature search, including papers published until November 26, 2015, was performed using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the references of retrieved articles were screened...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892470/vertical-magnetic-separation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-for-somatic-genomic-alteration-analysis-in-lung-cancer-patients
#8
Chang Eun Yoo, Jong-Myeon Park, Hui-Sung Moon, Je-Gun Joung, Dae-Soon Son, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Yeon Jeong Kim, Kyung-Yeon Han, Jong-Mu Sun, Keunchil Park, Donghyun Park, Woong-Yang Park
Efficient isolation and genetic analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patients' blood is a critical step for clinical applications using CTCs. Here, we report a novel CTC-isolation method and subsequent genetic analysis. CTCs from the blood were complexed with magnetic beads coated with antibodies against the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and separated vertically on a density-gradient medium in a modified well-plate. The recovery rate of model CTCs was reasonable and the cell purity was enhanced dramatically when compared to those parameters obtained using a conventional magnetic isolation method...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889762/evaluation-of-isolation-methods-for-circulating-tumor-cells-ctcs
#9
Galatea Kallergi, Eleni Politaki, Saad Alkahtani, Christos Stournaras, Vassilis Georgoulias
BACKGROUND: Detection of CTCs is a poor prognostic factor for many cancer types; however, their very low frequency represents an obstacle for their detection. The objective of the current study was to compare the performance of commonly used methods for CTCs isolation. METHODS: The evaluated methods using spiking experiments of MCF7, SKBR3 and MDA MB-231 breast cancer cell lines were (i) ficoll density gradient separation (DGS), (ii) red blood cell lysis (Erythrolysis) isolation, (iii) positive immunomagnetic selection (EpCAM Dynal beads), (iv) two different negative immunomagnetic separation systems (Dynal vs Miltenyi CD45 beads) as well as (v) the Cell Search platform and (vi) the ISET system...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878106/multiparameter-evaluation-of-the-heterogeneity-of-circulating-tumor-cells-using-integrated-rna-in-situ-hybridization-and-immunocytochemical-analysis
#10
Yongqi Wu, Kyoung-Joo Jenny Park, Clayton Deighan, Peter Amaya, Brandon Miller, Quintin Pan, Maciej Zborowski, Maryam Lustberg, Jeffery Chalmers
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are routinely identified as cytokeratin (CK)-positive, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive, and CD45-negative and are enriched based on EpCAM. However, there are a number of methodological challenges regarding both isolation and characterization of these rare CTCs including downregulation or absence of EpCAM in a variety of solid tumors leading to the omission of subpopulations of CTCs, difficulties in analyzing RNA and protein targets in CTCs due to the rarity of these cells, and low levels of targets and technological limitations of visualizing the targets of interest on each individual cell...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875519/expression-of-somatostatin-receptors-2-and-5-in-circulating-tumour-cells-from-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumours
#11
Alexa Childs, Clare Vesely, Leah Ensell, Helen Lowe, Tu Vinh Luong, Martyn E Caplin, Christos Toumpanakis, Christina Thirlwell, John A Hartley, Tim Meyer
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) overexpress somatostatin receptors (SSTR) that can be targeted for therapy. Somatostatin receptor expression is routinely measured by molecular imaging but the resolution is insufficient to define heterogeneity. We hypothesised that SSTR expression could be measured on circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and used to investigate heterogeneity of expression and track changes during therapy. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were transfected with SSTR2 or 5 and spiked into donor blood for analysis by CellSearch...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873491/detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-breast-cancer-patients-using-cytokeratin-19-real-time-rt-pcr
#12
Hyung Seok Park, Hyun Ju Han, Soohyeon Lee, Gun Min Kim, Seho Park, Yeon A Choi, Jeong Dong Lee, Gi Moon Kim, Joohyuk Sohn, Seung Il Kim
PURPOSE: The roles of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as predictive and prognostic factors, as well as key mediators in the metastatic cascade, have been investigated. This study aimed to validate a method to quantify CTCs in peripheral blood using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for cytokeratin (CK)-19 and to evaluate the utility of this assay in detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time monitoring PCR of fluorescently labeled specific hybridization probes for CK-19 mRNA was established...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872821/isolated-non-ascitic-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-from-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#13
John Sheng, Thomas W Findley, Hossein Sadeghi-Nejad
Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to bone, lung and liver. Omental metastasis of prostate cancer is extremely rare, with only a few cases reported in the literature, many of which have associated ascites. We present a case of non-ascitic omental metastasis of prostate cancer without any bone metastases. Furthermore, this patient has had two negative measurements of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood, suggesting a non-hematogenous route of metastasis to the omentum.
January 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872478/circulating-tumour-cells-as-biomarkers-of-prostate-bladder-and-kidney-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Michael A Gorin, James E Verdone, Emma van der Toom, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Mohamad E Allaf, Kenneth J Pienta
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been studied as biomarkers of a number of solid malignancies. Potential clinical applications for CTC analysis include early cancer detection, disease staging, monitoring for recurrence, prognostication, and to aid in the selection of therapy. In the field of urologic oncology, CTCs have been most widely studied as prognostic biomarkers of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Additionally, emerging data support a role for CTCs to help identify which patients are most likely to respond to novel androgen-pathway targeted therapies, such as abiraterone and enzalutamide...
November 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870841/tracking-the-dynamics-of-circulating-tumour-cell-phenotypes-using-nanoparticle-mediated-magnetic-ranking
#15
Mahla Poudineh, Peter M Aldridge, Sharif Ahmed, Brenda J Green, Leyla Kermanshah, Vivian Nguyen, Carmen Tu, Reza M Mohamadi, Robert K Nam, Aaron Hansen, Srikala S Sridhar, Antonio Finelli, Neil E Fleshner, Anthony M Joshua, Edward H Sargent, Shana O Kelley
Profiling the heterogeneous phenotypes of rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in whole blood is critical to unravelling the complex and dynamic properties of these potential clinical markers. This task is challenging because these cells are present at parts per billion levels among normal blood cells. Here we report a new nanoparticle-enabled method for CTC characterization, called magnetic ranking cytometry, which profiles CTCs on the basis of their surface expression phenotype. We achieve this using a microfluidic chip that successfully processes whole blood samples...
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869802/molecular-analysis-of-circulating-tumor-cells-identifies-distinct-copy-number-profiles-in-patients-with-chemosensitive-and-chemorefractory-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Louise Carter, Dominic G Rothwell, Barbara Mesquita, Christopher Smowton, Hui Sun Leong, Fabiola Fernandez-Gutierrez, Yaoyong Li, Deborah J Burt, Jenny Antonello, Christopher J Morrow, Cassandra L Hodgkinson, Karen Morris, Lynsey Priest, Mathew Carter, Crispin Miller, Andrew Hughes, Fiona Blackhall, Caroline Dive, Ged Brady
In most patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC)-a metastatic, aggressive disease-the condition is initially chemosensitive but then relapses with acquired chemoresistance. In a minority of patients, however, relapse occurs within 3 months of initial treatment; in these cases, disease is defined as chemorefractory. The molecular mechanisms that differentiate chemosensitive from chemorefractory disease are currently unknown. To identify genetic features that distinguish chemosensitive from chemorefractory disease, we examined copy-number aberrations (CNAs) in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from pretreatment SCLC blood samples...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865367/circulating-tumor-stem-like-cells-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-unresolved-paradox
#17
Shanaya Patel, Kavan Shah, Sheefa Mirza, Kanisha Shah, Rakesh Rawal
OBJECTIVE: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are increasingly gaining importance due to their immense potential in enhancing diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in solid malignancies. Therefore, we aimed to comprehend the molecular diversity and critical role of this disseminated tumor population in OSCC. METHODOLOGY: CD44+ subpopulation was isolated using immuno-magnetic cell separation and their purity was validated using flow cytometry. Characterisation of self renewal potential and resistance to chemotherapy was assessed using tumor sphere forming and cytotoxicity assay...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863403/enumeration-and-targeted-analysis-of-kras-braf-and-pik3ca-mutations-in-ctcs-captured-by-a-label-free-platform-comparison-to-ctdna-and-tissue-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#18
Evelyn Kidess-Sigal, Haiyan E Liu, Melanie M Triboulet, James Che, Vishnu C Ramani, Brendan C Visser, George A Poultsides, Teri A Longacre, Andre Marziali, Valentina Vysotskaia, Matthew Wiggin, Kyra Heirich, Violet Hanft, Ulrich Keilholz, Ingeborg Tinhofer, Jeffrey A Norton, Mark Lee, Elodie Sollier-Christen, Stefanie S Jeffrey
Treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) requires multimodal therapeutic approaches and need for monitoring tumor plasticity. Liquid biopsy biomarkers, including CTCs and ctDNA, hold promise for evaluating treatment response in real-time and guiding therapeutic modifications. From 15 patients with advanced CRC undergoing liver metastasectomy with curative intent, we collected 41 blood samples at different time points before and after surgery for CTC isolation and quantification using label-free Vortex technology...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858042/dual-patterned-immunofiltration-dif-device-for-the-rapid-efficient-negative-selection-of-heterogeneous-circulating-tumor-cells
#19
Jiyoon Bu, Yoon-Tae Kang, Young Jun Kim, Young-Ho Cho, Hee Jin Chang, Hojoong Kim, Byung-In Moon, Ho Gak Kim
The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is an emerging field for estimating the metastatic relapse and tumor burden of cancer patients. However, the isolation of CTCs is still challenging due to their ambiguity, rarity, and heterogeneity. Here, we present an anti-CD45 antibody based dual-patterned immunofiltration (DIF) device for the enrichment of heterogeneous CTC subtypes by effective elimination of leukocytes. Our uniquely designed dual-patterned layers significantly enhance the binding chance between immuno-patterns and leukocytes due to the fluidic whirling and the increased binding sites, thus achieving superior negative selection in terms of high-throughput and high purity...
November 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857883/the-incorporation-of-microfluidics-into-circulating-tumor-cell-isolation-for-clinical-applications
#20
Molly Kozminsky, Yang Wang, Sunitha Nagrath
The second leading cause of death in the United States, cancer is at its most dangerous as it spreads to secondary locations. Cancer cells in the blood stream, or circulating tumor cells (CTCs), present an opportunity to study metastasis provided they may be extracted successfully from blood. Engineers have accelerated the development of technologies that achieve this goal based on exploiting differences between tumor cells and surrounding blood cells such as varying expression patterns of membrane proteins or physical characteristics...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering
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