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ventrolateral preoptic nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734725/estrogen-receptor-alpha-is-required-in-gabaergic-but-not-glutamatergic-neurons-to-masculinize-behavior
#1
Melody V Wu, Jessica Tollkuhn
Masculinization of the altricial rodent brain is driven by estrogen signaling during a perinatal critical period. Genetic deletion of estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1/ERα) results in altered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis signaling and a dramatic reduction of male sexual and territorial behaviors. However, the role of ERα in masculinizing distinct classes of neurons remains unexplored. We deleted ERα in excitatory or inhibitory neurons using either a Vglut2 or Vgat driver and assessed male behaviors...
July 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616594/pattern-of-c-fos-expression-induced-by-tail-suspension-test-in-the-mouse-brain
#2
Kentaro Hiraoka, Keisuke Motomura, Satoru Yanagida, Ayako Ohashi, Nozomi Ishisaka-Furuno, Shigenobu Kanba
The tail suspension test (TST) has been widely used as a screening assay for antidepressant drugs. However, the neural substrates underlying the stress response and antidepressant-like effect during the TST remain largely unknown despite the prevalence of this test. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine alterations in c-Fos expression as a measure of neuronal activity in the mouse brain after acute administration of the antidepressant drugs nortriptyline or escitalopram (or saline as a control) with or without a subsequent TST session...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536140/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-1-in-the-median-preoptic-nucleus-contributes-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-hypertension
#3
Katelynn E Faulk, T Prashant Nedungadi, J Thomas Cunningham
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is used to model the arterial hypoxemia seen in sleep apnea patients and is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a sustained diurnal increase in blood pressure. The renin angiotensin system has been associated with hypertension seen in chronic intermittent hypoxia. Angiotensin converting enzyme 1, which cleaves angiotensin I to the active counterpart angiotensin II, is present within the central nervous system and has been shown to be regulated by AP-1 transcription factors, such as ΔFosB...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535270/intrinsically-photosensitive-retinal-ganglion-cell-function-sleep-efficiency-and-depression-in-advanced-age-related-macular-degeneration
#4
Michelle L Maynard, Andrew Zele, Anthony Kwan, Beatrix Feigl
Purpose: Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) input to multiple brain regions including those for pupil control, circadian rhythms, sleep and mood regulation. Here we measured ipRGC function and its relationship to sleep quality and depression in patients with advanced AMD. Methods: The melanopsin-mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) was measured in 53 patients with advanced AMD (age 78.8 ± 8.8 years) and in 20 healthy controls (age 72...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514446/identification-of-preoptic-sleep-neurons-using-retrograde-labelling-and-gene-profiling
#5
Shinjae Chung, Franz Weber, Peng Zhong, Chan Lek Tan, Thuc Nghi Nguyen, Kevin T Beier, Nikolai Hörmann, Wei-Cheng Chang, Zhe Zhang, Johnny Phong Do, Shenqin Yao, Michael J Krashes, Bosiljka Tasic, Ali Cetin, Hongkui Zeng, Zachary A Knight, Liqun Luo, Yang Dan
In humans and other mammalian species, lesions in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus cause profound sleep impairment, indicating a crucial role of the preoptic area in sleep generation. However, the underlying circuit mechanism remains poorly understood. Electrophysiological recordings and c-Fos immunohistochemistry have shown the existence of sleep-active neurons in the preoptic area, especially in the ventrolateral preoptic area and median preoptic nucleus. Pharmacogenetic activation of c-Fos-labelled sleep-active neurons has been shown to induce sleep...
May 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463228/endocannabinoid-signaling-in-hypothalamic-circuits-regulates-arousal-from-general-anesthesia-in-mice
#6
Haixing Zhong, Li Tong, Ning Gu, Fang Gao, Yacheng Lu, Rou-Gang Xie, Jingjing Liu, Xin Li, Richard Bergeron, Lisa E Pomeranz, Ken Mackie, Feng Wang, Chun-Xia Luo, Yan Ren, Sheng-Xi Wu, Zhongcong Xie, Lin Xu, Jinlian Li, Hailong Dong, Lize Xiong, Xia Zhang
Consciousness can be defined by two major attributes: awareness of environment and self, and arousal, which reflects the level of awareness. The return of arousal after general anesthesia presents an experimental tool for probing the neural mechanisms that control consciousness. Here we have identified that systemic or intracerebral injection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM281 into the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) - but not the adjacent perifornical area (Pef) or the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus (VLPO) - accelerates arousal in mice recovering from general anesthesia...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398586/neonatal-inhibition-of-dna-methylation-alters-cell-phenotype-in-sexually-dimorphic-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#7
Morgan Mosley, Jill Weathington, Laura R Cortes, Emily Bruggeman, Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Bingzhong Xue, Nancy G Forger
Many of the best-studied neural sex differences relate to differences in cell number and are due to the hormonal control of developmental cell death. However, several prominent neural sex differences persist even if cell death is eliminated. We hypothesized that these may reflect cell phenotype "decisions" that depend on epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. To test this, we treated newborn mice with the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine, or vehicle, and examined two sexually dimorphic markers at weaning...
June 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365867/inactivation-of-the-tuberomammillary-nucleus-by-gabaa-receptor-agonist-promotes-slow-wave-sleep-in-freely-moving-rats-and-histamine-treated-rats
#8
Jun-Fan Xie, Kun Fan, Can Wang, Peng Xie, Min Hou, Le Xin, Guang-Fu Cui, Lin-Xin Wang, Yu-Feng Shao, Yi-Ping Hou
A prominent hypothesis, the "flip-flop switch" model, predicts that histaminergic (HAergic) neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), an important component of the ascending arousal system, are inactivated by GABA mainly from the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus to allow the appearance and maintenance of sleep. However, which sleep state and the band of EEG activity induced by GABAergic inactivation of the TMN are unclear. In this study, alterations of sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectral density were investigated following muscimol, a GABAA-receptor agonist, microinjected bilaterally into the TMN in freely moving rats and HA pretreated rats, respectively...
August 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337311/consciousness-loss-during-epileptogenesis-implication-for-vlpo-pno-circuits
#9
REVIEW
Maohui Feng, Zhigang He, Baowen Liu, Zhixiao Li, Guorong Tao, Duozhi Wu, Hongbing Xiang
There is a growing concern about consciousness loss during epileptic seizures. Understanding neural mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of cerebral circuit function in the control of consciousness loss in intractable epilepsy. We propose that ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO)- PnO (nucleus pontis oralis) circuits may serve a major role in the loss of consciousness in drug-refractory epilepsy. Future behavioural and neuroimaging studies are clearly needed to understand the functional connectivity between the VLPO and PnO during loss of consciousness in drug-refractory epilepsy, to greatly prevent unconsciousness in this disorder and improve the quality of life in patients with intractable epilepsy...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318068/helicid-alleviates-pain-and-sleep-disturbances-in-a-neuropathic-pain-like-model-in-mice
#10
Meng-Qi Zhang, Tian-Xiao Wang, Rui Li, Zhi-Li Huang, Wu-Jian Han, Xiao-Chang Dai, Yi-Qun Wang
Natural helicid (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia. In the current study, mechanical allodynia tests, electroencephalograms, electromyogram recordings and c-Fos expression in neuropathic pain-like model mice of partial sciatic nerve ligation were used to investigate the effect of helicid on neuropathic pain and co-morbid insomnia...
June 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185047/histaminergic-h1-and-h2-receptors-mediate-the-effects-of-propofol-on-the-noradrenalin-inhibited-neurons-in-rat-ventrolateral-preoptic-nucleus
#11
Yang Liu, Yu Zhang, Kun Qian, Lin Zhang, Tian Yu
The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus...
February 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178768/distribution-of-endomorphin-like-immunoreactive-neurones-in-the-brain-of-the-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus
#12
Vijayalaxmi, C B Ganesh
Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#13
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562857/estradiol-valerate-and-remifemin-ameliorate-ovariectomy-induced-decrease-in-a-serotonin-dorsal-raphe-preoptic-hypothalamus-pathway-in-rats
#14
Wenjuan Wang, Guangxia Cui, Biao Jin, Ke Wang, Xing Chen, Yu Sun, Lihua Qin, Wenpei Bai
Perimenopausal syndromes begin as ovarian function ceases and the most common symptoms are hot flushes. Data indicate that the projections of serotonin to hypothalamus may be involved in the mechanism of hot flushes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of the serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway for hot flushes in an animal model of menopause. We determined the changes in serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe (DR) and preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) in ovariectomized rats...
November 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456222/ca-2-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-promotes-wakefulness-via-endogenous-sleep-wake-regulating-pathway-in-the-rats
#15
Su-Ying Cui, Sheng-Jie Li, Xiang-Yu Cui, Xue-Qiong Zhang, Bin Yu, Yuan-Li Huang, Qing Cao, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Hui Ye, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are involved in the control of sleep-wake states. Our previous studies have indicated that calcium (Ca(2+)) modulation in the DRN plays an important role in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS) regulation during pentobarbital hypnosis. The present study investigated the effects of Ca(2+) in the DRN on sleep-wake regulation and the related neuronal mechanism in freely moving rats. Our results showed that microinjection of CaCl2 (25 or 50 nmol) in the DRN promoted wakefulness and suppressed NREMS including slow wave sleep and REMS in freely moving rats...
2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426512/chemogenetic-activation-of-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells-induces-signatures-of-arousal-and-or-anxiety-in-mice
#16
Nina Milosavljevic, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Christopher A Procyk, Robert J Lucas
Functional imaging and psychometric assessments indicate that bright light can enhance mood, attention, and cognitive performance in humans. Indirect evidence links these events to light detection by intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) [1-9]. However, there is currently no direct demonstration that mRGCs can have such an immediate effect on mood or behavioral state in any species. We addressed this deficit by using chemogenetics to selectively activate mRGCs, simulating the excitatory effects of bright light on this cell type in dark-housed mice...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426511/a-novel-population-of-wake-promoting-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-lateral-hypothalamus
#17
Anne Venner, Christelle Anaclet, Rebecca Y Broadhurst, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller
The largest synaptic input to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) [1] arises from the lateral hypothalamus [2], a brain area associated with arousal [3-5]. However, the neurochemical identity of the majority of these VLPO-projecting neurons within the lateral hypothalamus (LH), as well as their function in the arousal network, remains unknown. Herein we describe a population of VLPO-projecting neurons in the LH that express the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT; a marker for GABA-releasing neurons)...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393010/multiparametric-characterization-of-neuronal-subpopulations-in-the-ventrolateral-preoptic-nucleus
#18
Romain Dubourget, Aude Sangare, Hélène Geoffroy, Thierry Gallopin, Armelle Rancillac
The characterization of neuronal properties is a necessary first step toward understanding how the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) neuronal network regulates slow-wave sleep (SWS). Indeed, the electrophysiological heterogeneity of VLPO neurons suggests the existence of subtypes that could differently contribute in SWS induction and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to define cell classes in the VLPO using an unsupervised clustering classification method. Electrophysiological features extracted from 289 neurons recorded in whole-cell patch-clamp allowed the identification of three main classes of VLPO neurons subdivided into five distinct subpopulations (cluster 1, 2a, 2b, 3a and 3b)...
July 8, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373591/effect-of-acute-imipramine-administration-on-the-pattern-of-forced-swim-induced-c-fos-expression-in-the-mouse-brain
#19
Satoru Yanagida, Keisuke Motomura, Ayako Ohashi, Kentaro Hiraoka, Tomofumi Miura, Shigenobu Kanba
The forced swim test (FST) has been widely used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressant drugs. Despite considerable differences in the protocol, equivalence of the FST for rats and mice has been rarely questioned. Previous research on the FST for rats revealed that repeated administration of antidepressant drugs attenuates the c-Fos response to swim stress in the hypothalamus and limbic regions. However, few studies have made similar investigations using the FST for mice. In the present study, we explored the mouse brain through immunohistochemistry staining for c-Fos after acute administration of imipramine or saline with or without a subsequent swim session...
August 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238836/serotonin-differentially-modulates-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-inputs-to-putative-sleep-promoting-neurons-of-the-ventrolateral-preoptic-nucleus
#20
Aude Sangare, Romain Dubourget, Hélène Geoffroy, Thierry Gallopin, Armelle Rancillac
The role of serotonin (5-HT) in sleep-wake regulation has been a subject of intense debate and remains incompletely understood. In the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), the main structure that triggers non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, putative sleep-promoting (PSP) neurons were shown ex vivo to be either inhibited (Type-1) or excited (Type-2) by 5-HT application. To determine the complex action of this neurotransmitter on PSP neurons, we recorded spontaneous and miniature excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, sIPSCs, mEPSCs and mIPSCs) in response to bath application of 5-HT...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
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