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tuberomammillary nucleus

Kento Ujita, Ken-Ichi Kinoshita, Yoshikage Muroi, Toshiaki Ishii
AIMS: Bilateral lesions of the mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus (Me5), which receives histaminergic neurons from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), alter nocturnal feeding and related behaviors in mice, concomitant with a decrease in orexin mRNA level in the perifornical area (PFA) during the dark phase. Therefore, we investigated the neuronal input to the TMN from the Me5, as well as the effects of TMN lesions on the circadian profiles of feeding and related behaviors. MAIN METHODS: We examined the presence of neurons projecting from the Me5 to the TMN by direct injection of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold, into the TMN E2 sub-region (TMN-E2)...
October 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Yu Sun, Shi-Yu Jiang, Jian Ni, Yan-Jia Luo, Chang-Rui Chen, Zong-Yuan Hong, Yuchio Yanagawa, Wei-Min Qu, Lu Wang, Zhi-Li Huang
AIM: Ethanol, one of the most frequently used and abused substances in our society, has a profound impact on sedation. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying its sedative effect remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol on histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), a brain region thought to be critical for wakefulness. METHODS: Coronal brain slices (250 μm thick) containing the TMN were prepared from GAD67-GFP knock-in mice...
September 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Gabriela Flores-Balter, Héctor Cordova-Jadue, Alessandra Chiti-Morales, Carolyne Lespay, Pablo Espina-Marchant, Romina Falcon, Noemi Grinspun, Jessica Sanchez, Diego Bustamante, Paola Morales, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, José L Valdés
Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is associated with long-term neuronal damage and cognitive deficits in adulthood, such as learning and memory disabilities. After PA, specific brain regions are compromised, including neocortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and ascending neuromodulatory pathways, such as dopamine system, explaining some of the cognitive disabilities. We hypothesize that other neuromodulatory systems, such as histamine system from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), which widely project to telencephalon, shown to be relevant for learning and memory, may be compromised by PA...
October 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Anne Venner, Christelle Anaclet, Rebecca Y Broadhurst, Clifford B Saper, Patrick M Fuller
The largest synaptic input to the sleep-promoting ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) [1] arises from the lateral hypothalamus [2], a brain area associated with arousal [3-5]. However, the neurochemical identity of the majority of these VLPO-projecting neurons within the lateral hypothalamus (LH), as well as their function in the arousal network, remains unknown. Herein we describe a population of VLPO-projecting neurons in the LH that express the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT; a marker for GABA-releasing neurons)...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ana Maricela García-Gálvez, José Antonio Arias-Montaño
Histamine plays a significant role as a neuromodulator in the human central nervous system. Histamine-releasing neurons are exclusively located in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, project to all major areas of the brain, and participate in functions such as the regulation of sleep/wakefulness, locomotor activity, feeding and drinking, analgesia, learning, and memory. The functional effects of histamine are exerted through the activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3 and H4), and in the central nervous system the first three receptors are widely expressed...
January 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Chang-Rui Chen, Yu Sun, Yan-Jia Luo, Xin Zhao, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuchio Yanagawa, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Paeoniflorin (PF, C23H28O11), one of the principal active ingredients of Paeonia Radix, exerts depressant effects on the central nervous system. We determined whether PF could modulate sleep behaviors and the mechanisms involved. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings in mice showed that intraperitoneal PF administered at a dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg significantly shortened the sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Immunohistochemical study revealed that PF decreased c-fos expression in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN)...
January 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Mark A Babizhayev
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is the seventh-leading cause of death in the US and diabetic complications are interlaced with specific diverse microvascular and macrovascular pathologies resulting from hyperglycemia. The society should expand prowess and patenting of biotechnology to cure disease and complications. AREAS COVERED: The work summarizes biological activities of patented carnosine mimetics resistant in formulations to enzymatic hydrolysis with human carnosinases that are acting as a universal form of antioxidant, deglycating and transglycating agents that inhibit sugar-mediated protein crosslinking, chelate or inactivate a number of transition metal ions (including ferrous and copper ions), possess lipid peroxidase type of activity and protection of antioxidant enzymes from inactivation...
2015: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Eduardo E Benarroch, Ann M Schmeichel, Joseph E Parisi, Phillip A Low
BACKGROUND: Histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus are critical for maintenance of wakefulness and participate in basal ganglia modulation and sympathoexcitation. All of these functions are affected in multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the involvement of histaminergic neurons in these synucleinopathies. METHODS: Immunocytochemical staining for histidine decarboxylase and stereological cell counts in the posterolateral hypothalamus from six cases with multiple system atrophy, six with dementia with Lewy bodies, and five healthy controls...
July 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Mark A Babizhayev, Yegor E Yegorov
BACKGROUND: Visual impairment broadly impacts the ability of affected people to maintain their function and to remain independent during their daily occupations as they grow older. Visual impairment affects survival of older patients, quality of life, can affect a person's self-ranking of health, may be associated with social and functional decline, use of community support services, depression, falls, nursing home placement, and increased mortality. It has been hypothesized that senile cataract may serve as a marker for generalised tissue aging, since structural changes occurring in the proteins of the lens during cataract formation are similar to those which occur elsewhere as part of the aging process...
2016: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Gunnar Flik, Joost H A Folgering, Thomas I H F Cremers, Ben H C Westerink, Eliyahu Dremencov
Brain monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and histamine) play an important role in emotions, cognition, and pathophysiology and treatment of mental disorders. The interactions between serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were studied in numerous works; however, histamine system received less attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between histamine and other monoamines, using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiology. It was found that the inverse agonist of histamine-3 receptors, thioperamide, increased the firing activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
June 2015: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Mark A Babizhayev, Yegor E Yegorov
Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle...
2015: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
Philipp O Valko, Yury V Gavrilov, Mihoko Yamamoto, Kristen Finn, Hasini Reddy, Johannes Haybaeck, Serge Weis, Thomas E Scammell, Christian R Baumann
The need for increased sleep after traumatic brain injury is a common and disabling complaint, yet its etiology is unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated diffuse damage to various hypothalamic systems, but the integrity of the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus, a major arousal-promoting system located in the posterior hypothalamus, has never been examined in head trauma patients. Here, we demonstrate that severe head trauma is associated with a marked loss (41%) of histaminergic neurons. Reduced histamine signaling may contribute to increased sleep need, and therapies that enhance histaminergic tone may improve arousal after head trauma or other conditions...
January 2015: Annals of Neurology
Yoshizu Nozawa, Masako Mimura, Keiko Yamada, Mayu Sugita, Tetsuro Shibakusa, Naoto Koyama
Bonito extract, i.e., dried bonito broth (DBB), has been reported to counteract mental fatigue and to increase performance in a simple calculation task, but the mechanism by which DBB increases task performance is not known. The brain neurotransmitter histamine is biosynthesized only from histidine in the tuberomammillary nucleus. Histamine neurons are projected to almost all areas of the cerebral cortex, and histamine has various behavioral and neurobiological functions, particularly in recognition memory...
2014: Biomedical Research
Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad Nasehi, Ali Haeri-Rohani, Akram Eidi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
The Cholinergic and GABAergic fibers of the medial septal/diagonal band of Broca (MS/ DB) area project to the hippocampus and constitute the septo-hippocampal pathway, which has been proven to play a role in learning and memory. In addition, the hippocampus has bidirectional connections with the septum so that to self-regulate of cholinergic input. The activity of septal and hippocampal neurons is modulated by several neurotransmitter systems including glutamatergic neurons from the entorhinal cortex, serotonergic fibers from the raphe nucleus, dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), histaminergic cells from the tuberomammillary nucleus and adrenergic fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC)...
2013: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Hong Wei, Cong-Yu Jin, Hanna Viisanen, Hao-Jun You, Antti Pertovaara
Among brain structures receiving efferent projections from the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus is the pontine locus coeruleus (LC) involved in descending noradrenergic control of pain. Here we studied whether histamine in the LC is involved in descending regulation of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by unilateral spinal nerve ligation in the rat with a chronic intracerebral and intrathecal catheter for drug administrations. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured limb was assessed by monofilaments...
December 2014: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
L Stan Leung, Tao Luo, Jingyi Ma, Ian Herrick
This document reviews the literature on local brain manipulation of general anesthesia in animals, focusing on behavioral and electrographic effects related to hypnosis or loss of consciousness. Local inactivation or lesion of wake-active areas, such as locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, perifornical area, tuberomammillary nucleus, ventral tegmental area and basal forebrain, enhanced general anesthesia. Anesthesia enhancement was shown as a delayed emergence (recovery of righting reflex) from anesthesia or a decrease in the minimal alveolar concentration that induced loss of righting...
November 2014: Progress in Neurobiology
Mark A Babizhayev, Khava S Vishnyakova, Yegor E Yegorov
It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, and telomere length (TL) may be an informative biomarker of healthy aging. Hormone-brain-aging behavior-modulated telomere dynamics and changes in telomerase activity are consistent elements of cellular alterations associated with changes in proliferative state, and these processes are consequently considered as the new therapeutic drug targets for physiological control with advanced drug delivery and nutritional formulations...
March 2015: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Yuki Bessho, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Tetsuya Tachibana, Sho Maejima, Shusuke Taniuchi, Keiko Masuda, Kenshiro Shikano, Kunihiro Kondo, Megumi Furumitsu, Kazuyoshi Ukena
In mammals, it is established that histamine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. It is produced by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. However, HDC as well as histaminergic neurons have not yet been characterized in the avian brain. We have cloned the cDNA for HDC from the chicken hypothalamus and demonstrated that the chicken HDC sequence is highly homologous to the mammalian counterpart, and that the expressed protein shows high enzymatic activity...
August 22, 2014: Neuroscience Letters
Jerzy Jochem, Alicja Kasperska-Zajac
The histaminergic system consists of neurons located in tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus. It affects many functions of the central nervous system, including regulation of the brainstem cardiovascular center. In this paper, we present current review of the literature concerning the role of the histaminergic system in the cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic hypotension. Experimental studies demonstrate that in both, normotension and critical hemorrhagic hypotension, histamine, acting as a central neurotransmitter, evokes the pressor effect...
2012: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
B Lkhagvasuren, T Oka, Y Nakamura, H Hayashi, N Sudo, K Nakamura
The anxiolytic diazepam selectively inhibits psychological stress-induced autonomic and behavioral responses without causing noticeable suppression of other central performances. This pharmacological property of diazepam led us to the idea that neurons that exhibit diazepam-sensitive, psychological stress-induced activation are potentially those recruited for stress responses. To obtain neuroanatomical clues for the central stress circuitries, we examined the effects of diazepam on psychological stress-induced neuronal activation in broad brain regions...
July 11, 2014: Neuroscience
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