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Type VI secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929413/exosome-proteome-of-u-87mg-glioblastoma-cells
#1
Sohyun Chun, Seunghyun Ahn, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Seyeon Park
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter secreted by many cell types, and are associated with a wide range of physiological and/or pathological processes. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA contribute to cell-to-cell communication and cell-to-environment regulation, however, their biological functions are not yet fully understood. In this report, exosomes in the glioblastoma cell line, U-87MG, were isolated and the proteome was investigated. In addition, exosome proteome changes in U-87MG cells exposed to a low temperature were investigated to elucidate whether the exosome proteome could respond to an external stimulus...
December 6, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920034/domestication-of-a-housekeeping-transglycosylase-for-assembly-of-a-type-vi-secretion-system
#2
Yoann G Santin, Eric Cascales
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an anti-bacterial weapon comprising a contractile tail anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane complex. The TssJ, TssL, and TssM proteins assemble a 1.7-MDa channel complex that spans the cell envelope, including the peptidoglycan layer. The electron microscopy structure of the TssJLM complex revealed that it has a diameter of ~18 nm in the periplasm, which is larger than the size of peptidoglycan pores (~2 nm), hence questioning how the T6SS membrane complex crosses the peptidoglycan layer...
December 5, 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915248/comparative-proteomic-analysis-unravels-a-role-for-esrb-in-the-regulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-stress-responses-in-edwardsiella-piscicida
#3
Kaiyu Yin, Qiyao Wang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang
As a leading pathogen, Edwardsiella piscicida can cause hemorrhagic septicemia in fish and gastro-intestinal infections in humans. The two-component regulatory system EsrA-EsrB plays essential roles in pathogenesis through the type III and type VI secretion systems, and hemolysin production in E. piscicida It is unclear whether other virulence- or stress response-associated genes are regulated by EsrA-EsrB. In this study, the proteomes of wild type E. piscicida EIB202 and esrB mutant strains were compared to reveal EsrB regulon components after growth in LB...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871130/paar-rhs-proteins-harbor-various-c-terminal-toxins-to-diversify-the-antibacterial-pathways-of-type-vi-secretion-systems
#4
Jiale Ma, Min Sun, Wengyang Dong, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) of bacteria plays a key role in competing for specific niches by the contact-dependent killing of competitors. Recently, Rhs proteins with polymorphic C-terminal toxin-domains that inhibit or kill neighboring cells were identified. In this report, we identified a novel Rhs with an MPTase4 (Metallopeptidase-4) domain (designated as Rhs-CT1) that showed an antibacterial effect via T6SS in Escherichia coli. We managed to develop a specific strategy by matching the diagnostic domain-architecture of Rhs-CT1 (Rhs with an N-terminal PAAR-motif and a C-terminal toxin domain) for effector retrieval and discovered a series of Rhs-CTs in E...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856117/adaptor-proteins-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effectors
#5
Daniel Unterweger, Benjamin Kostiuk, Stefan Pukatzki
Bacteria use the type VI secretion system (T6SS) to kill neighboring cells. One key feature of the T6SS is the secretion of diverse effectors. Here, we discuss six publications that describe three superfamilies of T6SS proteins, each dedicated to mediate the secretion of cognate effectors.
November 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845364/a-genomic-island-in-vibrio-cholerae-with-vpi-1-site-specific-recombination-characteristics-contains-crispr-cas-and-type-vi-secretion-modules
#6
Maurizio Labbate, Fabini D Orata, Nicola K Petty, Nathasha D Jayatilleke, William L King, Paul C Kirchberger, Chris Allen, Gulay Mann, Ankur Mutreja, Nicholas R Thomson, Yan Boucher, Ian G Charles
Cholera is a devastating diarrhoeal disease caused by certain strains of serogroup O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae. Mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands (GIs) have been pivotal in the evolution of O1/O139 V. cholerae. Perhaps the most important GI involved in cholera disease is the V. cholerae pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1). This GI contains the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) gene cluster that is necessary for colonization of the human intestine as well as being the receptor for infection by the cholera-toxin bearing CTX phage...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833590/molecular-keys-to-the-janthinobacterium-and-duganella-spp-interaction-with-the-plant-pathogen-fusarium-graminearum
#7
Frederike S Haack, Anja Poehlein, Cathrin Kröger, Christian A Voigt, Meike Piepenbring, Helge B Bode, Rolf Daniel, Wilhelm Schäfer, Wolfgang R Streit
Janthinobacterium and Duganella are well-known for their antifungal effects. Surprisingly, almost nothing is known on molecular aspects involved in the close bacterium-fungus interaction. To better understand this interaction, we established the genomes of 11 Janthinobacterium and Duganella isolates in combination with phylogenetic and functional analyses of all publicly available genomes. Thereby, we identified a core and pan genome of 1058 and 23,628 genes. All strains encoded secondary metabolite gene clusters and chitinases, both possibly involved in fungal growth suppression...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832588/secreted-effectors-encoded-within-and-outside-of-the-francisella-pathogenicity-island-promote-intramacrophage-growth
#8
Aria Eshraghi, Jungyun Kim, Alexandra C Walls, Hannah E Ledvina, Cheryl N Miller, Kathryn M Ramsey, John C Whitney, Matthew C Radey, S Brook Peterson, Brittany R Ruhland, Bao Q Tran, Young Ah Goo, David R Goodlett, Simon L Dove, Jean Celli, David Veesler, Joseph D Mougous
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis causes tularemia, a zoonosis that can be fatal. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded by the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) is critical for the virulence of this organism. Existing studies suggest that the complete repertoire of T6SS effectors delivered to host cells is encoded by the FPI. Using a proteome-wide approach, we discovered that the FPI-encoded T6SS exports at least three effectors encoded outside of the island. These proteins share features with virulence determinants of other pathogens, and we provide evidence that they can contribute to intramacrophage growth...
November 9, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830989/a-mutagenesis-based-approach-identifies-amino-acids-in-the-n-terminal-part-of-francisella-tularensis-igle-that-critically-control-type-vi-system-mediated-secretion
#9
Jeanette E Bröms, Lena Meyer, Anders Sjöstedt
The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Its life cycle is characterized by an ability to survive within phagocytic cells through phagosomal escape and replication in the cytosol, ultimately causing inflammasome activation and host cell death. Required for these processes is the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), which encodes a Type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is active during intracellular infection. In this study, we analyzed the role of the FPI-component IglE, a lipoprotein which we previously have shown to be secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner...
November 10, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810946/bacterial-secretion-systems-and-regulation-of-inflammasome-activation
#10
REVIEW
Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Egil Lien
Innate immunity is critical for host defenses against pathogens, but many bacteria display complex ways of interacting with innate immune signaling, as they may both activate and evade certain pathways. Gram-negative bacteria can exhibit specialized nanomachine secretion systems for delivery of effector proteins into mammalian cells. Bacterial types III, IV, and VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS, and T6SS) are known for their impact on caspase-1-activating inflammasomes, necessary for producing bioactive inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, key participants of anti-bacterial responses...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803692/classification-of-a-hypervirulent-aeromonas-hydrophila-pathotype-responsible-for-epidemic-outbreaks-in-warm-water-fishes
#11
Cody R Rasmussen-Ivey, Mohammad J Hossain, Sara E Odom, Jeffery S Terhune, William G Hemstreet, Craig A Shoemaker, Dunhua Zhang, De-Hai Xu, Matt J Griffin, Yong-Jie Liu, Maria J Figueras, Scott R Santos, Joseph C Newton, Mark R Liles
Lineages of hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh) are the cause of persistent outbreaks of motile Aeromonas septicemia in warm-water fishes worldwide. Over the last decade, this virulent lineage of A. hydrophila has resulted in annual losses of millions of tons of farmed carp and catfish in the People's Republic of China and the United States (US). Multiple lines of evidence indicate US catfish and Asian carp isolates of A. hydrophila affiliated with sequence type 251 (ST251) share a recent common ancestor...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777222/comprehensive-assessment-and-performance-improvement-of-effector-protein-predictors-for-bacterial-secretion-systems-iii-iv-and-vi
#12
Yi An, Jiawei Wang, Chen Li, André Leier, Tatiana Marquez-Lago, Jonathan Wilksch, Yang Zhang, Geoffrey I Webb, Jiangning Song, Trevor Lithgow
Bacterial effector proteins secreted by various protein secretion systems play crucial roles in host-pathogen interactions. In this context, computational tools capable of accurately predicting effector proteins of the various types of bacterial secretion systems are highly desirable. Existing computational approaches use different machine learning (ML) techniques and heterogeneous features derived from protein sequences and/or structural information. These predictors differ not only in terms of the used ML methods but also with respect to the used curated data sets, the features selection and their prediction performance...
October 24, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751866/allergy-inducing-chromium-compounds-trigger-potent-innate-immune-stimulation-via-ros-dependent-inflammasome-activation
#13
Christian Adam, Jonas Wohlfarth, Maike Haußmann, Helga Sennefelder, Annette Rodin, Mareike Maler, Stefan F Martin, Matthias Goebeler, Marc Schmidt
Chromium allergy is a common occupational skin disease mediated by chromium (VI)-specific T cells that induce delayed-type hypersensitivity in sensitized individuals. Additionally, chromium (VI) can act as irritant. Both responses critically require innate immune activation, but if and how chromium (VI) elicits this signal is currently unclear.Using human monocytes, primary human keratinocytes and murine dendritic cells we show that chromium (VI) compounds fail to trigger direct proinflammatory activation but potently induce processing and secretion of IL-1β...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729508/genetic-dissection-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-in-acinetobacter-and-identification-of-a-novel-peptidoglycan-hydrolase-tagx-required-for-its-biogenesis
#14
Brent S Weber, Seth W Hennon, Meredith S Wright, Nichollas E Scott, Véronique de Berardinis, Leonard J Foster, Juan A Ayala, Mark D Adams, Mario F Feldman
: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread secretory apparatus produced by Gram-negative bacteria that has emerged as a potent mediator of antibacterial activity during interbacterial interactions. Most Acinetobacter species produce a genetically conserved T6SS, although the expression and functionality of this system vary among different strains. Some pathogenic Acinetobacter baumannii strains activate this secretion system via the spontaneous loss of a plasmid carrying T6SS repressors...
October 11, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698444/structure-and-specificity-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-clpv-tssc-interaction-in-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#15
Badreddine Douzi, Yannick R Brunet, Silvia Spinelli, Valentine Lensi, Pierre Legrand, Stéphanie Blangy, Anant Kumar, Laure Journet, Eric Cascales, Christian Cambillau
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile machine that delivers toxins into either eukaryotic or bacterial cells. It thus represents a key player in bacterial pathogenesis and inter-bacterial competition. Schematically, the T6SS can be viewed as a contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope. The contraction of the tail sheath propels the inner tube loaded with effectors towards the target cell. The components of the contracted tail sheath are then recycled by the ClpV AAA(+) ATPase for a new cycle of tail elongation...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688318/complete-genome-sequences-of-campylobacter-jejuni-strains-od267-and-wp2202-isolated-from-retail-chicken-livers-and-gizzards-reveal-the-presence-of-novel-116-kilobase-and-119-kilobase-megaplasmids-with-type-vi-secretion-systems
#16
Daya Marasini, Mohamed K Fakhr
Genome sequences of Campylobacter jejuni strains OD267 and WP2202, isolated from chicken livers and gizzards, showed the presence of novel 116-kb and 119-kb megaplasmids, respectively. The two megaplasmids carry a type VI secretion system and tetracycline resistance genes. These are the largest sequenced Campylobacter plasmids to date.
September 29, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667692/common-evolutionary-origin-of-procapsid-proteases-phage-tail-tubes-and-tubes-of-bacterial-type-vi-secretion-systems
#17
Andrei Fokine, Michael G Rossmann
Many large viruses, including tailed dsDNA bacteriophages and herpesviruses, assemble their capsids via formation of precursors, called procapsids or proheads. The prohead has an internal core, made of scaffolding proteins, and an outer shell, formed by the major capsid protein. The prohead usually contains a protease, which is activated during capsid maturation to destroy the inner core and liberate space for the genome. Here, we report a 2.0 Å resolution structure of the pentameric procapsid protease of bacteriophage T4, gene product (gp)21...
November 1, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637882/microbial-herd-protection-mediated-by-antagonistic-interaction-in-polymicrobial-communities
#18
Megan Wong, Xiaoye Liang, Matt Smart, Le Tang, Richard Moore, Brian Ingalls, Tao G Dong
: In the host and natural environments, microbes often exist in complex multispecies communities. The molecular mechanisms through which such communities develop and persist - despite significant antagonistic interactions between species - are not well understood. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon commonly employed by Gram-negative bacteria to inhibit neighboring species through delivery of toxic effectors. It is well established that intra-species protection is conferred by immunity proteins that neutralize effector toxicities...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634541/pangenome-and-immuno-proteomics-analysis-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-revealed-the-core-peptide-vaccine-targets
#19
Afreenish Hassan, Anam Naz, Ayesha Obaid, Rehan Zafar Paracha, Kanwal Naz, Faryal Mehwish Awan, Syed Aun Muhmmad, Hussnain Ahmed Janjua, Jamil Ahmad, Amjad Ali
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a significant nosocomial pathogen during the last few years, exhibiting resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. Alternative treatment options such as vaccines tend to be most promising and cost effective approaches against this resistant pathogen. In the current study, we have explored the pan-genome of A. baumannii followed by immune-proteomics and reverse vaccinology approaches to identify potential core vaccine targets...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616061/type-vi-secretion-system-substrates-are-transferred-and-reused-among-sister-cells
#20
Andrea Vettiger, Marek Basler
Bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a nanomachine that works similarly to a speargun. Rapid contraction of a sling (sheath) drives a long shaft (Hcp) with a sharp tip and associated effectors through the target cell membrane. We show that the amount and composition of the tip regulates initiation of full-length sheath assembly and low amount of available Hcp decreases sheath length. Importantly, we show that both tip and Hcp are exchanged by T6SS among by-standing cells within minutes of initial cell-cell contact...
September 22, 2016: Cell
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