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Type VI secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051571/a-new-cellular-type-in-invertebrates-first-evidence-of-telocytes-in-leech-hirudo-medicinalis
#1
Laura Pulze, Nicolò Baranzini, Rossana Girardello, Annalisa Grimaldi, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Enzo Ottaviani, Marcella Reguzzoni, Gianluca Tettamanti, Magda de Eguileor
Telocytes, a peculiar cell type, were recently found in vertebrates. Hence this cell system has been reported as ubiquitous in the bodies of mammals and interpreted as an important player in innate immunity and tissue regeneration, it is reasonable to look for it also in invertebrates, that rely their integrity solely by innate immunity. Here we describe, at morphological and functional level, invertebrate telocytes from the body of leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida), suggesting how these cells, forming a resident stromal 3D network, can influence or participate in different events...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031453/whole-genome-comparison-of-urinary-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-faecal-isolates-of-uti-patients-and-healthy-controls
#2
Karen Leth Nielsen, Marc Stegger, Kristoffer Kiil, Paul A Godfrey, Michael Feldgarden, Berit Lilje, Paal S Andersen, Niels Frimodt-Møller
The faecal flora is a common reservoir for urinary tract infection (UTI), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is frequently found in this reservoir without causing extraintestinal infection. We investigated these E. coli reservoirs by whole-genome sequencing a large collection of E. coli from healthy controls (faecal), who had never previously had UTI, and from UTI patients (faecal and urinary) sampled from the same geographical area. We compared MLST types, phylogenetic relationship, accessory genome content and FimH type between patient and control faecal isolates as well as between UTI and faecal-only isolates, respectively...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027348/type-vi-secretion-systems-in-plant-associated-bacteria
#3
Patricia Bernal, María A Llamas, Alain Filloux
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial nanomachine used to inject effectors into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and is thus involved in both host manipulation and inter-bacterial competition. The T6SS is widespread among Gram-negative bacteria, mostly within the Proteobacterium Phylum. This secretion system is commonly found in commensal and pathogenic plant-associated bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of phytobacterial T6SS clusters shows that they are distributed in the five main clades previously described (group 1 to 5)...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021252/a-chemical-and-biological-toolbox-for-type-vd-secretion-characterization-of-the-phospholipase-a1-autotransporter-fpla-from-fusobacterium-nucleatum
#4
Michael A Casasanta, Christopher C Yoo, Hans B Smith, Alison J Duncan, Kyla Cochrane, Ann C Varano, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Daniel J Slade
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral pathogen that is linked to multiple human infections and colorectal cancer. Strikingly, F. nucleatum achieves virulence in the absence of large, multi-protein secretion systems (Type I, II, III, IV, and VI) which are widely used by Gram-negative bacteria for pathogenesis. By contrast, F. nucleatum strains contain genomic expansions of Type V secreted effectors (autotransporters) that are critical for host cell adherence, invasion, and biofilm formation. Here we present the first characterization of a F...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981574/an-account-of-in-silico-identification-tools-of-secreted-effector-proteins-in-bacteria-and-future-challenges
#5
Cong Zeng, Lingyun Zou
Bacterial pathogens secrete numerous effector proteins via six secretion systems, type I to type VI secretion systems, to adapt to new environments or to promote virulence by bacterium-host interactions. Many computational approaches have been used in the identification of effector proteins before the subsequent experimental verification because they tolerate laborious biological procedures and are genome scale, automated and highly efficient. Prevalent examples include machine learning methods and statistical techniques...
July 19, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979890/structure-based-prototype-peptides-targeting-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-type-vi-secretion-system-effector-as-a-novel-antibacterial-strategy
#6
Xiaopan Gao, Zhixia Mu, Bo Qin, Yicheng Sun, Sheng Cui
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) secretes numerous toxins for bacteria-bacteria competition. TplE is a newly identified trans-kingdom toxin secreted by the T6SS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while TplEi neutralizes the toxic effect of TplE to protect bacteria autointoxication. Blocking the interaction of TplE-TplEi could unleash the toxin, causing bacterial cell death. In this study, we applied a crystallographic approach to design a structural-based antimicrobial peptides targeting the interaction of TplE and TplEi...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973030/cholesterol-and-host-cell-surface-proteins-contribute-to-cell-cell-fusion-induced-by-the-burkholderia-type-vi-secretion-system-5
#7
Liam Whiteley, Maria Haug, Kristina Klein, Matthias Willmann, Erwin Bohn, Salvatore Chiantia, Sandra Schwarz
Following escape into the cytoplasm of host cells, Burkholderia pseudomallei and the related species Burkholderia thailandensis employ the type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS-5) to induce plasma membrane fusion with an adjacent host cell. This process leads to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and facilitates bacterial access to an uninfected host cell in a direct manner. Despite its importance in virulence, the mechanism of the T6SS-5 and the role of host cell factors in cell-cell fusion remain elusive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968917/fleq-regulates-both-the-type-vi-secretion-system-and-flagella-in-pseudomonas-putida
#8
Yuzhou Wang, Ye Li, Jianli Wang, Xiaoyuan Wang
Based on the analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, flagellin FliC and a key member of the type VI secretion system Hcp1 were found to be secreted from Pseudomonas putida KT2442 cells in the late exponential phase, but in the early exponential phase only FliC was secreted. Relevant genes fleQ and rpoN were then individually deleted in P. putida KT2442, and the expression and transcription of fliC and hcp1 in these mutant strains were analyzed. In both △fleQ and △rpoN mutant cells, Hcp1 but not FliC was secreted in the late exponential phase, and it was secreted even in the early exponential phase...
October 2, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961768/new-facet-of-non-o1-non-o139-vibrio-cholerae-hemolysin-a-a-competitive-factor-for-the-environmental-niche
#9
Pichet Ruenchit, Onrapak Reamtong, Kanokrat Siripanichgon, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Pornphan Diraphat
Different serogroups of Vibrio cholerae may inhabit the same ecological niche. However, serogroup O1/O139 strains are rarely isolated from their ecological sources. Quite plausibly, the non-O1/non-O139 vibrios and other bacterial species suppress growth of the O1/O139 that shares the same niche. Our bacterial inhibition assay data indicated that certain non-O1/non-O139 strains used a contact-dependent type VI secretion system (T6SS) to suppress growth of the O1 El Tor, N16961 pandemic strain. Meanwhile, comparative proteomics of the O1 and the suppressive non-O1/non-O139 co-cultured in the simulated natural aquatic microcosm showed that SecB and HlyD were upregulated in the latter...
September 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961412/phage-tail-like-bacteriocins
#10
Dean Scholl
Many dsDNA bacterial viruses (bacteriophages/phages) have long tail structures that serve as organelles for DNA delivery to host targets. These structures, particularly those of Myoviridae and Siphoviridae phages, have an evolutionary relationship with other cellular biological entities that share the common function of penetrating the bacterial envelope. Among these are type VI secretion systems, insecticidal protein complexes, and bacteriocins. Phage tail-like bacteriocins (PTLBs) are widespread in bacteria, comprising different types that likely evolved independently...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949977/a-single-point-mutation-in-a-tssb-vipa-homolog-disrupts-sheath-formation-in-the-type-vi-secretion-system-of-proteus-mirabilis
#11
Christina C Saak, Martha A Zepeda-Rivera, Karine A Gibbs
The type VI secretion (T6S) system is a molecular device for the delivery of proteins from one cell into another. T6S function depends on the contractile sheath comprised of TssB/VipA and TssC/VipB proteins. We previously reported on a mutant variant of TssB that disrupts T6S-dependent export of the self-identity protein, IdsD, in the bacterium Proteus mirabilis. Here we determined the mechanism underlying that initial observation. We show that T6S-dependent export of multiple self-recognition proteins is abrogated in this mutant strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947741/cryo-em-structure-of-the-extended-type-vi-secretion-system-sheath-tube-complex
#12
Jing Wang, Maximilian Brackmann, Daniel Castaño-Díez, Mikhail Kudryashev, Kenneth N Goldie, Timm Maier, Henning Stahlberg, Marek Basler
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) uses contraction of a long sheath to quickly thrust a tube with associated effectors across membranes of eukaryotic and bacterial cells (1-5) . Only limited structural information is available about the inherently unstable precontraction state of the T6SS. Here, we obtain a 3.7 Å resolution structure of a non-contractile sheath-tube complex using cryo-electron microscopy and show that it resembles the extended T6SS inside Vibrio cholerae cells. We build a pseudo-atomic model of the complete sheath-tube assembly, which provides a mechanistic understanding of coupling sheath contraction with pushing and rotating the inner tube for efficient target membrane penetration...
September 25, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934168/role-of-the-genes-of-type-vi-secretion-system-in-virulence-of-rice-bacterial-brown-stripe-pathogen-acidovorax-avenae-subsp-avenae-strain-rs-2
#13
Md Mahidul Islam Masum, Yingzi Yang, Bin Li, Ogunyemi Solabomi Olaitan, Jie Chen, Yang Zhang, Yushi Fang, Wen Qiu, Yanli Wang, Guochang Sun
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912798/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-reveals-a-broad-distribution-of-metabolic-pathways-for-the-degradation-of-host-synthetized-mucin-glycans-and-utilization-of-mucin-derived-monosaccharides
#14
Dmitry A Ravcheev, Ines Thiele
The colonic mucus layer is a dynamic and complex structure formed by secreted and transmembrane mucins, which are high-molecular-weight and heavily glycosylated proteins. Colonic mucus consists of a loose outer layer and a dense epithelium-attached layer. The outer layer is inhabited by various representatives of the human gut microbiota (HGM). Glycans of the colonic mucus can be used by the HGM as a source of carbon and energy when dietary fibers are not sufficiently available. Both commensals and pathogens can utilize mucin glycans...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912123/type-vi-secretion-system-mix-effectors-carry-both-antibacterial-and-anti-eukaryotic-activities
#15
Ann Ray, Nika Schwartz, Marcela de Souza Santos, Junmei Zhang, Kim Orth, Dor Salomon
Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class...
September 14, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910638/the-landscape-of-type-vi-secretion-across-human-gut-microbiomes-reveals-its-role-in-community-composition
#16
Adrian J Verster, Benjamin D Ross, Matthew C Radey, Yiqiao Bao, Andrew L Goodman, Joseph D Mougous, Elhanan Borenstein
Although gut microbiome composition is well defined, the mechanisms underlying community assembly remain poorly understood. Bacteroidales possess three genetic architectures (GA1-3) of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), an effector delivery pathway that mediates interbacterial competition. Here we define the distribution and role of GA1-3 in the human gut using metagenomic analysis. We find that adult microbiomes harbor limited effector and cognate immunity genes, suggesting selection for compatibility at the species (GA1 and GA2) and strain (GA3) levels...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889297/contribution-of-cyclic-di-gmp-in-the-control-of-type-iii-and-type-vi-secretion-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Ronan R McCarthy, Martina Valentini, Alain Filloux
Bacteria produce toxins to enhance their competitiveness in the colonization of an environment as well as during an infection. The delivery of toxins into target cells is mediated by several types of secretion systems, among them our focus is Type III and Type VI Secretion Systems (T3SS and T6SS, respectively). A thorough methodology is provided detailing how to identify if cyclic di-GMP signaling plays a role in the P. aeruginosa toxin delivery mediated by T3SS or T6SS. This includes in vitro preparation of the samples for Western blot analysis aiming at detecting possible c-di-GMP-dependent T3SS/T6SS switch, as well as in vivo analysis using the model organism Galleria mellonella to demonstrate the ecological and pathogenic consequence of the switch between these two secretion systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855423/plant-based-food-cyanidin-3-glucoside-modulates-human-platelet-glycoprotein-vi-signaling-and-inhibits-platelet-activation-and-thrombus-formation
#18
Yanling Yao, Yanqiu Chen, Reheman Adili, Thomas McKeown, Pingguo Chen, Guangheng Zhu, Dan Li, Wenhua Ling, Heyu Ni, Yan Yang
Background: Platelets play an important role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a major platelet receptor that interacts with exposed collagen on injured vessel walls. Our previous studies have shown that anthocyanins (a type of natural plant pigment) attenuate platelet function; however, whether anthocyanins affect collagen-induced GPVI signaling remains unknown.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-g, one of the major bioactive compounds in anthocyanins) on platelet activation and thrombosis and the GPVI signaling pathway...
October 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851514/a-novel-calcium-independent-phospholipase-a2-and-its-physiological-roles-in-development-and-immunity-of-a-lepidopteran-insect-spodoptera-exigua
#19
Md Sadekuzzaman, Neelam Gautam, Yonggyun Kim
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes hydrolysis of ester linkage at sn-2 position of phospholipids. At least 15 groups (I-XV) of PLA2 gene superfamily are associated with various physiological processes such as digestion, secretion, immunity, and maintenance of membrane integrity. This study suggests that various insects encode putative Group VI PLA2s representing intracellular and calcium-independent PLA2s (iPLA2). These insect iPLA2s are separated into at least two subgroups: iPLA2A (Group VIA-like) and iPLA2B (non-Group VIA)...
August 26, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851366/a-widespread-family-of-polymorphic-toxins-encoded-by-temperate-phages
#20
Anne Jamet, Marie Touchon, Bruno Ribeiro-Gonçalves, João André Carriço, Alain Charbit, Xavier Nassif, Mario Ramirez, Eduardo P C Rocha
BACKGROUND: Polymorphic toxins (PTs) are multi-domain bacterial exotoxins belonging to distinct families that share common features in terms of domain organization. PTs are found in all major bacterial clades, including many toxic effectors of type V and type VI secretion systems. PTs modulate the dynamics of microbial communities by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacterial competitors lacking protective immunity proteins. RESULTS: In this work, we identified a novel widespread family of PTs, named MuF toxins, which were exclusively encoded within temperate phages and their prophages...
August 29, 2017: BMC Biology
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