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Type VI secretion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244830/transcriptome-profiling-identifies-regulators-of-pathogenesis-in-collagen-vi-related-muscular-dystrophy
#1
Russell J Butterfield, Diane M Dunn, Ying Hu, Kory Johnson, Carsten G Bönnemann, Robert B Weiss
OBJECTIVES: The collagen VI related muscular dystrophies (COL6-RD), Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) are among the most common congenital muscular dystrophies and are characterized by distal joint laxity and a combination of distal and proximal joint contractures. Inheritance can be dominant negative (DN) or recessive depending on the type and location of the mutation. DN mutations allow incorporation of abnormal chains into secreted tetramers and are the most commonly identified mutation type in COL6-RD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242851/in-depth-ptdins-3-4-5-p3-signalosome-analysis-identifies-dapp1-as-a-negative-regulator-of-gpvi-driven-platelet-function
#2
Tom N Durrant, James L Hutchinson, Kate J Heesom, Karen E Anderson, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins, Aaron J Marshall, Samantha F Moore, Ingeborg Hers
The class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms play important roles in platelet priming, activation, and stable thrombus formation. Class I PI3Ks predominantly regulate cell function through their catalytic product, the signaling phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], which coordinates the localization and/or activity of a diverse range of binding proteins. Notably, the complete repertoire of these class I PI3K effectors in platelets remains unknown, limiting mechanistic understanding of class I PI3K-mediated control of platelet function...
June 13, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237732/diverse-nadase-effector-families-mediate-interbacterial-antagonism-via-the-type-vi-secretion-system
#3
Jenny Y Tang, Nathan P Bullen, Shehryar Ahmad, John C Whitney
The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates antagonistic cell-cell interactions between competing Gram-negative bacteria. In plant-beneficial bacteria, this pathway has been shown to suppress the growth of bacterial pathogens; however, the identification and mode of action of T6SS effector proteins that mediate this protective effect remain poorly defined. Here, we identify two previously uncharacterized effectors required for interbacterial antagonism by the plant commensal bacterium Pseudomonas protegens...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233893/diversification-of-type-vi-secretion-system-toxins-reveals-ancient-antagonism-among-bee-gut-microbes
#4
Margaret I Steele, Waldan K Kwong, Marvin Whiteley, Nancy A Moran
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230364/complete-genome-sequence-and-comparative-genomics-of-the-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus-pathogen-vibrio-harveyi-strain-qt520
#5
Zhigang Tu, Hongyue Li, Xiang Zhang, Yun Sun, Yongcan Zhou
Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative, halophilic bacterium that is an opportunistic pathogen of commercially farmed marine vertebrate species. To understand the pathogenicity of this species, the genome of V. harveyi QT520 was analyzed and compared to that of other strains. The results showed the genome of QT520 has two unique circular chromosomes and three endogenous plasmids, totaling 6,070,846 bp with a 45% GC content, 5,701 predicted ORFs, 134 tRNAs and 37 rRNAs. Common virulence factors, including ACF, IlpA, OmpU, Flagellin, Cya, Hemolysin and MARTX, were detected in the genome, which are likely responsible for the virulence of QT520...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223729/structure-function-analysis-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-the-type-vi-secretion-tssb-tail-sheath-subunit
#6
Badreddine Douzi, Laureen Logger, Silvia Spinelli, Stéphanie Blangy, Christian Cambillau, Eric Cascales
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a specialized macromolecular complex dedicated to the delivery of protein effectors into both eukaryotic and bacterial cells. The general mechanism of action of the T6SS is similar to the injection of DNA by contractile bacteriophages. The cytoplasmic portion of the T6SS is evolutionarily, structurally and functionally related to the phage tail complex. It is composed of an inner tube made of stacked Hcp hexameric rings, engulfed within a sheath and built on a baseplate...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222345/type-vi-secretion-system-sheath-inter-subunit-interactions-modulate-its-contraction
#7
Maximilian Brackmann, Jing Wang, Marek Basler
Secretion systems are essential for bacteria to survive and manipulate their environment. The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) generates the force needed for protein translocation by the contraction of a long polymer called sheath. The sheath is a six-start helical assembly of interconnected VipA/VipB subunits. The mechanism of T6SS sheath contraction is unknown. Here, we show that elongating the N-terminal VipA linker or eliminating charge of a specific VipB residue abolishes sheath contraction and delivery of effectors into target cells...
December 8, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216271/genomic-and-phenotypic-characteristics-of-swedish-c-jejuni-water-isolates
#8
Anna Nilsson, Cecilia Johansson, Astrid Skarp, René Kaden, Lars Engstrand, Hilpi Rautelin
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Major reservoirs are warm-blooded animals, poultry in particular, but Campylobacter can also be transmitted via water. In this paper, we have taken a closer look at the biology and potential virulence of C. jejuni water isolates. Seven C. jejuni isolates from incoming surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized with whole genome sequencing and phenotypical testing. Multi locus sequence typing analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to groups known to include both common (ST48CC) and uncommon (ST1275CC, ST683, ST793 and ST8853) human pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209037/bacteriophage-t5-tail-tube-structure-suggests-a-trigger-mechanism-for-siphoviridae-dna-ejection
#9
Charles-Adrien Arnaud, Grégory Effantin, Corinne Vivès, Sylvain Engilberge, Maria Bacia, Pascale Boulanger, Eric Girard, Guy Schoehn, Cécile Breyton
The vast majority of phages, bacterial viruses, possess a tail ensuring host recognition, cell wall perforation and safe viral DNA transfer from the capsid to the host cytoplasm. Long flexible tails are formed from the tail tube protein (TTP) polymerised as hexameric rings around and stacked along the tape measure protein (TMP). Here, we report the crystal structure of T5 TTP pb6 at 2.2 Å resolution. Pb6 is unusual in forming a trimeric ring, although structure analysis reveals homology with all classical TTPs and related tube proteins of bacterial puncturing devices (type VI secretion system and R-pyocin)...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184542/lysogenic-conversion-of-the-phytopathogen-ralstonia-solanacearum-by-the-p2virus-%C3%AF-rsy1
#10
Ahmed Askora, Takeru Kawasaki, Makoto Fujie, Takashi Yamada
A P2-like phage ϕRSY1 infecting the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum was isolated and characterized. The 40-kb genome of ϕRSY1 showed high sequence similarity to the Ralstonia phage ϕRSA1 and the GMI1000 prophage ϕRSX. The major genomic differences between these phages were the different orientation of the int gene and the gene content close to the cosL. ϕRSY1 and ϕRSX use a 15-base 3' portion of the serine tRNA(GGA) gene as attB, while ϕRSA1 uses a 45-base 3' portion of the arginine tRNA(CCG) gene...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184019/gut-symbiont-bacteroides-fragilis-secretes-a-eukaryotic-like-ubiquitin-protein-that-mediates-intraspecies-antagonism
#11
Maria Chatzidaki-Livanis, Michael J Coyne, Kevin G Roelofs, Rahul R Gentyala, Jarreth M Caldwell, Laurie E Comstock
Human gut Bacteroides species produce different types of toxins that antagonize closely related members of the gut microbiota. Some are toxic effectors delivered by type VI secretion systems, and others are non-contact-dependent secreted antimicrobial proteins. Many strains of Bacteroides fragilis secrete antimicrobial molecules, but only one of these toxins has been described to date (Bacteroidales secreted antimicrobial protein 1 [BSAP-1]). In this study, we describe a novel secreted protein produced by B...
November 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176937/proteomic-profiling-identifies-markers-for-inflammation-related-tumor-fibroblast-interaction
#12
Daniel Drev, Andrea Bileck, Zeynep N Erdem, Thomas Mohr, Gerald Timelthaler, Andrea Beer, Christopher Gerner, Brigitte Marian
Background: Cancer associated fibroblasts are activated in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation. Methods: To identify proteins characteristic for fibroblasts in colorectal cancer we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to derive protein abundance from whole-tissue homogenates of human colorectal cancer/normal mucosa pairs. Alterations of protein levels were determined by two-sided t test with greater than threefold difference and an FDR of < 0...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167266/complete-genome-sequences-of-plasmid-bearing-multidrug-resistant-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-strains-with-type-vi-secretion-systems-isolated-from-retail-turkey-and-pork
#13
Daya Marasini, Mohamed K Fakhr
We report the complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from retail turkey and pork, respectively. The chromosomes of these two isolates contained type VI secretion system genes. The two isolates also harbored large plasmids with antimicrobial resistance genes possibly contributing to their multidrug resistance.
November 22, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163390/comparative-genomics-reveals-specific-genetic-architectures-in-nicotine-metabolism-of-pseudomonas-sp-jy-q
#14
Jun Li, Shulan Qian, Lie Xiong, Chengyun Zhu, Ming Shu, Jie Wang, Yang Jiao, Houlong He, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Weihong Zhong
Microbial degradation of nicotine is an important process to control nicotine residues in the aqueous environment. In this study, a high active nicotine degradation strain named Pseudomonas sp. JY-Q was isolated from tobacco waste extract (TWE). This strain could completely degrade 5.0 g l(-1) nicotine in 24 h under optimal culture conditions, and it showed some tolerance even at higher concentrations (10.0 g l(-1)) of nicotine. The complete genome of JY-Q was sequenced to understand the mechanism by which JY-Q could degrade nicotine and tolerate such high nicotine concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155899/subtle-variation-within-conserved-effector-operon-gene-products-contributes-to-t6ss-mediated-killing-and-immunity
#15
Christopher J Alteri, Stephanie D Himpsl, Kevin Zhu, Haley L Hershey, Ninette Musili, Jessa E Miller, Harry L T Mobley
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138880/morphological-classification-of-intraductal-papillary-neoplasm-of-the-bile-duct
#16
Shihong Ying, Mingliang Ying, Wenjie Liang, Zhaoming Wang, Qidong Wang, Feng Chen, Wenbo Xiao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the morphological classification of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), as well as morphological differences between IPNB without mucin secretion (IPNB-NM) and IPNB with mucin secretion (IPMN-B). METHODS: Eighty-one patients with IPNB were retrospectively analysed. Imaging examinations included computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)...
November 14, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109705/complete-genome-sequence-of-vibrio-campbellii-lmb-29-isolated-from-red-drum-with-four-native-megaplasmids
#17
Jinxin Liu, Zhe Zhao, Yiqing Deng, Yan Shi, Yupeng Liu, Chao Wu, Peng Luo, Chaoqun Hu
Vibrio spp. are the most common pathogens for animals reared in aquaculture. Vibrio campbellii, which is often involved in shrimp, fish and mollusks diseases, is widely distributed in the marine environment worldwide, but our knowledge about its pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance is very limited. The existence of this knowledge gap is at least partially because that V. campbellii was originally classified as Vibrio harveyi, and the detailed information of its comparative genome analysis to other Vibrio spp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090192/identification-of-new-virulence-factors-and-vaccine-candidates-for-yersinia-pestis
#18
Jourdan A Andersson, Jian Sha, Tatiana E Erova, Eric C Fitts, Duraisamy Ponnusamy, Elena V Kozlova, Michelle L Kirtley, Ashok K Chopra
Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA, which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK, an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078204/contact-dependent-interbacterial-toxins-deliver-a-message
#19
REVIEW
Erin C Garcia
Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms harbor systems for delivering toxins to neighboring bacteria upon direct cell contact. These systems, typified by type VI secretion (T6S) and contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems, are defined by their ability to mediate interbacterial competition in vitro, while their biological roles have remained uncertain. Recent research into the mechanisms of toxin delivery and activity, as well as investigation of contact-dependent toxin function during relevant biological processes, has offered insight into how interbacterial competition might work outside of the laboratory...
October 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067021/comparative-genomics-of-facultative-bacterial-symbionts-isolated-from-european-orius-species-reveals-an-ancestral-symbiotic-association
#20
Xiaorui Chen, Matthew D Hitchings, José E Mendoza, Virginia Balanza, Paul D Facey, Paul J Dyson, Pablo Bielza, Ricardo Del Sol
Pest control in agriculture employs diverse strategies, among which the use of predatory insects has steadily increased. The use of several species within the genus Orius in pest control is widely spread, particularly in Mediterranean Europe. Commercial mass rearing of predatory insects is costly, and research efforts have concentrated on diet manipulation and selective breeding to reduce costs and improve efficacy. The characterisation and contribution of microbial symbionts to Orius sp. fitness, behaviour, and potential impact on human health has been neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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